• Title, Summary, Keyword: Longissimus dorsi Muscle

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Quality Attributes of Cooked Pork Hams Manufactured with Major Hind Leg Muscles and Longissimus dorsi (돼지 뒷다리 주요 근육과 등심근육으로 제조된 햄의 품질 특성)

  • Seong, Pil-Nam;Cho, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Jin-Hyoung;Hah, Kyoung-Hee;Park, Beom-Young;Kim, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Jong-Moon;Ahn, Chong-Nam
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.160-164
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the quality attributes of cooked hams made with four hind leg muscles (Biceps femoris, Semimembranosus, Rectus femoris, Gluteus medius) and Longissimus dorsi. Muscles were prepared from three market-weighted crossbreeds ($L{\times}Y{\times}D$) and the pH, proximate chemical composition, color, texture attributes, and sensory properties of cooked pork muscle hams were evaluated. In the raw state, no significant differences in pH were found among the five muscle hams. However, Rectus femoris ham had the highest pH, while Longissimus dorsi ham had the lowest pH (p<0.05). All muscle hams had similar moisture, fat, and ash contents. The protein content (%) was highest in Longissimus dorsi ham (p<0.05). The Hunter L value was highest for Longissimus dorsi ham while Rectus femoris and Gluteus medius hams had the lowest Hunter L values (p<0.05). The Hunter a values were similar in Rectus femoris, Biceps femoris, and Gluteus medius hams, and lowest for Longissimus dorsi ham (p<0.05). Texture attributes were not significantly different among the five muscle hams (p>0.05). The results of sensory evaluation showed that Semimembranosus hams had the highest flavor score, but there were no significant differences among five muscle hams with regard to color, taste, and texture (p>0.05).

Characteristic of back fat and quality of longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat pork carcasses

  • Lim, Daewoon;Song, Minho;Lee, Juri;Lee, Chulwoo;Lee, Jaechung;Lee, Wangyeol;Seo, Jihee;Jung, Samooel
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.581-588
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the accuracy of visual discrimination of soft fat pork carcasses when subjecting carcasses to quality grade evaluations. In addition, the quality of the longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat carcasses was investigated. Iodine values of back fat from soft fat carcasses evaluated by visual discrimination were significantly higher than those from firm fat carcass (p < 0.05). However, those values were lower than the standard for soft fat (iodine value = 70). There were no significant differences in linoleic acid content, b-values, and L-values (p < 0.05) of back fat between firm and soft fat carcasses evaluated by visual discrimination. Color of longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat carcasses (iodine value higher than 70) was not different from that of firm fat carcass (iodine value lower than 70). Except for linoleic acid, there were no significant differences in any fatty acid contents between longissimus dorsi muscles from firm fat and soft fat carcasses. Monounsaturated fatty acid content of longissimus dorsi muscles from soft fat carcasses was significantly lower than those of firm fat carcass (p < 0.05). However polyunsaturated fatty acid content was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in longissimus dorsi muscles from soft fat carcasses. In conclusion, visual discrimination results for soft fat pork carcass were inaccurate. Therefore, other indicators should be required to evaluate soft fat pork carcasses. In contrast, the quality of longissimus dorsi muscle from soft fat carcasses was superior in terms of fatty acid composition compared with that of firm fat carcasses.

The Expression of Carnosine and Its Effect on the Antioxidant Capacity of Longissimus dorsi Muscle in Finishing Pigs Exposed to Constant Heat Stress

  • Yang, Peige;Hao, Yue;Feng, Jinghai;Lin, Hai;Feng, Yuejin;Wu, Xin;Yang, Xin;Gu, Xianhong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.12
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    • pp.1763-1772
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to assess the effects of constant high ambient temperatures on meat quality, antioxidant capacity, and carnosine expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of finishing pigs. Castrated 24 male DLY (crossbreeds between Landrace${\times}$Yorkshire sows and Duroc boars) pigs were allocated to one of three treatments: constant ambient temperature at $22^{\circ}C$ and ad libitum feeding (CON, n = 8); constant high ambient temperature at $30^{\circ}C$ and ad libitum feeding (H30, n = 8); and constant ambient temperature at $22^{\circ}C$ and pair-fed with H30 (PF, n = 8). Meat quality, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant capacity, carnosine content, and carnosine synthetase (CARNS1) mRNA expression in longissimus dorsi muscle were measured after three weeks. The results revealed that H30 had lower $pH_{24h}$, redness at 45 min, and yellowness at 24 h post-mortem (p<0.05), and higher drip loss at 48 h and lightness at 24 h post-mortem (p<0.01). Constant heat stress disrupted the pro-oxidant/antioxidant balance in longissimus dorsi muscle with higher MDA content (p<0.01) and lower antioxidant capacity (p<0.01). Carnosine content and CARNS1 mRNA expression in longissimus dorsi muscle of H30 pigs were significantly decreased (p<0.01) after three weeks at $30^{\circ}C$. In conclusion, constant high ambient temperatures affect meat quality and antioxidant capacity negatively, and the reduction of muscle carnosine content is one of the probable reasons.

Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Bovine Longissimus Dorsi and Biceps Femoris Muscles

  • Kim, S.M.;Park, M.Y.;Seo, K.S.;Yoon, D.H.;Lee, H.-G.;Choi, Y.J.;Kim, S.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1496-1502
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    • 2006
  • Skeletal muscle contains slow and fast twitch fibers. These skeletal muscle fibers express type I and type II myosin, respectively, and these myosin isoenzymes have different ATPase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate protein profiles of bovine skeletal muscles by proteomic analysis. Fifty seven spots of distinct proteins were excised and characterized. The expression of sixteen spots was differed in longissimus dorsi muscle with a minimal 2-fold change compared to biceps femoris muscle. The majority of differentially expressed proteins belonged to metabolic regulation-related proteins such as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase and carbonic anhydrase 3. The real time-PCR assay confirmed an increase or induction of specific genes: RGS12TS isoform, GAPDH, triosephosphate isomerase and carbonic anhydrase. These results suggest that the expression of metabolic proteins is under a specific control system in different bovine skeletal muscle. These observations could have significant implications for understanding the physiological regulation of bovine skeletal muscles.

Functional study of Villin 2 protein expressed in longissimus dorsi muscle of Korean native cattle in different growth stages

  • Jin, Yong-Cheng;Han, Jeng-A;Xu, Cheng-Xiong;Kang, Sang-Kee;Kim, Sang-Hun;Seo, Kang-Suk;Yoon, Du-Hak;Choi, Yun-Jaie;Lee, Hong-Gu
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this study was to investigate protein profiles related to the induction of adipogenesis within the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle (BLDM) by proteomic analysis. We analyzed BLDM proteins at different growth stages to clarify the physiological mechanisms of marbled muscle development in 20 head of Korean native cattle (11 month: 10 head, 17 month: 10 head). BLDM proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and image analysis. Villin 2 was specifically identified by mass spectrometry and a protein search engine. Villin 2 protein expression in BLDM decreased during the fat development stage in test steers. In a Western blot cell culture study of spontaneously immortal bovine muscle fibroblasts, the abundance of Villin 2 was shown to be down-regulated during differentiation into muscle. In 3T3-L1 mouse embryonic fibroblasts, Villin 2 was decreased during differentiation into adipocytes. The results suggest that Villin 2 may be related to the induction of transdifferentiation and adipogenesis in bovine longissimus dorsi muscle.

Tenderization of Bovine Longissimus Dorsi Muscle using Aqueous Extract from Sarcodon aspratus

  • Kim, Ho-Kyoung;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Ryu, Youn-Chul
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.533-540
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract from Sarcodon aspratus on tenderization of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscles in comparison with commercial proteolytic enzymes. Furthermore, meat quality and muscle protein degradation were examined. We marinated meat with 2% Sarcodon aspratus extract, 2% kiwi extract, and 0.2% papain. Beef chunks (3×3×3 cm3) were marinated with distilled water (control), Sarcodon aspratus extract (T1), kiwi extract (T2) or papain (T3) for 48 h at 4℃. There were no significant differences in muscle pH and lightness between control and treated samples. T1 had the lowest redness (p<0.01), and higher cooking loss and water holding capacity than control and T2 (p<0.05). T1 and T3 exhibited lower shear force values than control (p<0.05). Total protein solubility did not differ significantly between T1 and control, but T1 had less myofibrillar protein solubility than control and T2 (p<0.001). The degradation of myosin heavy chain in T1 and T3 was observed. This degradation of myofibrillar protein suggests that Sarcodon aspratus extract could influence tenderization. These results show that aqueous extract of Sarcodon aspratus extract actively affect the tenderness of the bovine longissimus dorsi muscle.

Protein Expression in Pig Species Longissimus dorsi Muscles among Different Breeds and Growth Stages (돼지의 품종 및 성장 단계에 따른 등심조직의 단백질 발현 양상 비교, 분석)

  • Kim, Byung-Uk;Kim, Sam-Woong;Hong, Yeon-Hee;Jeong, Mi-Ae;Ryu, Yeon-Sun;Park, Hwa-Chun;Jung, Jong-Hyun;Kwon, Young-Min;Choi, In-Soon;Lee, Sang-Suk;Kim, Chul-Wook;Cho, Kwang-Keun
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.713-722
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    • 2012
  • When proteins extracted from longissimus dorsi muscles of Landrace and Berkshire at the finishing stage were compared by 2-DE, the Landrace demonstrated a quantitative increase in proteins related to slow skeletal muscle function, such as serum albumin precursor, troponin T (slow skeletal muscle; sTnT) and myoglobin. In contrast, the Berkshire exhibited comparatively elevated enzymes involved in metabolic pathways, fast skeletal muscle function, and energy production, such as heat shock 27-kDa protein (HSP27)-1, TnT (fast skeletal muscle; fTnT), muscle creatine kinase, phosphoglucomutase 1 (PGM1), triosephosphate isomerase (Tpi1) and adenylate kinase isoenzyme 1 (AK1). When compared to growing Berkshire, finishing Berkshire showed increased levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 family, member L1 (ALDHL1), and muscle creatine kinase. In contrast, the growing Berkshire muscle had elevated levels of HSP27-1, sTnT, fTnT, serum albumin precursor, PGM1, AK1, and Tpi 1 as compared to the finishing Berkshire. The Landrace longissimus dorsi muscle may be composed of slower skeletal muscle, whereas Berkshire is composed of a faster skeletal muscle. The uniquely elevated quantities of proteins involved in skeletal muscle function, energy metabolism, and cytoskeleton function in the growing Berkshire indicate that these factors support growth and maintenance during the growing stage when compared with the finishing Berkshire.

Relationships among Instrumental Tenderness Parameters, Meat Quality Traits, and Histochemical Characteristics in Porcine Longissimus dorsi Muscle

  • Shin, Han-Gyol;Choi, Young-Min;Nam, Yun-Ju;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Choe, Jee-Hwan;Jeong, Da-Woon;Kim, Byoung-Chul
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.965-970
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between instrumental tenderness parameters and histochemical characteristics in the porcine longissimus dorsi muscle, and to investigate a comparison between tenderness parameters such as the Warner-Bratzler shear-force (WBS) and texture profile analysis (TPA). A negative relationship between WBS and fiber area was observed. However, there was no significant relationship between hardness and muscle fiber area. The percentage of fiber type IIb exhibited a positive correlation with hardness. There was a negative relationship between the type IIa composition percentage and hardness. This study showed that some muscle fiber characteristics were related to WBS and TPA parameters, especially hardness.

Proteomic Assessment of the Relevant Factors Affecting Pork Meat Quality Associated with Longissimus dorsi Muscles in Duroc Pigs

  • Cho, Jin Hyoung;Lee, Ra Ham;Jeon, Young-Joo;Park, Seon-Min;Shin, Jae-Cheon;Kim, Seok-Ho;Jeong, Jin Young;Kang, Hyun-sung;Choi, Nag-Jin;Seo, Kang Seok;Cho, Young Sik;Kim, MinSeok S.;Ko, Sungho;Seo, Jae-Min;Lee, Seung-Youp;Shim, Jung-Hyun;Chae, Jung-Il
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.11
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    • pp.1653-1663
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    • 2016
  • Meat quality is a complex trait influenced by many factors, including genetics, nutrition, feeding environment, animal handling, and their interactions. To elucidate relevant factors affecting pork quality associated with oxidative stress and muscle development, we analyzed protein expression in high quality longissimus dorsi muscles (HQLD) and low quality longissimus dorsi muscles (LQLD) from Duroc pigs by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)-based proteomic analysis. Between HQLD (n = 20) and LQLD (n = 20) Duroc pigs, 24 differentially expressed proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 10 and 14 proteins were highly expressed in HQLD and LQLD, respectively. The 24 proteins have putative functions in the following seven categories: catalytic activity (31%), ATPase activity (19%), oxidoreductase activity (13%), cytoskeletal protein binding (13%), actin binding (12%), calcium ion binding (6%), and structural constituent of muscle (6%). Silver-stained image analysis revealed significant differential expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) between HQLD and LQLD Duroc pigs. LDHA was subjected to in vitro study of myogenesis under oxidative stress conditions and LDH activity assay to verification its role in oxidative stress. No significant difference of mRNA expression level of LDHA was found between normal and oxidative stress condition. However, LDH activity was significantly higher under oxidative stress condition than at normal condition using in vitro model of myogenesis. The highly expressed LDHA was positively correlated with LQLD. Moreover, LDHA activity increased by oxidative stress was reduced by antioxidant resveratrol. This paper emphasizes the importance of differential expression patterns of proteins and their interaction for the development of meat quality traits. Our proteome data provides valuable information on important factors which might aid in the regulation of muscle development and the improvement of meat quality in longissimus dorsi muscles of Duroc pigs under oxidative stress conditions.

Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes in the Longissimus Dorsi Muscle Tissue between Duroc and Erhualian Pigs by mRNA Differential Display

  • Pan, P.W.;Zhao, S.H.;Yu, M.;Liu, B.;Xiong, T.A.;Li, K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1066-1070
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    • 2003
  • In order to identify differentially expressed mRNAs (which represent possible candidates for significant phenotypic variances of muscle growth, meat quality between introduced European and Chinese indigenous pigs) in the longissimus dorsi muscle tissue between adult Duroc and Erhualian pigs, mRNA differential display was performed. Five 3' anchor primers in combination with 20 different 5' arbitrary primers (100 primer sets) were used and nearly 5,000 cDNA bands were examined, among which 10 differential display cDNAs were obtained, cloned and sequenced. Six of the 10 cDNAs showed similarity to identified genes from GenBank and the other 4 had no matches in GenBank. Differential expression was tested by Northern blot hybridization and could be confirmed for 2 cDNAs. The method used in this study provides a useful molecular tool to investigate genetic variation that occurs at the transcriptional level between different breeds.