• Title, Summary, Keyword: MM5

Search Result 18,461, Processing Time 0.079 seconds

Number of intrauterine eggs in female Enterobius Mermicularis by body length (요충 자충의 길이별 보유 충란수)

  • Jo, Seung-Yeol;Jang, Im-Won;Jang, Hyeon-Jeong
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.253-259
    • /
    • 1985
  • In order to correlate the number of eggs In female Enterobius vermicularis with their body length and to re-evaluate the number of eggs liberated by gravid females, a total of 203 worms were examined. Those females were removed from naturally infected orphans with mebendazole (100mg) and had been fixed in 10% formalin(Cho et al., 1981). The decent ones which were selected under dissecting microscope were unbroken, neatly fixed females without contaminated eggs on their surface. The worms were measured by their body length, softened in 0.1N NaOH solution overnight, and teased by dissecting needles. And their number of shelled eggs was measured in a counting chamber made as described by Denham et at. (1971). The results were summarized as follows: 1. The observed females, 4.10~9.90mm long, began to have shelled eggs in uterus when body length was 5.50mm or longer. 2. The percentage of females with eggs in uterus was as follows by range of body length: 25% in 5.50~5.99mm long, 53.3% in 6.00~6.49mm long, 86.7% in 6.50~6.99mm long, 95.2% in 7.00~7.49mm long and 100% in 7.50mm or longer. 3. The mean and standard deviation of egg number were as follows by the length of females: $19{\pm}50$ in 5.50~5.99mm long, $734{\pm}1,597$ in 6.00~6.49mm long, $1,473{pm}1,606$ in 6.50~6.99mm long, $1,530{\pm}2,055$ in 7.00~7.49mm long, $2,567{\pm}2,046$ in 7.50~7.99mm long, $5,598{\pm}2,470$ in 8.00~8.49mm long, $9,318{\pm}2,651$ in 8.50~8.99mm long, $10,678{\pm}2,892$ in 9.00~9.49mm long and $13,323{\pm}1,778$ in 9.50~9.90mm long. 4. The numbers of uterine eggs showed greater individual variation when the female lengths were in range of 5.5~8.0mm. When the female length was longer than 9.0mm, the egg numbers were over 10,000 in majority, and showed lesser individual variations. Above results su99ested that the e99 Production in female 5. vermicularis began in 28~32 days after infection and that in early stapes, the egg Production varied by individual worms, but in gravid females longer than 9. Qmm at last deposited 10,000 to 16,000 eggs in their uterus with the least individual variations.

  • PDF

Multi-element Ultrasound Applicator for the Treatment of Cancer in Uterus and Cervix (자궁암 치료용 다채널 초음파 온열치료기)

  • Lee Rena
    • Progress in Medical Physics
    • /
    • v.16 no.1
    • /
    • pp.16-23
    • /
    • 2005
  • The objective of this study was to construct multi-element ultrasound applicators for the treatment of gynecologic cancer with high dose rate brachytherapy. For the treatment of uterus, piezo-ceramic crystal transducer (PZT -5A) with outer diameter of 4 mm, wall thickness of 1.3 mm, and length of 24.5 mm was selected. For the treatment of cervix or vagina, it should be possible to insert the applicator into the vagina. Thus, a cylindrical PZT -8 material with outer diameter of 24.5 mm, wall thickness of 1.3 mm, and length of 15.2 mm was selected. The operating frequencies determined by vector impedance measurement were 3.2 MHz for the PZT 5A cylinder (OD=4 mm) and 1.7 MHz for the PZT -8 cylinder (OD: 24.5 mm). The ratios of generated acoustic output power to applied electric power were 33% and 61% for the tandem type crystal and the cylinder type crystal, respectively. The radiated acoustic pressure fields from both transducers were calculated using a Matlab code and measured in water using hydrophone. There was good agreement between measured and calculated acoustic pressure field distribution. For a tandem type transducer, the calculated acoustic pressure field decreased from 0.023 MPa at 10 mm to 0.010 Mpa at 30 mm, the reduction of 57%. For the cylinder type transducer which will be used for the treatment of vagina showed 78% reduction at 15 mm and 66% at 25 mm as compared to values at 5 mm from the surface. Based on the characteristics of the transducers, this study demonstrated the possibility of using the crystals as a heating source. Finally, a 3-element and 4-element prototype applicators were constructed. The 3-element applicator is 75 mm long and 4 mm thick and will be used for the treatment of uterus. The 4-element applicator is 61 mm long and 24.5 mm thick and will be used for the treatment of vagina. Using these applicators, it is possible to generate enough power to increase temperature to therapeutic level.

  • PDF

Intermediate Culture of the Spat of Arkshell, Scapharca broughtonii in Summer (피조개, Scapharca broughtonii 부착치패의 하계 중간양성)

  • Min, Kwang-Sik;Kim, Byoung-Hak;Lee, Seung-Ju;Park, Ki-Yeol;Kim, Byung-Goun
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
    • /
    • v.20 no.2
    • /
    • pp.125-130
    • /
    • 2004
  • Arkshell, Scapharca broughtonii spats were placed in natural environmental condition for 30 days from July 28 to August 27, 2004, in order to estabilish intermediate culture technique. Growth and survival of the spats in different intermediate culture areas with various culture methods were measured. Water temperature of studied area ranged from 24.1 to 28.5$^{\circ}C$, salinity was 15.4 to 33.3 psu, dissolved oxygen was 3.92 to 12.6 mg/l. Scapharca broughtonii spats cultured in Yeosu developed the best, 10.15 ${\pm}$ 1.12 mm in average shell length, and the highest survival was recorded as 77% in Namhae. Shell lengths of the Scapharca broughtonii spats cultured in the water depths of 2, 5, and 10 m were 7.14 ${\pm}$ 1.14 mm, 6.98 ${\pm}$ 1.74 mm and 6.27 ${\pm}$ 1.33 mm, and the survivals showed 75.5%, 77.0% and 76.5%, respectively. When 1 mm, 2 mm, and 3 mm-sized spats were cultured for 30 days in water depth of 5 m, the shell length increased to 6.73 ${\pm}$ 1.46 mm, 6.98 ${\pm}$ 1.74 mm and 7.04 ${\pm}$ 1.19 mm, and survivals were 67.0%, 77.0% and 58.5%, respectively. The shell lengths of spat cultured for 30 days in mesh sizes of 1 ${\times}$ 1 mm, 2 ${\times}$ 2 mm and 3 ${\times}$ 3 mm, 5 m below the surface were 8.14 ${\pm}$1.23 mm, 8.26 ${\pm}$ 1.19 mm and 8.78 ${\pm}$ 1.16 mm, and survivals were 41.5%, 43.0% and 44.5%, respectively.

  • PDF

The width of attached gingiva of young adults with healthy gingiva (20대 성인의 부착치은 폭경에 관한 연구)

  • Chang, Beom-Seok;Um, Heung-Sik;Park, Deok-Young
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
    • /
    • v.28 no.3
    • /
    • pp.517-523
    • /
    • 1998
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the width of attached gingiva of young adults with healthy gingiva. We compared the differences according to the tooth location. The width of attached gingiva of maxilla and mandible was measured by histochemical method. The results were as follows: 1. The width of buccal keratinized gingiva in maxilla was widest in incisors(5.2-5.6mm) and narrowest in first bicuspids(4.4-4.5mm). 2. The width of buccal keratinized gingiva in mandible was widest in incisors(4.3-4.5mm) and narrowest in first bicuspids(3.2-3.3mm). 3. The width of lingual keratinized gingiva in mandible was widest in first molars(5.5-5.6mm) and narrowest in incisors(2.9-3.0mm). 4. The width of buccal attached gingiva in maxilla was widest in incisors(4.1-4.4mm) and narrowest in molars (3.0mm). 5. The width of buccal attached gingiva in mandible was widest in incisors(3.2-3.4mm) and narrowest in second molars (1.7-1.8mm). 6. The width of lingual attached gingiva in mandible was widest in first molars(3.5-3.7mm) and narrowest in incisors(1.9-2.1mm).

  • PDF

Performance Evaluation of a Pinhole Collimator According to the Aperture Diameter (핀홀 콜리메이터 초점의 직경 크기 별 성능비교 및 평가)

  • Lee, Kwang Hun;An, Byung Ho;Kim, Soo Young;Choi, Sung Wook
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
    • /
    • v.18 no.1
    • /
    • pp.104-109
    • /
    • 2014
  • Purpose: Conventional pinhole scintigraphy offers a high resolution and generally use for thyroid scan or bone scintigraphy. the aim of this study is to evaluate performance of each aperture according to the diameter size. Materials and Methods: In this study 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm diameter pinhole collimators were mounted on Siemens E.CAM systems. In order to evaluate performance evaluation of each aperture, we acquired projection image by using SPECT for evaluating FWHM, resolution test and static image for evaluating thyroid phantom test. Results: As a result of FWHM showed 2.2 mm FWHM, 3.2 mm FWHM, 5.4 mm FWHM, 7.5 mm FWHM per each aperture in the resolution test. SNR, uniformity, contrast were acquired result from thyroid phantom test comparing general image and delayed image. as a result of SNR showed 6.55, 8.47, 6.2, 5.23 in case of general image and 5.25, 5.01, 5.38, 5.82 in case of delayed image per each aperture. as a result of uniformity showed 0.152, 0.118, 0.161, 0.19 in case of general image and 0.19, 0.199, 0.185, 0.171 in case of delayed image per each aperture. as a result of contrast showed 1.31, 1.19, 1.15, 1.01 in case of general image and 1.09, 1.08, 1.04, 1 in case of delayed image per each aperture. Conclusion: Resolution and sensitivity were heavily influenced by aperture size. and also we found advantage of delayed image as a result of thyroid phantom test.

  • PDF

Vertical and Horizontal Changes in Molars and Incisors of the Mandible Arch (하악제일대구치(下顎第一大臼齒)와 중절치(中切齒)의 하악골(下顎骨)에 대(對)한 위치적(位置的) 관계(關係))

  • Chang, Ik-Tae
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
    • /
    • v.8 no.1
    • /
    • pp.95-100
    • /
    • 1968
  • The author measured the vertical and horizontal change in molars and incisors of mandible arch by means of lateral roentgeno-cephalometric tracing. The subjects measured here were 244 healthy Korean male and female at the range of 5. 7. 10. 15 and 20 years old, respectively. Following results were obtained; 1. The horizontal measurements of lower first molar to mandible arch were as follows; 5 years of male; $43.14{\pm}0.84mm$ 5 years of female; $40.66{\pm}0.91mm$ 20 years of male; $43.08{\pm}1.59mm$ 20 years of female; $39.88{\pm}1.35mm$ None of the significant changes with age showed. 2. The horizontal measurements of lower incisors to mandible arch were as follows; 5 years of male; $8.14{\pm}0.68mm$ 5 years of female; $7.90{\pm}0.64mm$ 20 years of male; $10.02{\pm}1.68mm$ 20 years of female; $7.38{\pm}1.27mm$ None of the significant changes with age showed. 3. The vertical measurements of lower first molar to mandible arch were as follows; 5 years of male; $24.92{\pm}1.17mm$ 5 years of female; $25.02{\pm}1.64mm$ 20 years of male; $39.04{\pm}1.66mm$ 20 years of female; $35.25{\pm}1.03mm$ The vertical height of lower first molar showed statistically significant increments. 4. The vertical measurements of lower incisors to mandible arch were as follows; 5 years of male; $27.54{\pm}1.52mm$ 5 years of female; $27.62{\pm}1.78mm$ 20 years of male; $48.73{\pm}1.51mm$ 20 years of female; $45.52{\pm}0.82mm$ The vertical height of incisors showed statistically significant increments. 5. The growth and development of lower first molars and incisors revealed significant increment rates vertically with age. 6. It semed that the vertical and horizontal changes in male were greater than those in female.

  • PDF

Two-Point Discrimination of Fingertips and Related Factors in Rural Community Residents (일부 농촌지역 주민들의 수지 이점식별 및 관련요인)

  • Yi, Seung-Ju;Shin, Hyon-Uk
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
    • /
    • v.18 no.5
    • /
    • pp.13-23
    • /
    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study was to investigate two-point discrimination(TPD) and related factors in rural community residents. Methods: The sample consisted of 68 people who have been living in rural community in June 2005 studied. TPD was measured from the tips of the thumb, index, middle, ring, and little finger of each hand with the TPD esthesiometer. The research was designed to be a cross-sectional measured study. SAS statistical software was used for the analysis. The characteristics of the study sample were described by mean and standard deviation(SD) for continuous variables and by frequency and percentage for categorical variables. The Student's t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to compare TPD in gender and diabetes mellitus. A Pearson's correlation analysis was conducted for relationship among values of 5 fingers. Multiple regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with TPD. Results: A total of 68 residents were measured, their average $age{\pm}SD$ was $54.2{\pm}23.2$ years(range: $12{\sim}88\;yr$). The mean TPD for 5 fingers tips in dominated side was 4.76mm(thumb 3.98mm, index 4.22mm, middle 4.79mm, ring 5.17mm, and little finger 5.65mm, respectively). 4.91mm for thumb finger of women was significantly higher than 3.54mm that of men's in difference between gender(p=.01l4), also women(4.39mm) was higher than men(3.71mm) in median nerver area(p=.0318). There was a statistically significant difference in age(p=.0022), which were under age of 20(3.36mm), 30 years(3.61mm), 40 years(5.38mm), 50 years(4.84mm), 60 years(5.28mm), 70 years(5.18mm), and over age of 80(5.29mm). Factors related to TPD of fiver fingers by multiple regressions were gender(${\beta}=.03$, p=.0001). Conclusions: Taken together, gender and age were significantly associated with TPD. We recommend that further research should measure TPD by using larger sample sizes and more sensitive measurement instruments.

  • PDF

The Benefit of KT-2000 Knee Ligament Arthrometer in Diagnosis of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury (슬관절 전방 십자 인대 파열의 진단에 있어서 KT-2000 기기의 유용성)

  • Park, Jai-Hyung;Kim, Hyoung-Soo;Jung, Kwang-Gyu;Yoo, Jeong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
    • /
    • v.8 no.2
    • /
    • pp.82-88
    • /
    • 2004
  • Purpose: In this study, we intended to ascertain the benefit of KT-2000 Knee arthrometer(KT-2000) in the diagnosis of ACL(Anterior cruciate ligament) injury by comparing the anterior displacement of normal knee with that of ACL deficient knee. Materials and Methods: We designated two examiners to measure the anterior displacement of the knee joint of 30 healthy individuals, using KT-2000, at 30$^{\circ}$ flexion setting of muscle full relaxation, contraction, 25$^{\circ}$ internal rotation and 25$^{\circ}$ external rotation and analyzed these results according to the variables and measured the preoperative anterior displacement of the ACL injured knee in the 30 patients who have gone through an arthroscopic ACL reconstruction later. Results: The results of examiner 1 are 6.5${\pm}$1.5 mm, 2.5${\pm}$0.9 mm, 4.8${\pm}$1.2 mm, 6.4${\pm}$1.3 mm in right knee and 5.6${\pm}$1.3 mm, 2.1${\pm}$0.8 mm, 4.5${\pm}$1.2 mm, 5.2${\pm}$1.3 mm in left knee, in order of muscle full relaxation, contraction, 25$^{\circ}$ internal rotation and 25$^{\circ}$ external rotation. The results of examiner 2 are 6.9${\pm}$1.2mm, 2.9${\pm}$1.1mm, 5.6${\pm}$1.6mm, 6.9${\pm}$1.5mm in right, 5.5${\pm}$1.7 mm,1.9${\pm}$0.9 mm, 5.1${\pm}$1.9 mm, 5.7${\pm}$1.6 mm in left knee, The side to side difference of examiner 1 in the setting of muscle relaxation is 0.9${\pm}$1.0 mm. The anterior displaement of ACL injured knee is average 11${\pm}$2.93 mm and difference of average 6.5${\pm}$2.31 mm form that of normal. In comparison between the right and left knees of healthy individuals, the both results of two examiners showed the statistical difference in the setting of muscle full relaxation but, the results showed the side to side difference below 2 mm in 25case(83%), 21case(70%) respectively and above 3 mm in just 1 case. In the comparison between the normal and ACL injured knees, the results show the statistical difference of the side to side difference in the setting of muscle relaxation(p<0.05). Conclusion: The KT-2000 result is affected by relaxation of muscles around knee, flexion angle of knee joint, rotation of tibia, the strength of displacing force, time of the test and physical factors as height and weight. However, the Accuracy of diagnosis of ACL injury by KT-2000 will increase if the examiner is skillful and the tests are made on the exact position of knee joint.

  • PDF

The Analysis of the 0.5 mm and 1 mm Rain-Gauges typed of Tipping Bucket by Standard calibration System (표준교정시스템에 의한 0.5 mm, 1 mm급 전도형 우량계의 특성 분석)

  • Shin, Gang_Wook;Hong, Sung-Taek
    • Proceedings of the KIEE Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1801-1802
    • /
    • 2006
  • 강우량계는 기상관측 장비중 비가 온 양을 측정하기 위한 장비로 전도형, 저수형, 중량형, 로드셀형 등 다양한 종류의 강우량계가 있다. 전도형 우량계의 경우 단순한 측정방법 및 유지보수의 용이성, 접점방식에 의한 신호의 디지털화 적용성이 우수하기 때문에 가장 널리 사용되고 있다. 전도형 우량계는 분해능에 따라 0.1mm, 0.2mm, 0.5mm, 그리고 1.0mm급으로 분류며, 저수지 관리를 위해 사용되고 있는 우량계는 1.0mm 급을 주로 사용하고 있으며, 보다 정밀하게 측정하기 위하여 0.5mm 급 우량계도 사용하고 있다. 이러한 전도형 우량계의 정확도를 검정하기 위한 방법으로 수자원연구원에 질량측정에 의한 검 교정을 할 수 있는 표준교정시스템이 구축되어 있으며, 이 시스템을 이용하여 0.5mm 및 1.0mm 전도형 우량계에 대하여 강우강도를 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140, 160, 180, 200 mm/h로 가변하면서 강우강도의 변화에 따른 분해능이 다른 우량계의 오차특성을 비교 분석하고자 한다.

  • PDF

Design of a circular polarized antenna for GNSS services of unmaned vehicle systems (무인 이동체용 GNSS 서비스를 위한 원형 편파 안테나 설계)

  • Kim, Jeong-Pyo;Lee, Min-Soo
    • The Journal of Korea Institute of Information, Electronics, and Communication Technology
    • /
    • v.10 no.1
    • /
    • pp.111-116
    • /
    • 2017
  • We propose the compact circular polarized antenna. The radiation elements of the proposed antenna is designed using FR4 substrate with the size of $25mm{\times}3.2mm{\times}5mm$ and stand on four corners of the feed network substrate. The feeder network is designed on FR4 substrate with the size of $40mm{\times}40mm{\times}0.8mm$ and has four oupt signals with same magnitude and $90^{\circ}$ phase difference. The input impedances of the designed radiation elements and the output impedances of the feeder network are $100{\Omega}$. The designed antenna has the dimension of $40mm{\times}40mm{\times}5.8mm$ and the operated frequency band of 1.559 - 1.609 GHz. The fabricated antenna has RHCP radiation pattern and the measured results of axial ratio less than 3.5 dB and radiated gain more than 1.5 dBic. The fabricated antenna can apply to GLONASS and Beiodu systems as well as GPS system.