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Work-Associated Stress and Nicotine Dependence among Law Enforcement Personnel in Mangalore, India

  • Priyanka, R;Rao, Ashwini;Rajesh, Gururaghavendran;Shenoy, Ramya;Pai, BH Mithun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.829-833
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To investigate the work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore, India. Demographic details, stress factors experienced at work and nicotine dependency were the variables studied. The extent of stress factors experienced at work was assessed using the Effort-Reward Imbalance scale (ERI). Nicotine dependence was measured using the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence-Smokeless Tobacco (FTND-ST). Logistic regression was used for the statistical analysis. Results: Three hundred and four law enforcement personnel participated in the study, among whom 68 had the presence of one or more habits like tobacco smoking, tobacco chewing and alcohol use. The mean effort score was $15.8{\pm}4.10$ and the mean reward and mean overcommitment scores were $36.4{\pm}7.09$ and $17.8{\pm}5.32$ respectively. Effort/Reward ratio for the total participants was 1.0073 and for those with nicotine habit was 1.0850. Results of our study demonstrated no significant association between domains of ERI scale and presence of habits but work associated stress was associated with the presence of one or more habits. Compared to constables, head constables had 1.12 times higher risk of having a nicotine habit. Conclusions: Our study implies job designation is associated with nicotine habits. However, there was no association between work associated stress and nicotine dependence among law enforcement personnel in Mangalore.

Hydrothermally synthesized Al-doped BiVO4 as a potential antibacterial agent against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

  • Vicas, Charles Sundar;Keerthiraj, Namratha;Byrappa, Nayan;Byrappa, Kullaiah
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.566-571
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    • 2019
  • One-pot hydrothermal route was adopted to synthesize Al:BiVO4, at 4 h and 8 h reaction durations, by adding 1% aluminiumoxide powder (w/v) to the precursors. The products were investigated using several characterization techniques that conform a significant morphological change and a decrease in bandgap energy of the materials upon Al modification of scheelite monoclinic bismuth vanadate matrix at both hydrothermal durations. Antibacterial experiments were performed against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in visible light condition to harness the photoxidation property of Al-doped BiVO4 and compare to that of unaltered BiVO4. Minimum inhibitory concentration of the synthesized materials was identified. The results indicate that Al-doping on BiVO4 has a significant effect on its photocatalytic antibacterial performance. Al:BiVO4 synthesized at 8 h hydrothermal treatment parades excellent sunlight-driven photocatalysis compared to the one synthesized at 4 h.

Inhibition Effect of Nevirapine an Antiretroviral on the Corrosion of Mild Steel Under Acidic Condition

  • Bhat, J. Ishwara;Alva, Vijaya D.P.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.55 no.5
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    • pp.835-841
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    • 2011
  • Corrosion inhibition of mild steel by nevirapine, an antiretroviral has been investigated using potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and weight loss methods. The experimental results suggested, nevirapine is a good corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in 1M hydrochloric acid medium and the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in inhibitor concentration. The kinetic parameters for corrosion process and thermodynamic parameters for adsorption process were calculated and discussed. The adsorption of the inhibitor on the surface of mild steel followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm.

Short Term Test-Retest Reliability of Contralateral Inhibition of Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions

  • Kalaiah, Mohan Kumar;Lasrado, Alina;Pinto, Nikita;Shastri, Usha
    • Journal of Audiology & Otology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 2018
  • Background and Objectives: Strength of medial olivocochlear reflex can be measured reliably using contralateral inhibition of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) when its fine structure is considered. However, measurement of fine structure of DPOAE is difficult with clinical equipment. Thus, this study investigated the clinically relevant test-retest reliability of contralateral inhibition of DPOAEs. Subjects and Methods: Twenty-six young adults with normal hearing sensitivity participated. DPOAEs were recorded at 27 discrete f2 frequencies between 800 Hz and 8,000 Hz at frequency resolution of 8 points per octave with and without contralateral white noise presented at 50 dB SPL. To check for short term inter-session reliability, contralateral inhibition of DPOAEs were recorded in three sessions, two recording sessions on first day separated by 30 minutes and third time after one week of the first session. Within each session, DPOAEs were recorded twice in single probe-fit condition to test for intra-session reliability. Results: Cronbach's alpha was calculated having poor reliability (${\alpha}{\leq}0.7$) of contralateral inhibition of DPOAEs in both intra-session and inter-session conditions for most of the tested frequencies. 95% confidence intervals of contralateral inhibition magnitude also showed large variability. Conclusions: The current results showed that though DPOAE amplitudes were highly reliable across sessions, amount of inhibition of DPOAEs was not reliable when DPOAEs were measured at discrete frequencies. These findings are concurrent with the literature.

Role of Tobacco Warning Labels in Informing Smokers about Risks of Smoking among Bus Drivers in Mangalore, India

  • Mallikarjun, Sajjanshetty;Rao, Ashwini;Rajesh, Gururaghavendran;Shenoy, Ramya;Mithun, Pai B.H.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.19
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    • pp.8265-8270
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    • 2014
  • Background: Smoking tobacco is considered as a leading cause of preventable death, mostly in developing countries like India. One of the primary goals of international tobacco control is to educate smokers about the risks associated with tobacco consumption. Tobacco warning labels (TWLs) on cigarette packages are one of the most common statutory means to communicate health risks of smoking to smokers, with the hope that once educated, they will be more likely to quit the habit. Materials and Methods: The present survey was conducted to assess the effectiveness of TWLs in communicating health risks of tobacco usage among 263 adult smokers working as bus drivers in Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC), Mangalore, India. Information was collected on demographic details, exposure and response to health warnings on tobacco products, intention to quit and nicotine dependency. Results: The majority (79.5%) of the respondents revealed negative intentions towards quitting smoking. Nearly half of the participants had a 'low' nicotine dependency (47.5%) and 98.1% of the respondents had often noticed warning labels on tobacco packages. These health warnings made 71.5% of the respondents think about quitting smoking. Respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about dangers of smoking had better knowledge, with respect to lung cancer and impotence as a consequence of tobacco. A higher exposure to warning labels was significantly associated with lower nicotine dependency levels of smokers among the present study population. A significantly higher number of respondents who noticed advertisement or pictures about the dangers of smoking thought about the risks of smoking and were more inclined to think about quitting smoking. As exposure increased, an increase in the knowledge and response of participants was also observed. Conclusions: Exposure to tobacco warning labels helps to educate smokers about health risks of tobacco smoking. It may be possible to promote oral health among bus drivers by developing strategies to educate them about these risk factors.

Predictors of Cigarette Smoking among Young Adults in Mangalore, India

  • Lalithambigai, G;Rao, Ashwini;Rajesh, G;Ramya, Shenoy;Pai, BH Mithun
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.45-50
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    • 2016
  • Background: The tobacco epidemic is a heralding health menace, particularly among college students. Tobacco usage among young can have an especially devastating effect as they can be exposed for longer periods. Data to estimate the prevalence of tobacco use in young adults will be a valuable addition to the existing resources. Materials and Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was therefore carried out in Mangalore city using a pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) with a representative sample of 720 students aged 18-20 years selected from degree colleges by multi-stage random sampling. Results: Prevalence of 'ever users' and 'current users' of smoking were 20.4% and 11.4%, respectively. The mean age at initiation of cigarette smoking was 16 years and the majority (31 %) smoked in public places. Interestingly, 84% of them knew about the harmful effects of cigarette smoking. About one half of smokers had some or most of their friends smoking. Multivariate analysis revealed gender (OR=8.585: CI-3.26-22.5), pocket money (OR=4.165; CI=1.76-9.82) and peer's smoking habit (OR= 5.15; CI-2.21-11.9) have higher odds as correlates of tobacco usage among college students. Conclusions: It is of prime importance to highlight the role of prevention of smoking initiation rather than subsequently trying to stop the habit. Comprehensive interventions embracing family, friends and social milieu are needed to reduce tobacco use among students in India.

Comparison of preoperative ultrasound guided fascia iliaca block versus femoral nerve block for proximal femur fractures before positioning for spinal anesthesia: an observational study

  • Gupta, Meeta;Kamath, Shaila Surendra
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.138-143
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    • 2020
  • Background: Severe pain associated with proximal femur fractures makes the positioning for regional anesthesia a challenge. Systemic administration of analgesics can have adverse effects. Individually, both the fascia iliaca block (FIB) and femoral nerve blocks (FNB) have been studied. However, there is little evidence comparing the two. The aim of this study was to compare the overall efficacy of the two blocks in patients with proximal femur fracture before positioning for spinal anesthesia. Methods: ASA (American Society of Anesthesiologists) class I, II, and III patients scheduled for elective and emergency surgery with the diagnosis of proximal femur fracture between October 2018 and June 2019 were included in the study. The patients were assigned to two groups by convenience nonprobability sampling of 35 each. Results: Our study showed a reduction in visual analogue scale scores at 3, 4, and 5 minutes after administration of the FIB being 5.1 ± 1.1, 4.1 ± 1.3, and 2.8 ± 0.8, and those after the FNB as 4.4 ± 1.1, 3.3 ± 1.1, and 2.1 ± 1.4 with P < 0.05, which was statistically significant. The mean first rescue analgesia time for the FIB was 7.1 ± 2.1 hours, while for the FNB it was 5.2 ± 0.7 hours. The P value was less than 0.001, which was significant. Conclusions: Both ultrasound guided FNB and FIB techniques provide sufficient analgesia for patient's positioning before spinal anesthesia. However, the duration of postoperative analgesia provided by FIB was greater than that of the FNB.

Inhibiting Effect of Nicotinic Acid Hydrazide on Corrosion of Aluminum and Mild Steel in Acidic Medium

  • Bhat, J. Ishwara;Alva, Vijaya D.P.
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2014
  • The corrosion behavior of aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium was studied using a nicotinic acid hydrazide as inhibitor by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy technique and gravimetric methods. The effects of inhibitor concentration and temperature were investigated. The experimental results suggested, nicotinic acid hydrazide is a good corrosion inhibitor for both aluminum and mild steel in hydrochloric acid medium and the inhibition efficiency increased with increase in the inhibitor concentration. The polarization studies revealed that nicotinic acid hydrazide exhibits mixed type of inhibition. The inhibition was assumed to occur via adsorption of the inhibitor molecules on the aluminum and mild steel surface and inhibits corrosion by blocking the reaction sites on the surface of aluminum.

Exploring the Usefulness of e-Resources for Engineering College Teachers and Scholars for their Academic and Research Activities - A Study

  • Puttaswamy, R.M.;Krishnamurthy, M.
    • Journal of Information Science Theory and Practice
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.62-70
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    • 2014
  • The All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE), an apex body of controlling technical education in India, has made mandatory subscription of e-Resources to all its Engineering College Libraries. This policy has directly helped the teaching community, research scholars, and student's paternity, which has benefits for their teaching, research activities, and curriculum, respectively. This study emphasizes the usefulness of e-Resources among the teachers and scholars of engineering colleges in the Bangalore region under Visvesvaraya Technological University (VTU), Belgaum, Karnataka. Survey methodology has been used as the basic research tool for data collection with the help of questionnaires. 866 teaching faculties in VTU were selected randomly on the basis of willingness of users who access the e-Resources for their academic and research activities in the survey. The survey results were tabulated and analyzed with descriptive statistics methods using the SPSS 20 software package. The findings reveal that e-resources are useful for engineering college teachers and scholars for their academic and research activities.

Insights into the Tobacco Cessation Scenario among Dental Graduates: An Indian Perspective

  • Binnal, A.;Rajesh, G.;Denny, C.;Ahmed, J.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2611-2617
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: To curb the ever growing menace of tobacco and its ill effects, it is essential to prevent its usage. Dental professionals' contributions can be invaluable in this venture. Objectives: To assess Indian dental graduates' knowledge, attitude and practices towards tobacco cessation; perceived effectiveness in pursuing tobacco cessation activities; perception of factors that interfere in tobacco cessation as barriers; and willingness to participate in tobacco cessation. Further, to determine associations among the aforementioned variables. Methodology: All house surgeons in Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Manipal University, Mangalore were included in the study. A structured, pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire was employed to assess participants' knowledge, attitude, behavior, perceived effectiveness, perceived barriers and willingness to participate in tobacco cessation. Information regarding respondents' age, gender and residence was collected. Results: A total of 100 out of 103 respondents participated in the study. Mean knowledge, attitude, behavior, perceived effectiveness, perceived barrier scores were $17.6{\pm}2.53$ (73.2%), $72.1{\pm}6.59$ (90.2%), $28.3{\pm}5.12$ (67.4%), $13.3{\pm}5.36$ (53.16%) and $35.0{\pm}3.79$ (89.8%) respectively. Overall, 97% respondents were willing to participate in tobacco cessation activities. Correlation analysis revealed that knowledge was associated with attitude (r=0.36, p=0.00) and perceived barriers (r=0.34, p=0.00) and behavior was associated with perceived barriers (r=0.22, p=0.03). Conclusions: Respondents reported high knowledge and attitude scores, along with high perceived barriers scores and willingness to participate in tobacco cessation activities. Present study highlights the need for a more meaningful involvement of dental professionals in tobacco cessation and has policy implications for curriculum changes regarding the same.