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Combination of FDG PET/CT and Contrast-Enhanced MSCT in Detecting Lymph Node Metastasis of Esophageal Cancer

  • Tan, Ru;Yao, Shu-Zhan;Huang, Zhao-Qin;Li, Jun;Li, Xin;Tan, Hai-Hua;Liu, Qing-Wei
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7719-7724
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    • 2014
  • Background: Lymph node metastasis is believed to be a dependent negative prognostic factor of esophageal cancer. To explore detection methods with high sensitivity and accuracy for metastases to regional and distant lymph nodes in the clinic is of great significance. This study focused on clinical application of FDG PET/CT and contrast-enhanced multiple-slice helical computed tomography (MSCT) in lymph node staging of esophageal cancer. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifteen cases were examined with enhanced 64-slice-MSCT scan, and FDG PET/CT imaging was conducted for neck, chest and upper abdomen within one week. The primary lesion, location and numbers of metastatic lymph nodes were observed. Surgery was performed within one week after FDG PET/CT detection. All resected lesions were confirmed histopathologically as the gold standard. Comparative analysis of the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy based on FDG PET/CT and MSCT was conducted. Results: There were 946 lymph node groups resected during surgery from 115 patients, and 221 were confirmed to have metastasis pathologically. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of FDG PET/CT in detecting lymph node metastasis were 74.7%, 97.2% and 92.0%, while with MSCT they were 64.7%, 96.4%, and 89.0%, respectively. A significance difference was observed in sensitivity (p=0.030), but not the others (p>0.05). The accuracy of FDG PET/CT in detecting regional lymph node with or without metastasis were 91.9%, as compared to 89.4% for MSCT, while FDG PET/CT and MSCT values for detecting distant lymph node with or without metastasis were 94.4% and 94.7%. No significant difference was observed for either regional or distant lymph node metastasis. Additionally, for detecting para-esophageal lymph nodes metastasis, the sensitivity of FDG PET/CT was 72%, compared with 54.7% for MSCT (p=0.029). Conclusions: FDG PET/CT is more sensitive than MSCT in detecting lymph node metastasis, especially for para-esophageal lymph nodes in esophageal cancer cases, although no significant difference was observed between FDG PET/CT and MSCT in detecting both regional and distant lymph node metastasis. However, enhanced MSCT was found to be of great value in distinguishing false negative metastatic lymph nodes from FDG PET/CT. The combination of FDG PET/CT with MSCT should improve the accuracy in lymph node metastasis staging of esophageal cancer.

A clinical pilot study of jawbone mineral density measured by the newly developed dual-energy cone-beam computed tomography method compared to calibrated multislice computed tomography

  • Kim, Hyun Jeong;Kim, Ji Eun;Choo, Jiyeon;Min, Jeonghee;Chang, Sungho;Lee, Sang Chul;Pyun, Woong Beom;Seo, Kwang-Suk;Karm, Myong-Hwan;Koo, Ki-Tae;Rhyu, In-Chul;Myoung, Hoon;Heo, Min-Suk
    • Imaging Science in Dentistry
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.295-299
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This clinical pilot study was performed to determine the effectiveness of dual-energy cone-beam computed tomography (DE-CBCT) in measuring bone mineral density (BMD). Materials and Methods: The BMD values obtained using DE-CBCT were compared to those obtained using calibrated multislice computed tomography (MSCT). After BMD calibration with specially designed phantoms, both DE-CBCT and MSCT scanning were performed in 15 adult dental patients. Three-dimensional (3D) Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine data were imported into a dental software program, and the defined regions of interest (ROIs) on the 3-dimensional surface-rendered images were identified. The automatically-measured BMD values of the ROIs (g/㎤), the differences in the measured BMD values of the matched ROIs obtained by DE-CBCT and MSCT 3D images, and the correlation between the BMD values obtained by the 2 devices were statistically analyzed. Results: The mean BMD values of the ROIs for the 15 patients as assessed using DE-CBCT and MSCT were 1.09±0.07 g/㎤ and 1.13±0.08 g/㎤, respectively. The mean of the differences between the BMD values of the matched ROIs as assessed using DE-CBCT and calibrated MSCT images was 0.04±0.02 g/㎤. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the BMD values of DE-CBCT and MSCT images was 0.982 (r=0.982, P<0.001). Conclusion: The newly developed DE-CBCT technique could be used to measure jaw BMD in dentistry and may soon replace MSCT, which is expensive and requires special facilities.

Primary Thyroid Lymphoma: Multi-Slice Computed Tomography Findings

  • Li, Xu-Bin;Ye, Zhao-Xiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.1135-1138
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    • 2015
  • Background: The objective of this study was to investigate the MSCT characteristics of PTL in order to enhance the awareness of this uncommon entity among both clinicians and radiologists. Materials and Methods: The clinicopathological data and MSCT images of 27 patients with PTL were retrospectively reviewed. The MSCT appearances were classified into three types: type 1, solitary nodule surrounded by normal thyroid tissue; type 2, multiple nodules in the thyroid, and type 3, enlarged thyroid glands with a reduced attenuation with or without peripheral thin hyperattenuating thyroid tissue. Results: The patients were enrolled in the study with a mean age of 68 years (range, 51-86years) and compression symptoms or enlarged cervical lymph nodes at diagnosis. Hashimoto's thyroiditis was in 20 patients. All patients had non-Hodgkin lymphoma of B-cell in origin, including 22 cases of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and 5 of low-grade B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). For MSCT appearance, type 1 pattern was observed in 2 patients, type 2 in 8, and seventeen type 3 in 17. The lesions occurred in more than one lobe with a mean maximal transverse diameter of 6.9 cm and an ill-defined margin. Most tumors showed a homogeneous attenuation equal to that of surrounding muscles before contrast and obvious enhancement after contrast. Cervical lymph node involvement and invasion of the trahea and (or) esophagus were mainly observed in patients with DLBCL. Conclusions: PTL should be clinically considered in elder patients presenting with a history of Hashimoto's thyroiditis and cervical lymphadenopathy. The MSCT characteristics of PTL includes a mass diffusely affecting more than one thyroid lobe, isointense to muscle and obvious enhancement before and after contrast. DLBCL, the most common histological subtype of PTL, is associated with a higher invasive tendency.

Clinical Study of Tumor Angiogenesis and Perfusion Imaging Using Multi-slice Spiral Computed Tomography for Breast Cancer

  • Xu, Na;Lei, Zhen;Li, Xiao-Long;Zhang, Jun;Li, Chen;Feng, Guo-Quan;Li, Di-Nuo;Liu, Jing-Yi;Wei, Qiang;Bian, Ting-Ting;Zou, Tian-Yu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.429-433
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: To explore the correlation between multi-slice spiral CT (MSCT) perfusion parameters and the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) as well as matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) in breast cancer. Methods: Forty five breast cancer patients and 16 patients with benign breast tumor, both confirmed by pathology examination, were enrolled. All underwent MSCT perfusion imaging to obtain perfusion maps and data for parameters including blood flow (BF), blood volume (BV) and permeability surface (PS). Cancer patients did not receive treatment prior to surgery. The expression of VEGF and MMP-2 were examined with both immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results: The levels of VEGF and MMP-2 by immunohistochemistry were significantly higher in the breast cancer group (P < 0.01) than the benign tumor group. Relative OD values from Western blotting were also higher in cancer cases (P < 0.05). Similarly, the mean MSCT perfusion parameters (BF, BV, PS) were significantly higher in the breast cancer group (P < 0.01), BF and BV positively correlating with VEGF expression (r = 0.878 and 0.809 respectively, P < 0.01); PS and VEGF and MMP-2 expression were also positively correlated (r= 0.860, 0.786 respectively, P < 0.01). Conclusion: There is a correlation between breast cancer MSCT perfusion parameters and VEGF andMMP-2 expression, which might be useful for detection of breast lesions, qualitative diagnosis of breast cancer, and evaluation of breast cancer treatment.

Gender-independent efficacy of mesenchymal stem cell therapy in sex hormone-deficient bone loss via immunosuppression and resident stem cell recovery

  • Sui, Bing-Dong;Chen, Ji;Zhang, Xin-Yi;He, Tao;Zhao, Pan;Zheng, Chen-Xi;Li, Meng;Hu, Cheng-Hu;Jin, Yan
    • Experimental and Molecular Medicine
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    • v.50 no.12
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    • pp.12.1-12.14
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    • 2018
  • Osteoporosis develops with high prevalence in both postmenopausal women and hypogonadal men. Osteoporosis results in significant morbidity, but no cure has been established. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) critically contribute to bone homeostasis and possess potent immunomodulatory/anti-inflammatory capability. Here, we investigated the therapeutic efficacy of using an infusion of MSCs to treat sex hormone-deficient bone loss and its underlying mechanisms. In particular, we compared the impacts of MSC cytotherapy in the two genders with the aim of examining potential gender differences. Using the gonadectomy (GNX) model, we confirmed that the osteoporotic phenotypes were substantially consistent between female and male mice. Importantly, systemic MSC transplantation (MSCT) not only rescued trabecular bone loss in GNX mice but also restored cortical bone mass and bone quality. Unexpectedly, no differences were detected between the genders. Furthermore, MSCT demonstrated an equal efficiency in rectifying the bone remodeling balance in both genders of GNX animals, as proven by the comparable recovery of bone formation and parallel normalization of bone resorption. Mechanistically, using green fluorescent protein (GFP)-based cell-tracing, we demonstrated rapid engraftment but poor inhabitation of donor MSCs in the GNX recipient bone marrow of each gender. Alternatively, MSCT uniformly reduced the $CD3^+T$-cell population and suppressed the serum levels of inflammatory cytokines in reversing female and male GNX osteoporosis, which was attributed to the ability of the MSC to induce T-cell apoptosis. Immunosuppression in the microenvironment eventually led to functional recovery of endogenous MSCs, which resulted in restored osteogenesis and normalized behavior to modulate osteoclastogenesis. Collectively, these data revealed recipient sexually monomorphic responses to MSC therapy in gonadal steroid deficiency-induced osteoporosis via immunosuppression/anti-inflammation and resident stem cell recovery.

MSCT: AN EFFICIENT DATA COLLECTION HEURISTIC FOR WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS WITH LIMITED SENSOR MEMORY CAPACITY

  • Karakaya, Murat
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.9 no.9
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    • pp.3396-3411
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    • 2015
  • Sensors used in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) have mostly limited capacity which affects the performance of their applications. One of the data-gathering methods is to use mobile sinks to visit these sensors so that they can save their limited battery energies from forwarding data packages to static sinks. The main disadvantage of employing mobile sinks is the delay of data collection due to relative low speed of mobile sinks. Since sensors have very limited memory capacities, whenever a mobile sink is too late to visit a sensor, that sensor's memory would be full, which is called a 'memory overflow', and thus, needs to be purged, which causes loss of collected data. In this work, a method is proposed to generate mobile sink tours, such that the number of overflows and the amount of lost data are minimized. Moreover, the proposed method does not need either the sensor locations or sensor memory status in advance. Hence, the overhead stemmed from the information exchange of these requirements are avoided. The proposed method is compared with a previously published heuristic. The simulation experiment results show the success of the proposed method over the rival heuristic with respect to the considered metrics under various parameters.