• Title, Summary, Keyword: Loin

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Effect of Carcass Grade and Addition of Mugwort on the Physicochemical Properties and Palatability of Loin Ham (원료육 등급과 쑥 첨가가 loin ham의 이화학적 특성 및 기호성에 미치는 영향)

  • 강세주;문윤희;정인철
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to clarify the effect of addition of mugwort and carcass grade on the quality and sensory properties of loin hams. The volatile basic nitrogen, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, total bacterial count, water holding capacity and calorie of loin hams were not significantly different among hams, but the pH and residual nitrite of loin hams with mugwort were significantly lower than that of loin hams without mugwort. The fat content of grade B loin hams were higher than that of grade E loin hams, and the protein and total amino acid content of grade E loin hams were higher than that of grade B loin hams. The free amino acid, saturated fatty acid and unsaturated fatty acid were not significantly different among loin hams. The $L^{*}$ value of grade B loin hams were higher than that of grade E loin hams, the a value of grade E loin hams were higher than that of grade B loin hams, and the $b^{*}$ value was not significantly different among loin hams. The hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness were not significantly different among loin hams. The aroma of loin hams without mugwort were superior than that of loin hams with mugwort, and the juiciness of grade B loin hams were superior than that of grade E loin hams. But the color, taste, texture and palatability were not significantly different among loin hams.

Physicochemical Quality Properties of Loin and Tenderloin Ham from Sows

  • Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Hack-Youn
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.474-483
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical properties of hams obtained from loin and tenderloin cuts from standard pigs and sows. pH levels of loin ham before cooking, standard pig was significantly lower than that of sow (p<0.001). The lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values of loin ham from standard pigs were significantly higher than those of sow loin ham (p<0.001). The water-holding capacity (WHC) and curing yield of sow loin was significantly higher than standard loin (p<0.01). The cooking loss of standard pig loin ham was significantly higher than that of sow loin ham (p<0.01). Differences in sensory quality evaluation, except in the case of tenderness, for the two loin hams were not significant. pH levels of tenderloin ham before cooking, standard pig was significantly lower than that of sow (p<0.001). Redness (a*) values of before and after cooking tenderloin ham of sow was higher than that of standard pig (p<0.001). L* values of tenderloin ham of standard pig was significantly higher than that of sow (p<0.001). WHC and curing yield of tenderloin ham from sow was significantly higher than that from a standard pig (p<0.001, p<0.05). The cooking losses of sow and standard pig tenderloin ham were 26.06% and 28.31%, respectively (p<0.001). Differences in sensory quality evaluation, except in the case of tenderness and color, for the two tenderloin hams were not significant. In conclusion, sow pigs loin and tenderloin is suitable for ham product more than standard pigs loin and tenderloin.

Quality Improvement of Pork Loin by Dry Aging

  • Lee, Cheol Woo;Lee, Ju Ri;Kim, Min Kyu;Jo, Cheorun;Lee, Kyung Haeng;You, Insin;Jung, Samooel
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.369-376
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to investigate the effects of dry aging on the quality of pork loin. Longissimus lumborum muscles were dissected from the right half of five pork carcasses and were used as the control samples. The left halves of the carcasses were aged at 2±1℃ and a relative humidity of 80% for 40 d. The total aerobic bacteria count was similar between the control and dry-aged pork loin (p>0.05). Lactic-acid bacteria was absent in both the control and dry-aged pork loins. Dry-aged pork loin contained low moisture and high protein and ash compared to the controls (p<0.05). The pH was higher and cooking loss was lower in dry-aged pork loin compared to that in the control (p<0.05). Flavor related compounds, such as total free amino acid, hypoxanthine, and inosine of pork loin were higher in dry-aged pork loin; whereas, inosine 5'-monophosphate and guanosine 5'-monophosphate were low in dry-aged pork loin than control (p<0.05). There was no difference in carnosine and anserine content between dry-aged pork loin and the control (p>0.05). Dry-aged pork loin had lower hardness and shear force and received higher core in sensory evaluation than the control (p<0.05). According to the results, dry aging improved textural and sensorial quality of pork loin.

Meat Quality and Storage Characteristics of Pork Loin Marinated in Grape Pomace

  • Lee, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Jae-Joon;Jung, Myung-Ok;Choi, Jung-Seok;Jung, Ji-Taek;Choi, Yang-Il;Lee, Jin-Kyu
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.726-734
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the meat quality and storage characteristics of pork loin marinated in grape pomace powder during different storage periods. The experimental design included six treatments : pork loin containing only 100% water (Control, C); pork loin containing a combination of 20% grape pomace and 80% water (T1); pork loin containing a combination of 40% grape pomace and 60% water (T2); pork loin containing a combination of 0.5% grape pomace powder and 95.5% water (T3); pork loin containing a combination of 1.0% grape pomace powder and 99.0% water (T4); and pork loin containing a combination of 2.0% grape pomace powder and 98.0% water (T5). The pork loins aged by grape pomace and grape pomace powder showed decreased crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, pH, redness, and yellowness values; however, their moisture, lightness, and shear force increased significantly. During cold storage, marination with grape pomace and grape pomace powder reduced the 2-thiobarbituric acid value, volatile basic nitrogen value, and total microbial count in pork loin. Thus, marination with grape pomace and grape pomace powder improved the meat quality and storage characteristics, and could be used to improve storage stability of pork loin.

The New Storage Technology: Effect of Far Infrared Ray (FIR) Ceramic Sheet Package on Storage Quality of Pork Loin

  • Lin, Liang-Chuan
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.1695-1700
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    • 2003
  • A total of 30 pork loin sections were utilized to evaluate the effects of FIR ceramic sheet in PE and vacuum package on preserving the quality of chilled pork stored at 4 and $0^{\circ}C$. Based on meat color, results indicated that pork loin packaged in ceramic sheet and control treatment showed that the samples of the control treatment tended to darken gradually in comparison with the samples at 0 day, but FIR treatment had few changes. Among the total plate counts of sliced loin in PE and loin in vacuum package under different storage times at 4 and $0^{\circ}C$, results showed that FIR ceramic sheet package treatment had lower total plate counts and significant differences (p<0.05). In VBN value, both treatments tended to rise high with the increasing of storage time, but the FIR treatment was significantly lower (p<0.05) than the control treatment. Its results had a corresponding relationship with the total plate counts. Regarding the drip loss of sliced loin in PE and loin in vacuum package, it showed that FIR ceramic sheet package treatment had lower drip loss and significant differences (p<0.01). These results showed that the use of FIR ceramic sheet package, including PE and vacuum package, is an effective method of maintaining the quality of meat.

Comparative studies on Tenderness and Characteristics of Protein Obtained from Various Carcass grade in Korean native Cow (도체등급별 한우육의 연도와 단백질특성에 대한 비교연구)

  • 문윤희;강세주
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.336-341
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of carcass grade on the hardness, myofibrillar fragmentations index, protein extractability and Mg-ATPase activity of myofibril and actomyosin obtained from 1, 2, 3 and D carcass grade)subgrade) in Korean native cow. Proximate component, hardness, chewiness, myofibril fragmentation index, protein extractability and Mg-ATPase activity if myofibril or actomyosin were not significantly different between 1st and 2nd carcass grade loin. The hardness and chewiness of 2nd carcass grade loin's were significantly lower than 3th grade loin's, but the myofibril fragmentation index, sarcoplasmic protein extractability and Mg-ATPase activity of myofibril were higher. The myofibrillar protein extractability and Mg-ATPase activity of actomyosin obtained from 3th carcase grade loin's were significantly higher than D grade loin's, but the hardness, chewiness and stroma protein extractability were lower. In conclusion, the degree of toughness in Korean native cow's loin was not significantly different between 1st and 2nd grade, but 3rd and D carcass grade were significantly higher, regardless of before and after aging.

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Comparison of the Palatability Related with Characteristics of Beef Carcass Grade B2 and D (상등급과 등외등급 쇠고기의 기호특성 비교)

  • 문윤희;강세주;현재석;강희곤;정인철
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.1152-1157
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    • 2001
  • Two kinds of samples were prepared from the loin in the carcass with grade B2 and D, which were chilled for 24 hour after slaughter. The fresh beef in this study were obtained by chilling the loin for 1 day after wrapping them. On the other hand, the chilled beef were obtained by cutting the loin by 500 g and chilling them for 30 day after vacuum packing. The experiment was carried out to compare the palatability related with characteristics of loin with grade B2 and D and to investigate the chilling effect of the loin with grade D. In the case of fresh beef, it was found that the loin with grade B2 has better meat color, but lower pH, lactic acid content, and myoglobin content, than them of the loin with grade D. Also, the loin with grade B2 has lower tenderness due to its low hardness and chewiness, and high myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI). Furthermore, it has high monounsaturated fatty acid/saturated fatty acid (MUFA/SFA) and ATP content, and good raw meat aroma. It also shows an excellent palatability of cooked meat, although it has low cooking loss and heat shotening. On the other hand, the loin with grade D has higher chilling effect on hardness, chewiness, MFI and MUFA/SFA, than them of the loin with grade B2. However, in the case of chilled beef, the loin with grade D shows much worse tenderness, cooked meat aroma, and palatability than them of the loin with grade B2.

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Comparison of Carcass and Sensory Traits and Free Amino Acid Contents among Quality Grades in Loin and Rump of Korean Cattle Steer

  • Piao, Min Yu;Jo, Cheorun;Kim, Hyun Joo;Lee, Hyun Jung;Kim, Hyun Jin;Ko, Jong-Youl;Baik, Myunggi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1629-1640
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed to compare carcass traits, sensory characteristics, physiochemical composition, and contents of nucleotides, collagen, and free amino acids among quality grades (QG) and to understand the association between QG and above parameters in loin and rump of Korean cattle steer. Loin and rump samples were obtained from 48 Korean cattle steers with each of four QG (QG 1++, 1+, 1, and 2; average 32 months of age). Carcass weight and marbling score (MS) were highest in QG 1++, whereas texture score measured by a meat grader was highest in QG 2. A correlation analysis revealed that MS (r = 0.98; p<0.01) and fat content (r = 0.73; p<0.01) had strong positive correlations with QG and that texture had a strong negative correlation (r = -0.78) with QG. Fat content in loin was highest but protein and moisture contents were lowest in QG 1++. Our results confirmed that a major determinant of QG is the MS; thus, intramuscular fat content. The International Commission on Illumination $L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$ values in loin were highest in QG 1++. Numeric values of shear force in loin were lowest in QG 1++, whereas those of tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability tended to be highest in QG 1++ without statistical significance. QG was strongly correlated with juiciness (r = 0.81; p<0.01) and overall acceptability (r = 0.87; p<0.001). All sensory characteristics were higher (p<0.05) in loin than those in rump. Adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) and inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) contents in both loin and rump did not differ among QGs. No nucleotide (AMP, IMP, inosine, hypoxanthine) was correlated with any of the sensory traits. Total, soluble, and insoluble collagen contents in loin were higher in QG 1++ than those in QG 1. All three collagens had lower content in loin than that in rump. All three collagens were positively correlated with tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. Glutamic acid content did not significantly differ among the four QGs in either loin or rump. In conclusion, it is confirmed that QG is associated with sensory traits but nucleotide contents in beef may not be a major factor determining meat palatability in the present study.

Changes in Morphologic and Enzymatic Properties of Beef Myofibrillar Protein by Storage Tmeperature (저장온도에 따른 쇠고기 근원섬유의 형태적, 효소적 성질 변화)

  • 정인철
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.468-474
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    • 1997
  • This study was designed to investigate the changes in meat quality of beef shank, rib and loin during storage at 8$^{\circ}C$. The shear force value(SFV) of beef shank and loin decreased significantly after 6days storage, beef loin was no significant difference during storage. The SFV in early storage period was high in the order of beef rib, loin and shank, but the SFV of beef rib and loin was similar in course of storage period. The Myofibrillar fragmentation index(MFI) of beef shank increased significantly after 6 days storage, but beef rib and loin early storage was high in the order of beef rib, loin and shank. The actomyosin extractability after 3days storage increased in all parts of beef, but beef loin decreased after 6 days storage. In case of Mg2+-ATPase activity of actomyosin, beef shank increased to 3 days storage, and this reached the level of 0 day after 6days. The MG2+-ATPase activity of beef rib and loin was similar, but beef rib in early storage was higher than beef loin. The Ca2+-TPase activity of beef shank increased to 3 days and decreased after 6 days storage, beef rib was not different during storage and beef loin decreased slightly during storage.

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Effects of natural nitrite source from Swiss chard on quality characteristics of cured pork loin

  • Kim, Tae-Kyung;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Song, Dong-Heon;Ham, Youn-Kyung;Kim, Young-Boong;Paik, Hyun-Dong;Choi, Yun-Sang
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1933-1941
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    • 2019
  • Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate quality characteristics of cured pork loin with natural nitrite source from Swiss chard. Methods: Pork loin was cured in brine and the ratio of water and fermented Swiss chard (FSC) solution in the brine was changed by 4:0 (control), 3:1 (T1), 1:1 (T2), 1:3 (T3), 0:4 (T4), and pickled samples with 0.012% sodium nitrite (PC, positive control) and nitrite free brine (NC, negative control) were considered as the control. Results: The pH values of cured pork loins with FSC were decreased with increasing addition level of FSC. Cooking loss was not significantly different among all treatments. T4 had the lowest value in moisture content and lightness value and the highest value in curing efficiency. The redness value of T4 was not significantly different from that of PC in raw. After cooking, however, it was higher than that of PC. The yellowness value of cured pork loin added with FSC was increased with increasing level of FSC. Volatile basic nitrogen content of cured pork loin added with FSC was higher than PC and NC. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substance value of cured pork loin added with FSC was decreased with increasing FSC level. Residual nitrite level and shear force were increased with increasing FSC level. In the sensory evaluation, sensory score for flavor, off-flavor, chewiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability were not significantly different among all treatments. However, sensory score for color was increased when the concentration of FSC added to pork loin was increased. Conclusion: The FSC solution had a positive effect on redness and lipid oxidation. As shown by the results in protein deterioration and sensory, Swiss chard can replace sodium nitrite as natural curing agent.