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The Effect of Knee Flexion and Posterior Septal Release on the Location of Popliteal Artery (무릎 굴곡 및 후방 관절낭 절제술이 슬와 동맥의 위치에 주는 영향)

  • Seo, Seung-Suk;Seo, Jin-Hyuk;Kim, Chang-Wan;Kwon, Yong-Wook
    • Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Sports Medicine
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.69-74
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: By confirm the change of popliteal arterial position when extension or flexion of the knee and estimate the change of popliteal arterial position after posterior capsular release, we tried to know the position can minimize injury of popliteal artery during arthroscopic surgery and usefulness of posterior capsular release. Materials and Methods: Total of two middle-aged man and woman, fresh frozen cadavers as systemic, all four cases of the knee were included in this study. After the knee was flexed to 0 degrees, 30 degrees, 60 degrees, 90 degrees angle, we estimated distance from posterior tibial cortex to popliteal artery at articular surface, the distal 1 cm and 2 cm from articular surface. We performed posterior capsular release by arthroscopy, and estimated distance between posterior tibial cortex and popliteal artery in the same way. Results: Mean distance between popliteal artery and posterior tibial cortex was 6.3 mm (4.5~7), 4.6 mm (3.6~6), 4.9 mm (3.9~5.8) when knee flexion to 0 degrees at articular surface, distal 1 cm and 2 cm from articular surface each. When knee flexion to 30 degrees, it was 7.4 mm (5.2~9), 4.9 mm (3.6~7.2), 5.3 mm (3.8~6.6). When knee flexion to 60 degrees, it was 8.7 mm (5.4~11), 5.2 mm (4.9~7.3), 6.2 mm (5.4~9.6). When knee flexion to 90 degrees, it was 9.8 mm (5.8~12.1), 5.5 mm (5.1~7.4), 6.5 mm (5.4~10.7). After posterior capsule release, the distance was 6.5 mm (5.5~7.5), 5.8 mm (3.9~7.2), 5.2 mm (3.8~7.0) when knee flexion to 0 degrees, 7.7 mm (5.5~9,1), 7.1 mm (4.6~7.6), 5.5 mm (4.1~6.9) when knee flexion to 30 degrees, 8.9 mm (5.7~11.2), 8.5 mm (5.5~9.2), 6.4 mm (5.3~10.1) when knee flexion to 60 degrees and 10.2 mm (6.3~13.6), 9.5 mm (6.5~11), 6.6 mm (5.9~9.8) when knee flexion to 90 degrees. Conclusion: As knee joint is flexed, the distance from posterial tibial cortex to popliteal artery are increased beween knee joint articular surface and distal 2 cm from knee joint. So popliteal artery injury will be reduced at knee joint surgery. Posterior capsular release could also reduce popliteal artery injury by increasing distance between posterior tibial cortex and popliteal artery.

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Cross Flow Indirect Evaporative Cooler Made of a Plastic Film/Paper Composite (플라스틱 필름/종이 복합 재질의 직교류 간접증발소자)

  • Kim, Nae-Hyun
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers B
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.21-28
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    • 2017
  • Indirect evaporative cooling, which utilizes a cooling effect obtained by the evaporation of water, is energy-effective compared to the conventional vapor compression method. It is also eco-friendly, due to the non-usage of CFC refrigerant. In this study, three indirect evaporative cooler samples of the cross flow type(size: $300mm{\times}300mm{\times}300mm$, channel pitch: $5mm{\times}5mm$, $5mm{\times}7mm$, $7mm{\times}7mm$) were made using plastic/paper composites. Tests were conducted to measure indirect evaporative efficiencies and pressure drops. Results showed that the efficiency was the highest for the $5mm{\times}5mm$ sample, owing to the largest surface area. The saved electrical energy was also the greatest for that sample. The pressure drop of the wet channel was larger than that of the dry channel as expected. A theoretical model was proposed, which underestimated both the indirect evaporation efficiency and the pressure drop.

Reproducibiity of setup error for prostate cancer by ultrasound image-guided radiation therapy (전립선암에 대한 초음파 영상유도 방사선치료의 Setup 오차 분석을 통한 재현성 평가)

  • Park, Sung Yong;Lim, Seung Kyu;Si, Myoung Geun;Lee, Ji Hae;Kim, Jong Yeol;Cho, Eun Joo
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: To evaluate the reproducibility of image-guided radiotherapy using ultrasonography which is non-invasive, without radiation exposure for prostate cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We analyzed the setup variation of 1,105 images for 26 prostate cancer patients and the mean, standard deviation and 3D-error in AP, RL and SI directions. Setup variations were classified 0-1 mm, 1-3 mm, 3-5 mm, 5 mm and more. Results: The mean and standard deviation of setup variation in AP, RL and SI directions was $1.87{\pm}1.36mm$, $1.73{\pm}1.22mm$ and $2.01{\pm}1.40mm$. The 3D-error in AP, RL and SI directions was $3.63{\pm}1.63mm$. The frequency of setup variation in AP direction was 29 % in the range from 0 mm to 1 mm, 50.2 % in the range from 1 mm to 3 mm, 19.6 % in the range from 3 mm to 5 mm and 1.3 % in the range of 5 mm or more. In RL direction, the frequency was 31.3 % in the range from 0 mm to 1 mm, 52.5 % in the range from 1 mm to 3 mm, 15.8 % in the range from 3 mm to 5 mm and 0.5 % in the range of 5 mm or more. SI direction, the frequency of errors in the range from 0 mm to 1 mm was 26.3 %, 50.2 % in the range from 1 mm to 3 mm, 22.4 % in the range from 3 mm to 5 mm, and 1.1 % in the range of 5 mm or more. Conclusion: The setup error was highest in the SI direction of $2.01{\pm}1.40mm$. The frequency in each direction was the highest in more than 50 % in the range from 1 mm to 3 mm. $Clarity^{TM}$ Auto scan is possible to monitoring the motion of the prostate during the treatment and to repositioning the patient. In conclusion real-time image-guided radiotherapy using ultrasonography will be increase the reproducibility of radiation therapy.

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Finite-element analysis of the shift in center of resistance of the maxillary dentition in relation to alveolar bone loss (치조골 상실에 따른 상악 치아군 저항중심의 변화에 관한 유한요소해석)

  • Sung, Sang-Jin;Kim, In-Tai;Kook, Yoon-Ah;Chun, Youn-Sic;Kim, Seong-Hun;Mo, Sung-Seo
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.278-288
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    • 2009
  • Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in the center of resistance of the maxillary teeth in relation to alveolar bone loss. Methods: A finite element model, which included the upper dentition and periodontal ligament, was designed according to the amount of bone loss (0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm). The teeth in each group were fixed with buccal and lingual arch wires and splint wires. Retraction and intrusion forces of 200 g for 4 and 6 anterior teeth groups and 400 g for the full dentition group were applied. Results: The centers of resistance were at 13.5 mm, 14.5 mm, 15 mm apical and 12 mm, 12 mm, 12.5 mm posterior in the 4 incisor group; 13.5 mm, 14.5 mm, 15 mm apical and 14 mm, 14 mm, 14.5 mm posterior in the 6 anterior teeth group; and 11 mm, 13 mm, 14.5 mm apical and 26.5 mm, 27 mm, 25.5 mm posterior in the full dentition group respectively according to 0 mm, 2 mm, 4 mm bone loss. Conclusions: The center of resistance shifted apically and posteriorly as alveolar bone loss increased in 4 and 6 anterior teeth groups. However, in the full dentition group, the center of resistance shifted apically and anteriorly in the 4 mm bone loss model.

Daily Shoot Growth Measurement of Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica) to Determine Mowing Interval (한국잔디(Zoysia japonica)의 깎기주기 결정을 위한 지상부 생육 조사)

  • Lee, Hyo-Soon;Yang, Geun-Mo;Choi, Joon-Soo
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.16-23
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    • 2010
  • Mowing is an important practice in golf course management. Mowing interval and height can affect net photosynthesis of turfgrass and finally shoot density, tillering, rooting and regrowth of turfgrass. The objectives of this study were to investigate the regrowth rate of zoysiagrass shoot under different mowing height for determination of proper mowing frequency. Recommended mowing interval were calculated by a rule that no more than 33% of the above ground height be removed in a single mowing. Daily shoot growth of zoysiagrass at 10 mm mowing height were 2.1~4.7 mm (July), 1.9~2.9 mm (August), 0.9~1.5 mm (September), and 0.6 mm (October). These results indicate that recommended mowing interval were 1.1~2.3 day for July, 1.7~2.4 day for August, 3.5~5.4 day for September, and 8.5 day for October, respectively. Daily shoot growth of zoysiagrass at 15 to 17 mm mowing height were 4.0~5.3 mm (July), 2.9~4.5 mm (August), 1.4~3.7 mm (September), and 1.3 mm (October). These results indicate that recommended mowing interval were 1.4~1.9 day for July, 1.7~2.5 day for August, 2.3~6.3 day for September, and 6.8 day for October, respectively. Daily shoot growth of zoysiagrass at 18 to 21 mm mowing height were 3.5~4.7 mm (July), 2.9~4.9 mm (August), and 1.5~1.8 mm (September). These results indicate that recommended mowing interval were 1.9~2.6 day for July, 1.8~3.1 day for August, and 5.9~7.0 day for September, respectively. Daily shoot growth of zoysiagrass at 50 mm mowing height were 4.6~4.9 mm (July), 5.0~6.5 mm (August), and 2.5~4.7 mm (September). These results indicate that recommended mowing interval were 5.1~5.4 day for July, 3.9~5.0 day for August, and 5.3~9.8 day for September, respectively.

Load Efficiency of Corrugatedboard Boxes for Agricultural Produets on Trucks (화물차 적재중량에 따른 농산물용 골판지상자의 적재효율 분석)

  • Kim, Su-Il;Kim, Jong-Kyoung;Park, In-Sik
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2002
  • In order to improve the load efficiency of pallets and trucks for agricultural products, various transport package sizes have been analyzed by modular coordination process. From the results, the load efficiency on pallet was 99.8 percent when size was 550 by 366 mm and 366 by 275 mm. Load efficiency of standard pallet(1100 by 1100mm) was 93.6% for truck with 11 tons load capacity while as low as 41.1% for 2.5 ton trucks. Like any other products, this study proved that trucks with more than 8 tons of capacity were highly recommended for transportation of agricultural products.

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Relationship Between Insertion Torque, and Pullout Strength Depending on the Size of the Pilot Hole and Biodegradable Suture Anchor in Osteoporotic Humeral Head (골다공증이 있는 상완골 골두의 파일럿 홀 (Pilot Hole)과 흡수성 나사못의 크기에 따른 토크 (Torque)와 뽑힘 강도 (Pullout Strength) 간의 관계)

  • Chun, Yong-Min;Lee, Young-Han;Kim, Sung-Hwan;Park, Yoo-Jung;Kim, Sung-Jae
    • Clinics in Shoulder and Elbow
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The object of this study was to investigate the difference in torque and pullout strength between the standard anchor insertion (5.0 mm) with a small awl (3.7 mm) and larger anchor insertion (6.5 mm), with a standard awl (5.0 mm) in osteoporotic humeral head. Materials and Methods: The embalmed 24 paired cadaveric shoulders were assigned to either Group A or B. After measuring the bone mineral density (BMD) of the ROI (region of interest) in the humeral head, 5.0 mm suture anchors were inserted using a 3.7 mm awl in Group A1, and the same 5.0 mm anchors were inserted using a 5.0 mm awl in Group A2. The 5.0 mm anchors were inserted using a 5.0 mm awl in Group B1, and 6.5 mm anchors were inserted using a 5.0 mm awl in Group B2. We measured the torques at the time of the anchor insertion and pullout strengths. Results: There was no significant difference in the BMD between the groups. The torque of A1 (20.6 $cN{\cdot}m$) was significantly higher than that of A2 (13.2 $cN{\cdot}m$), and the torque of B2 (20.8 $cN{\cdot}m$) was significantly higher than that of B1(12.1 $cN{\cdot}m$). However, the difference in the increased torque between group A and B was not significant. The pullout strength of A1 (204.2 N) was significantly higher than that of A2 (152.9 N), and the pullout strength of B2 (210.9 N) was significantly higher than that of B1 (149.5 N). However, the difference in the increased pullout strength between Group A and B was not significant. Conclusion: In severe osteoporosis, the use of a larger suture anchor with a standard awl increased the torque and pullout strength significantly, in comparison to the use of the same sized suture anchor and awl. If there is an inadequate interval between the anchors on the greater tuberosity, the use of a 3.7 mm awl and 5.0 mm anchor will be beneficial compared to that of a 5.0 mm awl and 6.5 mm anchor, considering that an increase in the pullout strength does not depend on the awl size.

A Study of the Intraocular Pressure of Korean Youth (한국인 청년의 안압 측정)

  • Kim, Sang-Moon
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.91-97
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    • 2006
  • The intraocular pressure for Korean youth were measured by using tonometer (AT555-Reichert). The relative frequency distributions of intraocular pressures have been studied for samples of 1,027 persons(475 males, 552 females). The most commonly recorded IOP for both men and women was around 14.5mmHg and 17.5mmHg, respectively. They were in the range of 7 to 23mmHg(males) and 7 to 22mmHg(females). The median pressure(cumulative frequency=0.5%) is 13.0~16.5mmHg for males and 16.5~18.5mmHg for females, so the values for females are slightly higher than males. The mean pressure is 15.2mmHg for males and 15.8mmHg for females, respectively. The 98% of population was in the range of the normal IOP. There are long-term diurnal variation in mean intraocular pressure and the IOP was decreased as a function of time from morning to night. The measured IOP was affected by several factors: exercise made to decrease the IOP and tight collars, dark places and posture of decubitus position got to elevate the IOP.

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Usefulness of Ultrasonographic Examination in Diagnosis and Follow-up of the Frozen Shoulder (동결견의 진단과 치료 경과 판정에 대한 초음파 검사의 유용성)

  • Choi, Chang-Hyuk;Kim, Seok-Jun;Lee, Sang-Hwa;Kim, Hee-Soo;Shim, Jung-Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean Orthopaedic Ultrasound Society
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: In order to know the effectiveness of ultrasonographic examination in diagnosis and follow-up evaluation for the frozen shoulder, we compared those with contralateral side in initial and after steroid injection. Materials and Methods: For the 20 unilateral frozen shoulder from July 2012 to July 2013, ultrasonographic examination was tried using reference line 1 (CBT: distance from coracoid process to LHB tendon) and line 2 (CBG: distance from coracoid process to bicipital groove). We tried 1 time steroid injection and compared the improvement in gross motion and reference line with 2 month, 4 month, and 6 month's serial ultrasonographic examination. Results: The differences on CBT line between lesion side and normal side were -5.6 mm, -5.0 mm, and -4.3 mm in neutral (Neut), external rotation (ER) and internal rotation (IR), respectively. The differences on CBG line were -6.1 mm, -4.7 mm, and -5.0 mm respectively (p<0.05). The changes in the reference line after steroid injection were evaluated at 2 month (CBT: -4.8 mm, -3.5 mm, -2.6 mm / CBG: -4.7 mm, -4.0 mm, -3.6 mm), 4 month (CBT: -4.7 mm, -3.2 mm, -1.7 mm / CBG: -4.3 mm, -3.7 mm, -1.2 mm), and 6 month (CBT: -1.1 mm, -2.9 mm, -0.5 mm / CBG: -1.2 mm, -0.7 mm, -0.9 mm). The gross motion was improved at 4 month after injection, from elevation $108^{\circ}$, ER $32^{\circ}$, IR L5 in initial to $133^{\circ}$, $42^{\circ}$, L3 respectively (p<0.05). Pain improved from 7.5 in initial to 3.0 at 2 month on visual analog scale (VAS). Conclusion: The serial examination after steroid injection revealed that the delayed improvement on reference line (6 month) compared with pain (2 month) or gross motion (4 month). Dynamic ultrasonogram was useful in diagnosis and follow-up evaluation of frozen shoulder.

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Performance evaluation of computed tomographic equipment in Korea (국내 CT장치의 성능평가에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Han-Jun;Go, Sin-Gwan;Park, Jun-Cheol
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.83-83
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    • 2002
  • 국내 35개 병원의 44대의 CT장치를 대상으로 CT장치의 성능을 크게 7가지의 항목별로 구분하여 평가한 결과는 다음과 같았다. 물의 평균 CT number는 -18.9HU와 +68.6HU의 범위에 속했으며, 전체 장치의 평균은 $2.4{\pm}13.0\;HU$였다. 물의 평균 CT number의 권장수준을 -6과 +6로 하였을 경우 이에 적합한 장치는 35대(79.5%)였다. Contrast scale은 장치의 종류에 따라 많은 차이를 나타내었으나 평균은 $2.02{\pm}10^{-4}{\sim}1.665{\pm}10^{-5}$이었다. 직선성을 나타내는 상관계수는 0.984에서 0.992의 분포를 나타내었으며 평균은 $0.990{\pm}0.002$였다. 공간분해능은 0.60 m에서 1.25 mm의 분포를 나타내었으며 전체 장치의 65.9%에 해당되는 29대에서 0.75 mm의 공간 해상능을 나타내었다. 대조도 분해능은 3.2 mm(1/8인치)에서 19.1 mm(3/4인치)의 분포를 나타내었으며, 대조도 분해능의 권장수준을 6.4 mm 이하로 하였을 경우 측정 대상장치 44대 중 이에 적합한 장치는 37대(84.1%)였다. 슬라이스 두께의 설정치가 1 mm인 경우 측정치의 평균은 $2.0{\pm}0.6\;mm$이였으며, 설정치가 2 mm와 3 mm인 경우 측정치는 각각 $3.0{\pm}0.7\;mm$$3.5{\pm}0.6\;mm$이였다. 설정치가 5 mm와 7 mm인 경우 측정치는 각각 $5.1{\pm}0.6\;mm$, $7.0{\pm}0.5mm$이였다. 그리고 10 mm의 설정치에서는 $9.8{\pm}0.7\;mm$의 측정치를 나타내었다. 위치잡이용 중심선의 좌우방향의 편차는 -4.7 mm에서 +41.7 mm의 범위였으며, 상하방향의 편차는 -3.7 mm에서 +4.6 mm의 범위였다. 위치잡이용 중심선의 좌우 및 상하방향의 권장수준을 ${\pm}3.0\;mm$${\pm}3.0\;mm$ 이하로 하였을 경우 41대의 측정 대상장치에서 이에 적합한 장치는 33대(80.5 %)였다.

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