• Title/Summary/Keyword: MM5

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The Effect of Knee Flexion and Posterior Septal Release on the Location of Popliteal Artery (무릎 굴곡 및 후방 관절낭 절제술이 슬와 동맥의 위치에 주는 영향)

  • Seo, Seung-Suk;Seo, Jin-Hyuk;Kim, Chang-Wan;Kwon, Yong-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: By confirm the change of popliteal arterial position when extension or flexion of the knee and estimate the change of popliteal arterial position after posterior capsular release, we tried to know the position can minimize injury of popliteal artery during arthroscopic surgery and usefulness of posterior capsular release. Materials and Methods: Total of two middle-aged man and woman, fresh frozen cadavers as systemic, all four cases of the knee were included in this study. After the knee was flexed to 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees angle, we estimated distance from posterior tibial cortex to popliteal artery at articular surface, the distal 1 cm and 2 cm from articular surface. We performed posterior capsular release by arthroscopy, and estimated distance between posterior tibial cortex and popliteal artery in the same way. Results: Mean distance between popliteal artery and posterior tibial cortex was 6.3 mm (4.5~7), 4.6 mm (3.6~6), 4.9 mm (3.9~5.8) when knee flexion to 0 degrees at articular surface, distal 1 cm and 2 cm from articular surface each. When knee flexion to 30 degrees, it was 7.4 mm (5.2~9), 4.9 mm (3.6~7.2), 5.3 mm (3.8~6.6). When knee flexion to 60 degrees, it was 8.7 mm (5.4~11), 5.2 mm (4.9~7.3), 6.2 mm (5.4~9.6). When knee flexion to 90 degrees, it was 9.8 mm (5.8~12.1), 5.5 mm (5.1~7.4), 6.5 mm (5.4~10.7). After posterior capsule release, the distance was 6.5 mm (5.5~7.5), 5.8 mm (3.9~7.2), 5.2 mm (3.8~7.0) when knee flexion to 0 degrees, 7.7 mm (5.5~9,1), 7.1 mm (4.6~7.6), 5.5 mm (4.1~6.9) when knee flexion to 30 degrees, 8.9 mm (5.7~11.2), 8.5 mm (5.5~9.2), 6.4 mm (5.3~10.1) when knee flexion to 60 degrees and 10.2 mm (6.3~13.6), 9.5 mm (6.5~11), 6.6 mm (5.9~9.8) when knee flexion to 90 degrees. Conclusion: As knee joint is flexed, the distance from posterial tibial cortex to popliteal artery are increased beween knee joint articular surface and distal 2 cm from knee joint. So popliteal artery injury will be reduced at knee joint surgery. Posterior capsular release could also reduce popliteal artery injury by increasing distance between posterior tibial cortex and popliteal artery.

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Intercomparison of the East-Asian Summer Monsoon on 11-18 July 2004, simulated by WRF, MM5, and RSM models (WRF, MM5, RSM 모형에서 모의한 2004년 7월 11-18일의 동아시아 몬순의 비교)

  • Ham, Su-Ryun;Park, Seon-Joo;Bang, Cheol-Han;Jung, Byoung-Joo;Hong, Song-You
    • Atmosphere
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 2005
  • This study compares the summer monsoon circulations during a heavy rainfall period over the Korean peninsular from 11 to 18 July 2004, simulated by three widely used regional models; WRF, MM5, and RSM. An identical model setup is carried out for all the experiments, except for the physical option differences in the RSM. The three models with a nominal resolution of about 50 km over Korea are nested by NCEP-DOE reanalysis data. Another RSM experiment with the same cumulus parameterization scheme as in the WRF and MM5 is designed to investigate the importance of the representation of subgrid-scale parameterized convection in reproducing monsoonal circulations in East Asia. All thee models are found to be capable of reproducing the general distribution of monsoonal precipitation, extending northeastward from south China across the Korean peninsula, to northern Japan. The results from the WRF and MM5 are similar in terms of accumulated precipitation, but a slightly better performance in the WRF than in the MM5. The RSM improves the bias for precipitation as compared to those from the WRF and MM5, but the pattern correlation is degraded due to overestimation of precipitation in northern China. In the comparison of simulated synoptic scale features, the RSM is found to reproduce the large-scale features well compared to the results from the MM5 and WRF. On the other hand, the simulated precipitation from the RSM with the convection scheme used in the MM5 and WRF is closer to that from the WRF and MM5 simulations, indicating the significant dependency of simulated precipitation in East Asia on the cumulus parameterization scheme.

Study of evaluation wind resource detailed area with complex terrain using combined MM5/CALMET system (고해상도 바람지도 구축 시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hwa-Woon;Kim, Dong-Hyeuk;Kim, Min-Jung;Lee, Soon-Hwan;Park, Soon-Young;Kim, Hyun-Goo
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.274-277
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    • 2008
  • To evaluate high-resolution wind resources for local and coastal area with complex terrain was attemped to combine the prognostic MM5 mesoscale model with CALMET diagnostic modeling this study. Firstly, MM5 was simulated for 1km resolution, nested fine domain, with FDDA using QuikSCAT seawinds data was employed to improve initial meteorological fields. Wind field and other meteorological variables from MM5 with all vertical levels used as initial guess field for CALMET. And 5 surface and 1 radio sonde observation data is performed objective analysis whole domain cells. Initial and boundary condition are given by 3 hourly RDAPS data of KMA in prognostic MM5 simulation. Geophysical data was used high-resolution terrain elevation and land cover(30 seconds) data from USGS with MM5 simulation. On the other hand SRTM 90m resolution and EGIS 30m landuse was adopted for CALMET diagnostic simulation. The simulation was performed on whole year for 2007. Vertical wind field a hour from CALMET and latest results of MM5 simulation was comparison with wind profiler(KEOP-2007 campaign) data at HAENAM site.

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High-resolution Simulation of Meteorological Fields over the Coastal Area with Urban Buildings (건물효과를 고려한 연안도시지역 고해상도 기상모델링)

  • Hwang, Mi-Kyoung;Kim, Yoo-Keun;Oh, In-Bo;Kang, Yoon-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.137-150
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    • 2010
  • A meso-urban meteorological model (Urbanized MM5; uMM5) with urban canopy parameterization (UCP) was applied to the high-resolution simulation of meteorological fields in a complex coastal urban area and the assessment of urban impacts. Multi-scale simulations with the uMM5 in the innermost domain (1-km resolution) covering the Busan metropolitan region were performed during a typical sea breeze episode (4~8 August 2006) with detailed fine-resolution inputs (urban morphology, land-use/land-cover sub-grid distribution, and high-quality digital elevation model data sets). An additional simulation using the standard MM5 was also conducted to identify the effects of urban surface properties under urban meteorological conditions. Results showed that the uMM5 reproduced well the urban thermal and dynamic environment and captured well the observed feature of sea breeze. When comparison with simulations of the standard MM5, it was found that the uMM5 better reproduced urban impacts on temperature (especially at nighttime) and urban wind flows: roughness-induced deceleration and UHI (Urban Heat Island)-induced convergence.

Intercomparison of Wind and Air Temperature Fields of Meteorological Model for Forecasting Air Quality in Seoul Metropolitan Area (수도권지역 대기질 예측을 위한 기상장 모델의 바람장과 온도장 비교 연구)

  • Jeong, Ju-Hee;Kim, Yoo-Keun;Moon, Yun-Seob;Hwang, Mi-Kyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.640-652
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    • 2007
  • The MM5, RAMS and WRF, meteorological models have provided the dynamical parameters as inputs to air quality model. A major content of this study is that significant characteristics of three models for high-ozone occurrence analyze for surface wind and air temperature fields and compare with observation data in Seoul metropolitan area. An analysis of air temperature field revealed that location of core in high temperature of MM5 and WRF differed from that of RAMS. MM5 and WRF indicated high temperature in Seoul but RAMS represented it on the outskirts of Seoul. MM5 and WRF were underestimated maximum temperature during daytime but RAMS simulated similar value with observation data. Surface wind field with three models, it was shown many differences at horizontal distribution of wind direction. RAMS indicated weak wind speed in land and strong sea breeze at coastal areas than MM5 and WRF. However wind speed simulated by three model were overestimated during both daytime and nighttime.

Analysis of Sea-breeze Frontogenesis over the Coastal Urban Area Using Urbanized MM5 (도시형 중규모기상모델을 이용한 연안도시 해풍전선 발달 분석)

  • Hwang, Mi-Kyoung;Oh, In-Bo;Kim, Yoo-Keun
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.416-425
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    • 2011
  • To analyze the physical processes of sea-breeze development over a coastal urban area, numerical simulation for seabreeze (SB) and its frontogenesis was examined based on urbanized MM5 (uMM5) with urban canopy parameterization. On 6 August 2006, SB and its front were well developed in Busan under a weak offshore flow. As a result of wind vector, ZVB (Zero Velocity Boundary), potential temperature obtained the uMM5, at 0900 LST, SB advanced below 200 m height in the coastal areas and the internal boundary grew with the urban coastal region. At noon, the height of the SB head with updraft was approximately one and a half times (~600 m) higher than its depth in central urban. Applying the frontogenesis function, the SB structure for frontogenesis and frontolysis were complicated spatially; the dynamic effects of wind (i.e. convergence and tilting term) could play an important role in the growth of SB, especially the convergence effect.

Numerical forecasting of sea fog at West sea in spring (봄철 서해안 해무의 수치예보)

  • Han, Kyoung-Keun;Kim, Young-Chul
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.94-100
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this case study is to determine the possibility of Numerical Forecasting of sea fog at West Sea in spring time. For practical method of analyzing the data collected from 24th to 26th March 2003, Numerical Weather Prediction model MM5(Mesoscale Model Version 5) and synoptic field study using synoptic chart, upper level chart, and sea surface temperature were employed. The results of synoptic field analysis summarized that sea fog at West sea in spring is intensified by the inflow of the warm flow from west or southwest, low sea surface temperature to increase the temperature difference between air and sea surface, and inversion layer to disturb the disperse. It appears that the possibility of sea fog forecasting by MM5, in view of the result that the MM5 output is similar to the synoptic fields analysis.

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