• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lynch syndrome

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Early onset of colorectal cancer in a 13-year-old girl with Lynch syndrome

  • Ahn, Do Hee;Rho, Jung Hee;Tchah, Hann;Jeon, In-Sang
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.40-42
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    • 2016
  • Lynch syndrome is the most common inherited colon cancer syndrome. Patients with Lynch syndrome develop a range of cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) and carry a mutation on one of the mismatched repair (MMR) genes. Although CRC usually occurs after the fourth decade in patients with Lynch syndrome harboring a heterozygous MMR gene mutation, it can occur in children with Lynch syndrome who have a compound heterozygous or homozygous MMR gene mutation. We report a case of CRC in a 13-year-old patient with Lynch syndrome and congenital heart disease. This patient had a heterozygous mutation in MLH1 (an MMR gene), but no compound MMR gene defects, and a K-RAS somatic mutation in the cancer cells.

Three novel germline mutations in MLH1 and MSH2 in families with Lynch syndrome living on Jeju island, Korea

  • Kim, Young-Mee;Choe, Chang-Gyu;KimCho, So-Mi;Jung, In-Ho;Chang, Won-Young;Cho, Moon-Jae
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.693-697
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    • 2010
  • Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by predisposition to early-onset cancers. HNPCC is caused by heterozygous loss-of-function mutations within the mismatch repair genes MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS1, and PMS2. We genotyped the MLH1 and MSH2 genes in patients suffering from Lynch syndrome and in 11 unrelated patients who were diagnosed with colorectal cancer and had subsequently undergone surgery. Five Lynch syndrome patients carried germline mutations in MLH1 or MSH2. Two of these were identified as known mutations in MLH1: deletion of exon 10 and a point mutation (V384D). The remaining three patients exhibited novel mutations: a duplication (937_942dupGAAGTT) in MLH1; deletion of exons 8, 9, and 10; and a point mutation in MLH1 (F396I) combined with multiple missense mutations in MSH2 (D295G, K808E, Q855P, and I884T). The findings underline the importance of efficient pre-screening of conspicuous cases.

Analysis of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer in Malay Cohorts using Immunohistochemical Screening

  • Juhari, Wan Khairunnisa Wan;Rahman, Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul;Sidek, Ahmad Shanwani Mohd;Hassan, Muhammad Radzi Abu;Noordin, Khairul Bariah Ahmad Amin;Zakaria, Andee Dzulkarnaen;Macrae, Finlay;Zilfalil, Bin Alwi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3767-3771
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    • 2015
  • Background: Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited predisposition to colorectal, endometrial (uterine) and other cancers. Although most cancers are not inherited, about 5 percent (%) of people who have colorectal or endometrial cancer have the Lynch syndrome. It involves the alteration of mismatch repair (MMR) genes; MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. In this study, we analyzed the expression of MMR proteins in colorectal cancer in a Malay cohort by immunohistochemistry. Materials and Methods: A total of 17 patients were selected fulfilling one of the Bethesda criteria: colorectal cancer diagnosed in a patient aged less than 50 years old, having synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer or with a strong family history. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin embedded tumour tissue samples using four antibodies: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Results: Twelve out of 17 patients (70.6%) were noted to have a family history. A total of 41% (n=7) of the patients had abnormal immunohistochemical staining with one or more of the four antibodies. Loss of expression were noted in 13 tumour tissues with a negative staining score <4. Of 13 tumour tissues, four showed loss expression of MLH1. For PMS2, loss of expression were noted in five cases. Both MSH2 and MSH6 showed loss of expression in two tumour tissues respectively. Conclusions: Revised Bethesda criteria and immunohistochemical analysis constituted a convenient approach and is recommended to be a first-line screening for Lynch syndrome in Malay cohorts.

Contribution of the MLH1 -93G>A Promoter Polymorphism in Modulating Susceptibility Risk in Malaysian Colorectal Cancer Patients

  • Nizam, Zahary Mohd;Abdul Aziz, Ahmad Aizat;Kaur, Gurjeet;Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi;Mohd Sidek, Ahmad Shanwani;Lee, Yeong Yeh;Mazuwin, Maya;Ankathil, Ravindran
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.619-624
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    • 2013
  • Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) exists in a more common sporadic form and less common hereditary forms, associated with the Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and other rare syndromes. Sporadic CRC is believed to arise as a result of close interaction between environmental factors, including dietary and lifestyle habits, and genetic predisposition factors. In contrast, hereditary forms such as those related to the Lynch syndrome result from inheritance of germline mutations of mismatch repair (MMR) genes. However, in certain cases, the influence of low penetrance alleles in familial colorectal cancer susceptibility is also undeniable. Aim: To investigate the genotype frequencies of MLH1 promoter polymorphism -93G>A and to determine whether it could play any role in modulating familial and sporadic CRC susceptibility risk. Methods: A case-control study comprising of 104 histopathologically confirmed CRC patients as cases (52 sporadic CRC and 52 Lynch syndrome patients) and 104 normal healthy individuals as controls was undertaken. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood and the polymorphism was genotyped employing PCR-RFLP methods. The genotypes were categorized into homozygous wild type, heterozygous and homozygous variants. The risk association between these polymorphisms and CRC susceptibility risk was calculated using binary logistic regression analysis and deriving odds ratios (ORs). Results: When risk association was investigated for all CRC patients as a single group, the heterozygous (G/A) genotype showed a significantly higher risk for CRC susceptibility with an OR of 2.273, (95%CI: 1.133-4.558 and p-value=0.021). When analyzed specifically for the 2 types of CRC, the heterozygous (G/A) genotype showed significantly higher risk for sporadic CRC susceptibility with and OR of 3.714, (95%CI: 1.416-9.740 and p-value=0.008). Despite high OR value was observed for Lynch syndrome (OR: 1.600, 95%CI: 0.715-3.581), the risk was not statistically significant (P=0.253). Conclusion: Our results suggest an influence of MLH1 promoter polymorphism -93G>A in modulating susceptibility risk in Malaysian CRC patients, especially those with sporadic disease.

Evaluation of MT1XT20 Single Quasi-Monomorphic Mononucleotide Marker for Characterizing Microsatellite Instability in Persian Lynch Syndrome Patients

  • Farahani, Najmeh;Nikpour, Parvaneh;Emami, Mohammad Hassan;Hashemzadeh, Morteza;Zeinalian, Mehrdad;Shariatpanahi, Seyed Shervin;Salehi, Rasoul
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.9
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    • pp.4259-4265
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    • 2016
  • Background: Colorectal malignancies with high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), either hereditary (Lynch syndrome) or sporadic, demonstrate better prognosis and altered response to 5FU chemotherapy. It is now recommended to perform MSI testing for all new cases of colorectal cancer regardless of being categorized as hereditary or sporadic. For MSI detection, immunohistochemistry or PCR-based protocols using a cohort of various sets of STR markers are recommended. Here we aimed to evaluate a simplified protocol using just a single STR marker, MT1XT20 mononucleotide repeat, for detection of MSI in Lynch syndrome patients. A Promega five-marker MSI testing panel and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were used as the gold standard in conjunction with MT1XT20. Materials and Methods: Colorectal patients with a positive history of familial cancers were selected by evaluating medical records. Based on Amsterdam II criteria for Lynch syndrome 20 families were short listed. DNA was extracted from formalin fixed paraffin embedded tumour and adjacent normal tissues resected from the index case in each family. Extracted DNA was subjected to MT1XT20 mononucleotide marker analysis and assessment with a commercially available five marker MSI testing kit (Promega, USA). IHC also was performed on tissue sections and the results were compared with PCR based data. Results: Eight (40%), seven (35%) and five (25%) cases were MSI positive using with the Promega kit, IHC and MT1XT20, respectively. Among the markers included in Promega kit, BAT26 marker showed instability in all 8 samples. NR24 and NR21 markers showed instability in 7 (87.5%), and BAT25 and MONO 27 in 6 (75%) and 5 (62.5%). Conclusions: Although MT1XT20 was earlier reported as a valid standalone marker for MSI testing in CRC patients, we could not verify this in our Iranian patients. Instead BAT26 among the markers included in Promega MSI testing kit showed instability in all 8 MSI-H CRC samples. Therefore, it seems BAT26 could act well as a single marker for MSI testing in Iranian CRC patients.

A rare pseudomyxoma peritonei with a MSH2 variation of unknown significance and two mutation carrier family members

  • Kim, Yoo Min;Kim, Min Kyu
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.55-58
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    • 2016
  • Pseudomyxoma peritonei (PMP) is a rare tumor that usually originates in the appendix, but a small number of cases originate in the ovary. Lynch syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominant hereditary condition that increases the risk of cancer, particularly in the colon and endometrium. Mutations in the mismatch repair genes (MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2) increase the risk of LS. Reported PMP cases with hereditary gene mutations of unknown significance are also rare. Here, we investigated a PMP patient and her family members, who have an MSH2 variant of unknown significance. Physicians have an important role in counseling, management, and surveillance based on genetics and pathogenicity.

Screening for Lynch Syndrome in Young Colorectal Cancer Patients from Saudi Arabia Using Microsatellite Instability as the Initial Test

  • Alqahtani, Masood;Grieu, Fabienne;Carrello, Amerigo;Amanuel, Benhur;Mashour, Miral;Alattas, Rabab;Al-Saleh, Khalid;Alsheikh, Abdulmalik;Alqahtani, Sarah;Iacopetta, Barry
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.1917-1923
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    • 2016
  • Background: Lynch Syndrome (LS) is a familial cancer condition caused by germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes. Individuals with LS have a greatly increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) and it is therefore important to identify mutation carriers so they can undergo regular surveillance. Tumor DNA from LS patients characteristically shows microsatellite instability (MSI). Our aim here was to screen young CRC patients for MSI as a first step in the identification of unrecognized cases of LS in the Saudi population. Materials and Methods: Archival tumor tissue was obtained from 284 CRC patients treated at 4 institutes in Dammam and Riyadh between 2006 and 2015 and aged less than 60 years at diagnosis. MSI screening was performed using the BAT-26 microsatellite marker and positive cases confirmed using the pentaplex MSI analysis system. Positive cases were screened for BRAF mutations to exclude sporadic CRC and were evaluated for loss of expression of 4 DNA mismatch repair proteins using immunohistochemistry. Results: MSI was found in 33/284 (11.6%) cases, of which only one showed a BRAF mutation. Saudi MSI cases showed similar instability in the BAT-26 and BAT-25 markers to Australian MSI cases, but significantly lower frequencies of instability in 3 other microsatellite markers. Conclusions: MSI screening of young Saudi CRC patients reveals that approximately 1 in 9 are candidates for LS. Patients with MSI are strongly recommended to undergo genetic counselling and germline mutation testing for LS. Other affected family members can then be identified and offered regular surveillance for early detection of LS-associated cancers.

Epidemioclinical Feature of Early-Onset Colorectal Cancer at-Risk for Lynch Syndrome in Central Iran

  • Zeinalian, Mehrdad;Hashemzadeh-Chaleshtori, Morteza;Akbarpour, Mohammad Javad;Emami, Mohammad Hassan
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4647-4652
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    • 2015
  • Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is becoming one of the most complicated challenges of human health, particularly in developing countries like Iran. In this paper, we try to characterize CRC cases diagnosed < age 50 at-risk for Lynch syndrome within central Iran. Materials and Methods: We designed a descriptive retrospective study to screen all registered CRC patients within 2000-2013 in Poursina Hakim Research Center (PHRC), a referral gastroenterology clinic in central Iran, based on being early-onset (age at diagnosis ${\leq}50years$) and Amsterdam II criteria. We calculated frequencies and percentages by SPSS 19 software to describe clinical and family history characteristics of patients with early-onset CRC. Results: Overall 1,659 CRC patients were included in our study of which 413 (24.9%) were ${\leq}50years$ at diagnosis. Of 219/413 successful calls 67 persons (30.6%) were reported deceased. Family history was positive for 72/219 probands (32.9%) and 53 families (24.2%) were identified as familial colorectal cancer (FCC), with a history of at-least three affected members with any type of cancer in the family, of which 85% fulfilled the Amsterdam II Criteria as hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) families (45/219 or 20.5%). Finally, 14 families were excluded due to proband tumor tissues being unavailable or unwillingness for incorporation. The most common HNPCC-associated extracolonic-cancer among both males and females of the families was stomach, at respectively 31.8 and 32.7 percent. The most common tumor locations among the 31 probands were rectum (32.3%), sigmoid (29.0%), and ascending colon (12.9%). Conclusions: Given the high prevalence of FCC (~1/4 of early-onset Iranian CRC patients), it is necessary to establish a comprehensive cancer genetic counseling and systematic screening program for early detection and to improve cancer prognosis among high risk families.

Germline Variants in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 in Korean Patients with Lynch Syndrome (국내 린치증후군 환자에서 발견된 MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 유전 변이)

  • Park, Kyoung-Jin;Chang, Dong Kyung;Kim, Hee Cheol;Kim, Jong-Won
    • Laboratory Medicine Online
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.156-166
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    • 2018
  • Background: The phenotypic and genetic spectrum of Lynch syndrome (LS) seems to differ according to ethnicity. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, pathological, and genetic features of LS in a large sample of Korean patients. Methods: We enrolled a total of 232 patients who fulfilled the revised Bethesda criteria (81%, 232/286) from 286 individuals who underwent genetic screening for LS (MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6 sequencing) in the Samsung Medical Center in Korea from 2004 to 2015. Histopathologic findings, microsatellite instability data, and clinical information were collected. Results: We identified 61 different pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants (39 in MLH1, 20 in MSH2, and 2 in MSH6), including 4 novel variants, in 101 unrelated Korean patients (101/232, 44%). When multiple tumor manifestations in a single patient were individually considered, there were 285 cancers recorded from 232 cases. A diverse spectrum of tumors, including colorectal cancer, endometrial cancer, stomach cancer, and ovary cancer, was observed. Patients with genetic alterations were more closely associated with a family history of cancers, double primary cancers, and the development of secondary neoplasms than patients without genetic alterations (P <0.0001, P =0.0052, and P =0.0010, respectively). Conclusions: We report the distribution of pathogenic variants in MLH1, MSH2, and MSH6, as well as the tumor spectrum, in a large sample of Korean patients with LS. Genetic testing could be an effective stratification strategy for surveillance of LS. This study sheds light on the genetic features of Asian patients with LS.

Implementation of Screening Colonoscopy amongst First-Degree Relatives of Patients with Colorectal Cancer in Turkey: a Cross-Sectional Questionnaire Based Survey

  • Adakan, Yesim;Taskoparan, Muharrem;Cekin, Ayhan Hilmi;Duman, Adil;Harmandar, Ferda;Taskin, Vildan;Yilmaz, Ustun;Yesil, Bayram
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.14
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    • pp.5523-5528
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    • 2014
  • Objective: To evaluate the implementation of screening colonoscopy amongst first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in Turkey. Materials and Methods: A total of 400 first-degree relatives (mean(SD)age: 42.5(12.7) years, 55.5% were male) of 136 CRC patients were included in this cross-sectional questionnaire based survey. Data on demographic characteristics, relationship to patient and family history for malignancy other than the index case were evaluated in the FDRs of patients as were the data on knowledge about and characteristics related to the implementation of screening colonoscopy using a standardized questionnaire form. Results: The mean(SD) age at diagnosis of CRC in the index patients was 60.0(14.0) years, while mean(SD) age of first degree relatives was 42.5(12.7) years. Overall 36.3% of relatives were determined to have knowledge about colonoscopy. Physicians (66.9%) were the major source of information. Screening colonoscopy was recommended to 19.5% (n=78) of patient relatives, while 48.7% (n=38) of individuals participated in colonoscopy procedures, mostly (57.9%) one year after the index diagnosis. Screening colonoscopy revealed normal findings in 25 of 38 (65.8%) cases, while precancerous lesions were detected in 26.3% of screened individuals. In 19.0% of FDRs of patients, there was a detected risk for Lynch syndrome related cancer. Conclusions: In conclusion, our findings revealed that less than 20% of FDRs of patients had received a screening colonoscopy recommendation; only 48.7% participated in the procedure with detection of precancerous lesions in 26.3%. Rise of awareness about screening colonoscopy amongst patients with CRC and first degree relatives of patients and motivation of physicians for targeted screening would improve the participation rate in screening colonoscopy by FDRs of patients with CRC in Turkey.