• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lower Quality Forage Diet

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Profile of Hanwoo Steer Carcass Characteristics, Meat Quality and Fatty Acid Composition after Feeding Italian Ryegrass Silage

  • Kim, Won Ho;Kang, Suk-Nam;Arasu, Mariadhas Valan;Chu, Gyo-Moon;Kim, Da Hye;Park, Jae-Hong;Oh, Young Kyoon;Choi, Ki Choon
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.299-306
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth performance, feed intake, slaughter characteristics, meat quantity and quality characteristics of Hanwoo steers fed with Italian ryegrass (IRG) silage (TRT). IRG silage consisted 11.70% protein, 2.84% ether extract, 53.50% dry matter digestibility and 63.34% total digestible nutrients. The daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio of TRT were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of control diet (CON; fed rice straw) in the whole periods. However, the slaughter weight, dressing percentage, quantity grade and quantity traits (marbling score, meat color, fat color, and quality grade) of either TRT or CON were similar. Meat fed TRT diet showed higher crude fat and lightness (L*) value and lower moisture content and pH value compared with the CON diet (p<0.05). Overall the carcass yield was 12.5% higher than CON diet.

Pig Feeding under the Potato-green Forage Base System with or without Addition of Herbs versus a Concentrate Based System: Effect on Post-slaughter Performance and Pork Characteristics

  • Turyk, Zofia;Osek, Maria;Olkowski, Boguslaw;Janocha, Alina
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.683-689
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    • 2014
  • This study examined carcass and meat quality parameters in growing/finishing pigs fed unconventionally versus the concentrate-based system. Ninety-six, 12 wk old pigs ($34{\pm}SD0.3kg$) were randomly divided into three groups, assigned to one of the three dietary treatments: standard complete concentrate mixture, conventional (C diet); unconventional, steamed potato-green forage-concentrate based diet (U diet), and unconventional basal diet+herbage mix (UH diet). Pigs fed U diet showed lower dressing percentage, meatiness, loin eye area, and weight of pork neck ($p{\leq}0.05$), but their carcasses were significantly ($p{\leq}0.05$) longer and had increased backfat depth ($p{\leq}0.05$). There was no impact of the diet on the meat content of dry matter, crude ash, acidity, and colour parameters of m. longissimus. Unconventional feeding significantly ($p{\leq}0.05$) elevated water the holding capacity of m. longissimus and slightly improved the sensory attributes analysis of meat. The addition of herbs resulted in increased loin eye area ($p{\leq}0.05$), decreased fat content ($p{\leq}0.05$) in m. longissimus, and tended to improve some sensory attributes of meat. There were significant gender differences in response to all diets. There were significant diet${\times}$sex interactions for some measured variables, but there were no clearly identifiable trends with regard to any specific carcass or meat parameters. Feeding unconventional diet to pigs may offer better culinary attributes of the meat, and improve some technologically important characteristics of pig carcass, but may negatively affect some carcass or meat parameters.

Effects of Forage Feeding Levels on the Udder Volume, Serum Hormone Level and Lactation Characteristics in Dairy Cows: From Growing to Lactating Phase (Holstein 젖소에서 조사료 급여 수준이 유방크기, 호르몬 및 산유특성에 미치는 영향: 육성기부터 비유기까지)

  • Lee, Byung-Woo;Sugathan, Subi;Singh, Naresh Kumar;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Yoon, Byung-Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of high forage diets on the volume of udder, hormone level in blood, and lactation characteristics in the Holstein dairy cow. We divided into two groups; high forage diet [HF, concentrate: forage=4:6 n=41] and low forage diet [LF, 6:4 n=21]. Five cows were selected from each group based on their age for measuring the udder volume and the serum levels of estradiol and progesterone. Lactation characteristics were compared between HF and LF. The udder volume was 2.5 fold larger in HF at early gestation (p<0.01), but no difference was noted afterward. For the hormone levels, no significant difference was found between the groups. In HF, milk yield was significantly increased and maintained high longer, while somatic cell count was approximately 50% lower. Meanwhile, the milk fat content was significantly lower in HF during early lactating phase (p<0.001), but there was no difference thereafter. For milk protein and solid content, and MUN, no differences were found between the groups during lactation. Our results indicated that feeding high forage diets to dairy cows can increase milk yield and quality without notable changes in the udder volume and hormone level.

EFFECT OF FLOCK SIZE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF GOATS FED GLIRICIDIA-SUPPLEMENTED DIET IN DRYLAND FARMING IN BALI, INDONESIA

  • Sukanten, I.W.;Nitis, I.M.;Uchida, S.;Putra, S.;Lana, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.271-279
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    • 1996
  • On-farm experiments were carried out in dryland farming in Bali for 48 weeks to study the effect of flock size on the growth and carcass characteristics of cross-bred goat fed gliricidia-supplemented diet. Eighty four bucks with average live weight of 15.87 kg were allocated in a completely randomized block design arrangement, consisted of three treatments and four blocks. The treatments were $3goats/2.7m^2$ (A), $6goats/5.4m^2$ (B) and $12goats/10.8m^2$ (C), while the floor density was the same ($0.9m^2$ per goat). Feed consumed by goat B was similar (p > 0.10), while feed consumed by goat C was lower (p < 0.10) than goat A. Live weight gain of goat B and C were lower (p<0.05) than goat A. FCR of goat B was higher (p < 0.10) than goat A, while FCR of goat C was similar (p > 0.10) with goat A. Goat B has heavier (p < 0.10) head and digestive tract, while goat C has heavier (p<0.10) hindlegs and digestive tract than goat A. Goat B has lighter (p < 0.10) shoulder, while goat C has lighter shoulder and heavier legs (p < 0.10) than goat A. The carcass quality (measured in terms of loin eye muscle area, meat, bone and fat portions) were not affected (p > 0.05) by the flock sizes.

Supplementation of Dry Brewer's Grain to Lower Quality Forage Diet for Growing Lambs in Southeast Nigeria

  • Anigbogu, N.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.384-388
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    • 2003
  • Twenty yearling lambs of Southeast Nigeria dwarf, liveweight ($18{\pm}1.9 kg$) were grouped into 5 treatments. Dry brewer's grain was substituted for maize offal in the experiment diets namely A to E at 0%, 15%, 30%, 45% and 60% respectively, as supplement to low quality, dry season cassava leaf top and Andropogan gayanus hay at 1:1 ratio that lasted for 56 days. After which 5 of the lambs (average bodyweight=$24.3{\pm}1.5kg$) were transferred to metabolism crates to determine the digestibility and nitrogen/protein balance studies. While the mean group intakes were (945.9, 996.1, 1,040.5, 1,148.5 and 1,037.7 g conc. DM/day), the growth rates were (115.1, 124.1, 152.5, 168.5 and 123.1 g liveweight gain/day), respectively. There was a recorded decline in both intake (p>0.05) and growth rate (p<0.05) as the level of dry brewer's grain was increased beyond 45% of the supplement. Similar trend was observed on the protein and organic matter efficiency ratios (p>0.05) together with the organic matter intake. The urine nitrogen output was also significant (p>0.05). The work further revealed that, at a certain critical level of intake, dry brewer's grain is able to support growth rates measurable to or better than those noted when feeding maize offal to lambs, and went on to prove dry brewer's grain as an attractive supplementary feed for the drier months of the year, in the Southeast of Nigeria.

Utilization of Sunflower Crop Residues as Feed in Small Ruminants

  • Rasool, Ejaz;Khan, M.F.;Nawaz, M.;Rafiq, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.272-276
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    • 1998
  • Sheep and goats in Pakistan have not been able to produce to the best of their potential. This may primarily be attributed to under feeding and malnutrition. Ranges have been depleted due to overgrazing and mismanagement and are not in position to feed the existing small ruminant population. To overcome the shortage of good quality fodder and balanced feed supply, the alternate means like cereal straws and other crop residues are being commonly used. Sunflower crop residues like stalks and heads provide a good quality forage for livestock. These crop byproducts are rich in crude protein and lower in crude fibre. Their inclusion in the diet of small ruminants at 20, 30 and 40 percent levels in ration has shown significantly (p < 0.05) increased feed intake and weight gain. Daily feed intake was 1,130, 1,180 and 1,750 g for sunflower crop residue, soybean crop residue and wheat straw, respectively, when added at the rate of 20 percent in the ration. The drymatter digestibility of sunflower, soybean crop residues and wheat straw was also comparable. The maximum performance of the animals was observed at the 20 percent level of inclusion of sunflower crop residue in the diet.

Effect on quanti-quality milk and mozzarella cheese characteristics with further increasing the level of dried stoned olive pomace in diet for lactating buffalo

  • Taticchi, A.;Bartocci, S.;Servili, M.;Di Giovanni, S.;Pauselli, M.;Mourvaki, E.;Zilio, D. Meo;Terramoccia, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1605-1611
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    • 2017
  • Objective: Following a previous report, an experiment was conducted to determine the effect of increasing level of dried stoned olives pomaces (DSOP) in the diet of lactating buffaloes on milk and mozzarella cheese yield and characteristics. Methods: Sixteen pluriparous buffaloes distributed into two groups were fed an isoenergetic (0.9 milk forage unit/kg) and isoprotein (149 g/kg dry matter [DM] of crude protein) diet, with or without DSOP. Each animal received 17 kg DM/d. Samples of forages and concentrates were weekly collected and used for duplicate chemical analyses. Individual milk samples from each control were analyzed for chemical and coagulating parameters and daily production of mozzarella cheese was estimated. At the end of the trial, bulk milk of each group was processed to produce mozzarella cheese and chemical (fat, protein, ash, pH) composition, fatty acids composition, carotenoids and tocopherols content were determined. A sensory test was also performed. The oxidative stability was measured on mozzarella cheese and on governing liquid. Results: No significant differences were observed, neither for milk yield and body condition score, nor for milk characteristics. The fat was higher (p<0.05) in mozzarella of DSOP fed group but, saturated fatty acids were lower and unsaturated higher (p<0.01). Furthermore, lower atherogenic (p<0.01), and thrombogenic (p<0.05) indices were found in mozzarella cheese of DSOP fed group. In addition, the administration of DSOP did not affect the mozzarella cheese oxidative stability and no negative effect was found in the sensory properties. Conclusion: No contraindications appeared for the inclusion of DSOP in the diet of lactating buffaloes. Besides, important effects on mozzarella cheese quality were obtained, such as a modification of fat content and attributes with an increment in the mono-unsaturated. Additionally, a lower saturated/unsaturated ratio and atherogenic and thrombogenic indices suggest an improvement of dietetic and nutritional characteristics of mozzarella cheese.

Effect of Forage Feeding Level on the Milk Production Characteristics of Holstein Lactating Cows (조사료 급여 수준이 Holstein 착유우의 산유 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Bae Hoon;Nejad, Jalil Ghassemi;Kim, Hyeon Shup;Sung, Kyung Il
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.45-51
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed on two groups (10 cows) for primiparous Holstein lactating cows (av. 98 days in milk : DIM) which were divided into low forage diet (LF) and high forage diet (HF) groups based on forage : concentrate ratio (F : C ratio). The F : C ratios of LF and HF groups were 37:63 and 62:38, respectively. Concentrate intake was significantly higher in the LF group than the HF group whereas the HF group showed higher forage intake (12.9 kg) compared to the LF group (7.4 kg) (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in total feed intake between the HF (20.9 kg) and LF (19.4 kg) group (p>0.05), but the HF group tended to be higher. CP, TDN and NEL intake showed no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). Though, there was no significant difference on actual milk between the two groups (26 vs. 23.9 kg/d, p>0.05), the LF group tended to be higher. 4% FCMs of LF and HF groups were 22.8 and 22.3 kg/d, respectively, and showed no significant difference (p>0.05). The HF group was higher in fat content and lower in MUN. C14:0, C16:0 and C16:1n7 of milk fatty acid were significantly higher in the HF group (p<0.05), but there were no differences in other milk fatty acids between the two groups. As a result, increasing high quality forage such as BIRG silage and hay in the diet will not only fulfill nutrient requirements but also reduce milk production.

The Influence of Dietary Characteristics on the Milk Quantity and Quality of Riverine Buffaloes: Estimate of the Energy/Protein Requirements, for a Medium-high Production, in the First Ninety Days of Lactation

  • Terramoccia, S.;Bartocci, A.;Giovanni, S. Di;Bartocci, S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.335-340
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    • 2012
  • The data used came from two trials undertaken under the same climatic conditions (spring-summer). In both trials pluriparious buffaloes were utilized similar in weight, body condition score, and milk production from the previous year. From the first trial the data used was from the sub-period 23-88 DIM provided by seven animals fed ad libitum with diet A (6.69 MJ/kg DM; 158.30 g/kg of crude protein) with a forage/concentrate ratio of 48/52. From the second trial the data used was from the sub-period 33-90 DIM provided by seven animals fed ad libitum with diet B (6.63 MJ/kg DM; 179.50 g/kg of crude protein) and by seven animals fed ad libitum with diet C (5.99 MJ/kg DM; 155.40 g/kg of crude protein), each of the diets had the same forage/concentrate ratio (53/47). A significant difference was found in milk production between group B and C (13.08 vs. 11.56 kg/d, p<0.05), an intermediate production (12.10 kg/d) was noted in group A. A significant difference was found between fat (76.58 vs. 69.24 g/kg, p<0.05), protein (46.14 vs. 43.16 g/kg, p<0.05) and casein (39.94 vs. 34.98 g/kg, p<0.05) of the milk of group B with respect to group A. The milk of group C gave fat values (71.80 g/kg), protein (45.52 g/kg) and casein (39.06 g/kg) statistically equal to those of group B. The milk of groups B and C, in respect to the milk of group A, gave values of $K_{20}$ (1.77, 1.82 vs. 3.68 min, p<0.05), statistically lower and values of $A_{30}$ (48.28, 47.27 vs. 40.64 mm, p<0.05) statistically higher. Two simple linear regressions were calculated where the independent variable (x) was the daily standardized milk production, the dependent variable (y) or the daily intake of net energy or crude protein. Equation 1) NE (MJ/d) = 74.4049+2.8308${\times}$kg of normalized milk; equation 2) CP (kg/d) = 1.4507+0.1085${\times}$kg of normalized milk, both the equations were significant (p<0.05) with determination coefficients of 0.58 and 0.50 respectively. For a production of normalized milk that varies from 9 to 13 kg, the respective energy-protein concentrations fluctuate from 6.09 to 6.78 MJ/kg DM and from 148.00 to 174.46 g/kg DM.

COPRA MEAL AS A SUPPLEMENT TO CATTLE OFFERED A LOW QUALITY NATIVE PASTURE HAY

  • Hennessy, D.W.;Kempton, T.J.;Williamson, P.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 1989
  • Twenty-four Hereford steers, 22 months old and a mean liveweight (${\pm}\;s.e.$) of $250\;{\pm}\;7\;kg$ were used in an experiment to evaluate over 42 days two rates of copra meal supplementation to cattle on a low N ($8.6\;{\pm}\;0.9$ g N/kg dry matter (DM)), low digestible ($45\;{\pm}\;5.2%$ DM) native pasture hay. Steers given the two rates (500, 1000 g/steer/day; i.e. 500C, 1000C) were compared to steers on a non-supplemental diet and to the effects on steers of supplemental urea (30g/steer/day; 30U) or with copra meal (500 g/steer/day; 500C.U), or of cottonseed meal (500 g/steer/day; 500S). Liveweight change was increased (P<0.01) by all of the supplements except by supplemental urea. The most effective treatment, 1000C, increased significantly (P<0.01) liveweight change (946 g/day) in steers above all supplements except those steers given 500C.U (718 g/day). Hay intake per unit liveweight was increased (P<0.05) by 7% by the 30U and 500C.U treatment, and by 9% by 500C; this group having the highest supplements, being greatest (P<0.05) for the 1000C group (6.0 g feed intake/g gain) and least for the 500S supplemented group (11.5 g/g gain). Efficiency was lowest (18.6 g/g gain) for the non-supplemented steers on the basal hay diet. Copra meal N was less degradable (i.e. 29%) in nylon bags over 15 hours in the rumen than was cottonseed meal N (37%), and rumen ammonia concentrations were lower (P<0.05) in cattle supplemented with copra meal (25, 27 mg N/L) than in cattle given urea (36 mg N/L) or cottonseed meal (39 mg N/L). It is concluded that copra meal at a daily rate of 500 g/head, and with rumen soluble nitrogen from urea, is an effective supplement for improving growth of cattle on a low quality forage.