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Early Life History of Rhodeus Fish (R. uyekii and R. ocellatus) in the Nakdong River Water System

  • Park, Jae-Min;Han, Kyeong-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.39-53
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the early life history of the Rhodeus fish, Rhodeus uyekii and R. ocellatus, in the Nakdong River to use as the preliminary data for the systematic study. The embryos used in the study were fertilized eggs (embryo) and larvae after artificial fertilization. The long diameter of the eggs of the R. uyekii was 3.39-3.97 mm (average $3.68{\pm}0.41mm$, n=30) and the short diameter was 1.36-1.55 mm (average $1.45{\pm}0.13mm$, n=30). The long diameter of the eggs of the R. ocellatus was 2.53-2.71 mm (average $2.62{\pm}0.12mm$, n=30) and the short diameter was 1.47-1.60 mm (average $1.53{\pm}0.09mm$, n=30). Hatching time was 48 hours for the R. uyekii and 50 hours for the R. ocellatus given that the average water temperature was $21.5^{\circ}C$. The hatched larvae were 4.95-5.00 mm (average $4.98{\pm}0.04mm$, n=5) for the R. uyekii and the total length was 3.66-3.69 mm (average $3.67{\pm}0.02mm$, n=5) for the R. ocellatus. R. uyekii was found to be 15.5-15.8 mm at total length (average $15.6{\pm}0.21mm$, n=5) on the 56 days after hatching with the number of dorsal fins being ⅲ-9, anal fins ⅲ-10, ventral fins ⅲ-5. The R. ocellatus was found to be 15.8-16.0 mm (average $15.9{\pm}0.14mm$, n=5) at total length on the 58 days with the number of dorsal fins being ⅲ-11, anal fins ⅲ-12 and ventral fins ⅲ-5 where the number of all fin stalks reached maximum.

Measurements of the Palpebral Fissure (안검열의 측정)

  • Kim, Sang-Moon
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 1997
  • The palpebral fissures of 1529 healthy Koreans ranging in age from one month to 92 years were examined. The length and width of palpebral fissure, distance of folded upper lid(FUL), inter outer canthal distance(IOCD) and appearance of double upper lid (DUL) were studied. The most commonly occuring length of the normal palpebral fissure was 30 mm(13.7%) followed by 28 mm(9.8%) and 27 mm(8.8%), and almost four fifths(79.1%) of the palpebral fissures measured less than 30mm in length. Of the ages 11~60 examined over 70 % averaged palpebral fissures measuring bet ween 27 mm and 32 mm. The commonest width of 1443 normal palpebral fissure was 8 mm(28.2%) followed by 9mm(16.3%) and 7mm(15.0%), and average widths according to 5 major age groups were 5~8mm, 6~10mm, 7~11mm, 7~11mm and 5~9mm, and there is some tendency to a decrease with age. The average of FUL without frontalis action was 8~11 mm. The distances between exocanthions, IOCD, according to age groups were estimated to be 77~82mm for one to 10, 94~101mm for 11 to 60 and 89~95mm for over-60 age group, respectively. The DUL was appeared in 44 % of sample, and DUL in female was more than in male.

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Effects of artificial holes in very large single-grain Y1.5Ba2Cu3O7-y bulk superconductors

  • Park, S.D.;Park, H.W.;Jun, B.H.;Kim, CJ.
    • Progress in Superconductivity and Cryogenics
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 2017
  • The effects of artificial holes on the trapped magnetic fields and magnetic levitation forces of very large single-grain $Y_{1.5}Ba_2Cu_3O_{7-y}$ (Y1.5) bulk superconductors were studied. Artificial holes were made for Y1.5 powder compacts by die pressing using cylindrical dies with a diameter of 30 mm or 40 m, or rectangular dies with a side length of 50 mm. The single grain Y1.5 bulk superconductors (25 mm, 33 mm in diameter and 42 mm in side length) with artificial holes were fabricated using a top-seeded melt growth (TSMG) process for the die-pressed Y1.5 powder compacts. The magnetic levitation forces at 77 K of the 25 mm single grain Y1.5 samples with one (diameters of 4.2 mm) or six artificial holes (diameters of 2.5 mm) were 10-17% higher than that of the Y1.5 sample without artificial holes. The trapped magnetic fields at 77 K of the Y1.5 samples with artificial holes were also 9.6-18% higher than that of the Y1.5 sample without artificial holes. The 33 mm and 42 mm single grain Y1.5 samples with artificial holes (2.5 mm and 4.2 mm in diameter) also showed trapped magnetic fields 10-13% higher than that of the Y1.5 samples without artificial holes in spite of the reduced superconducting volume fraction due to the presence of artificial holes. The property enhancement in the large single grain Y1.5 bulk superconductors appears to be attributed to the formation of the pore-free regions near the artificial holes and the homogeneous oxygen distribution in the large Y123 grains.

Biological Study on the Increment of Survival Rate during Early Life Cycle in the Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli (Teleostei: Scorpaenidae) - IV. Structural and Functional Development of the Digestive Tract in the Larva and Juvenile Stage (조피볼락, Sebastes schlegeli의 초기생활사 동안 생존율 향상을 위한 생물학적 연구 - IV. 자치어 소화관의 구조.기능적 분화)

  • Lee, Jung-Sick;Chin, Pyung;Shin, Yun-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 1998
  • Just after hatching the embryo has a yolk sac and straighted digestive tract. Just after parturition in 5.0mm TL the mouth and anus were opened. In the larval stage of 5.2mm TL, digestive tract could be divided into pharynx, esophagus, stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine of the early differentiated state. The esophagus of larvae in 5.3mm TL has a PAS positive mucous cell. From over 5.7mm TL, PAS positive goblet cell recognized in the intestine. PAS positive absorptive cell began to appear in the intestine from 5.9mm TL. Yolky materials were absorbed completely in 6.0mm TL. In the larvae of B.5mm TL, gastric glands were observed in the mucosa, but the surface epithelium did not have PAS positive granules. From over 9.0mm TL, the histological structure of esophagus showed similar to adult. In the juvenile stage from 13.0mm to 15.0mm TL, histological structure of the stomach, pyloric caeca and intestine showed similar to adult. From the ultrastructural and histochemical study, it is concluded that the functional digestive tract is present in the juvenile stage from 18.0mm to 20.0mm TL.

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Eggs Development and Early Life History of Pale Chub, Zacco platypus from Wicheon (위천에 서식하는 피라미(Zacco platypus)의 난 발생 및 초기생활사)

  • Park, Jae-Min;Han, Kyeong Ho
    • Korean Journal of Ichthyology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.190-196
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    • 2017
  • The egg and larval development of pale chub, Zacco platypus were determined by observation of laboratory reared larvae from hatching. The experimental adult fish were collected in Wicheon of Nakdong river in June 2016, The eggs and larvae were reared in the experimental tanks, and observed their morphological change. The egg diameter ranged from 1.68 to 1.78 mm ($mean{\pm}SD$, $1.73{\pm}0.07mm$, n =30). The eggs were hatch 70 hours after fertilization. The total length (TL) of the newly hatched larvae ranged from 5.39 to 5.42 mm ($5.40{\pm}0.02mm$, n=10). On the 8 days after hatching, 10 fin rays were formed in caudal fin at 7.89~7.93 mm TL ($7.91{\pm}0.02mm$, n=10). On the 44 days after hatching, the juveniles ranged from 16.1~16.5 mm TL ($16.3{\pm}0.28mm$, n=10).

Effect of Replacement of 5~13mm Recycled Coarse Aggregates on Field Applicability of the Concrete through Mock-up Test (목업 시험을 통한 5~13mm 순환 굵은골재 치환 사용이 콘크리트의 현장적용성에 미치는 영향 고찰)

  • Han, Min-Cheol;Song, Young-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Recycled Construction Resources Institute
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this paper is to investigate experimentally the effect of replacement of recycled coarse aggregates with 5~13mm in size on a field applicability of concretes through Mock-up test. Seven different mock-up specimens were prepared with the size of $1200{\times}800{\times}800mm$ simulating column and wall. For the concrete mixtures, 24MPa, 27MPa and 40MPa of nominal strength were adopted with 30% and 70%(only for 24MPa) of 5~13mm recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) replacement and without 5~13mm RCA(Plain). For test items, slump, slump flow, compressive strength with different curing conditions, core drilling, rebound numbers and drying shrinkage were measured. Test results indicated that 30% of 5~13 mm RCA replacement resulted in increase in slump, slump flow and resistance against segregation, while air contents decreased compared to those of plain mixture. Compressive strength of concrete with 30% of 5~13mm RCA was shown to be higher than that of plain mixture due to optimum packing effect associated with presence of well graded aggregates. Rebound number of the mock-up specimen with 30% of 5~13mm RCA had lower fluctuation according to hitting location than that of plain mock-up specimen. It is believed from the results of the study that replacement of 30% of 5~13mm RCA brings desirable improvement in various aspect of concrete performance due to associated dense packing effect.

한국산 해마의 서식지 보고 및 초기생활사

  • Roh, Seom;Choi, Yeong-Ung;Yoon, Yeong-Seok;Chung, Min-Min
    • Proceedings of the Korean Aquaculture Society Conference
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    • pp.56-57
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    • 2003
  • 실고기과(Syngnathidae)에 속하는 해마류는 5300만년전부터 지구상에 존재해온 어류로 전 세계적으로 72%에 해당하는 32종이 인도-태평양연안에서 서식하는 것으로 알려져 있다. 그리고 약제와 관상무역에서 넓은 시장을 형성하며 그 수요가 지속적으로 증가하고 있다. 그러나, 국내에서는 아직 해마의 서식지와 초기생활사에 대한 연구가 전무한 실정으로 이번 연구에서는 최근 발견된 한국산 해마의 서식지와 채집된 2종 해마의 치어 초기생활사를 보고한다. 2003년 8~9월에 전라남도 여수시와 고흥군 주변해역에서 해마, Hippocampus coronatus 18마리(전장 40.8~79.5mm), 산호해마 H, japonicus 80마리(전장 28.1~56.3mm)가 채집되었고, 순환여과식 사육수조에서 사육하면서 자연산란한 치어를 대상으로 초기생활사를 관찰하였다. 사육은 유리로 된 사각수조(50$\times$30$\times$28cm)에 여과조(26$\times$26$\times$28cm)를 연결한 순환여과시스템에서 실시하였으며, 사육수온은 26.0$\pm$0.5$^{\circ}C$, 염분 32$\textperthousand$ 전후, pH 7.74 전후 그리고 DO 6.8mg/$\ell$ 전후였다. 먹이는 부화 2일령까지는 로티퍼, Brachionus rotundiformis를 단독 급이하였고, 부화 후 3일령부터는 로티퍼와 알테미아, Artemia sp.를 혼합 급이하였다. 치어의 성장 측정은 만능투영기를 이용하여 각 20마리를 무작위 추출하여 측정하였고 각 측정 부위별로 0.001mm까지 측정하였다. 이번 조사에서 전라남도 여수시와 고흥군 주변해역에서 채집된 해마류는 해마(H. coronatus) 18개체, 산호해마(H. japonicus) 80개체의 2종이 채집되었고 순환여과시스템에 사육하던 중 5회 산란하였다. 해마(H. coronatus)는 부화 후 9~10일째에 Total length 11.67~15.98mm(평균 5.19mm, n=20), Trunk length 2.48~3.31mm(평균 2.63mm, n=20), Head length 1.31~2.27mm(평균 1.76mm, n=20) 그리고 Snout length 0.74~l.67mm(평균 1.09mm, n=20) 이었다. 한편, 부화 직후 산호해마(H. japonicus)의 치어는 난황을 거의 흡수한 상태였으며 부화 후 2~3일째 Total length 4.29~5.70mm(평균 5.09mm, n=30), Trunk length 2.06~2.73mm(평균 2.55mm, n=30), Head length 1.50~l.79mm(평균 1.06mm, n=30) 그리고 Snout length 0.81~l.14mm(평균 0.97mm, n=30)였다. 그리고 부화 후 5~6일째에는 Total length 4.33~6.33mm(평균 5.19mm, n=20), Trunk length로 2.48~3.31mm(평균 2.63mm, n=20), Head length 1.31~2.27mm(평균 1.76mm, n=20) 그리고 Snout length 0.74~l.67mm(평균 1.09mm, n=20) 이었다.

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사각형강목의 끝자루를 이용한 트롤어구의 어획선택성 연구 ( I ) - 사각형강목의 어획선택성 - ( Studies on the Selectivity of the Trawl Net With the Square Mesh Cod-End ( 1 ) - Selectivity of the Square Mesh Cod-End - )

  • Lee, Ju-Hee;Kim, Sam-Kon;Kim, Jin-Kun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.161-171
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    • 1994
  • Mesh selection analysis for the trawl net were carried out at the Southern Korean Sea and the East China Sea during the 1992-1994 years by the training ship Seabada of the National Fisheries University of Pusan, using A type (51.2mm), B type (70.2mm), C type (77.6mm), D type (88.0mm) square mesh cod-ends. The fishing trials were made using bottom trawl of the trouser type cod-end with cover net. Selection curves and selection parameters were calculated by a logistic model for Sphyraena pinguis, Pampus argenteus, Trachurus japonicus, Pagrus major, Callanthias japonicus, Trichiurus lepturus. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Red barracuda : Selection range and fifty percent selection length in the A type was 115.8mm, 292.8mm, respectively. 2. Harvest fish : Each selection range and fifty percent selection length in the B. C. and D type was 37.7mm, 113.8mm : 40.1mm, 131.7mm and 64.8mm, 148.6mm, respectively. Selection parameters of master curve were : slope, 3.81 : intercept, -6.4. Optimum mesh size was 89.3mm. 3. Horse mackerel : Each selection range and fifty percent selection length in the A, B, C and D type was 43.0mm, 148.3mm : 60.7mm, 183.2mm, 214.5mm and 91.4mm, 254.9mm, respectively. Selection parameters of master curve were : slope 2.30 : intercept, -6.4. Optimum mesh size was 66.8mm. 4. Red seabrem : Selection range and fifty percent selection length in the D type was 42.7mm, 203.4mm, respectively. 5. Yellowsail red bass : Selection range and fifty percent selection length in the A type was 84.0mm, 110.6mm, respectively. 6. Hair tail : Each selection range and fifty percent selection length in the A, B and C type was 59.7mm, 176.0mm : 100.9mm, 250.7mm and 178.6mm, 307.0mm, respectively. Selection parameters of master curve were : slope, 1.54 : intercept, -5.4. Optimum mesh size was 57.5mm.

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Development of a Multi-joint Robot Manipulator for Robot Milking System (로봇 착유시스템을 위한 다관절 매니퓰레이터 개발)

  • Kim W.;Lee D. W.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.293-298
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was the development of a multi-joint robot manipulator for milking robot system. The multi-joint robot manipulator was controlled by 5 drivers with driver controller through the position information obtained from the image processing system. The robot manipulator to automatically attach each teat cup to the teats of a milking cow was developed and it's motion was accurately measured with error rate. Results were as follows. 1. Maximum errors in position accuracy were 4mm along X-axis, 4.5mm along Y-axis and 0.9mm along Z-axis. Absolute distance errors were maximum 4.8mm, minimum 2.7mm, and average 3.6mm. 2. Errors of repeatability were maximum 3.0mm along X-axis, 3.0mm along Y-axis, and 0.5mm along Z-axis. Distance error values were maximum 3.2mm, minimum 2.2mm, and average 2.5mm. It is envisaged that multi-joint robot manipulator can be applicate to milking robot system being developed in consideration of the experiment results.

Pool Boiling Enhancement of R-123 Using Perforated Plates (다공판을 사용한 R-123 풀비등 열전달 촉진)

  • Kim, Nae-Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.40 no.5
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2016
  • In this study, we investigate the pool boiling enhancement caused by perforated plates on top of a smooth surface. We conduct tests using R-123 at atmospheric pressure. It was shown that perforated plates significantly enhanced the pool boiling of the smooth surface. The reason may be attributed to the increased bubble contact area between the plates. The results showed that the enhancement ratio was dependent on the heat flux. At high heat flux, the enhancement ratio increased as the porosity increased. However, at low heat flux, the enhancement ratio decreased as the porosity increased. For the present investigation, the optimum configuration had a pore diameter of 2.0 mm, pore pitch of $2.5mm{\times}5.0mm$ or $5.0mm{\times}5.0mm$, and a gap width of 0.5 mm, which yielded heat-transfer coefficients that are close to those of GEWA-T. The optimum porosity for R-123 was significantly larger than that of water or ethanol. The reason for this may be the large liquid-to-vapor density ratio along with the small latent heat of vaporization of R-123. The perforated plates yielded smaller boiling hysteresis compared with that of the smooth surface.