• Title, Summary, Keyword: Logical consequence

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MicroRNAs in Human Diseases: From Cancer to Cardiovascular Disease

  • Ha, Tai-You
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.135-154
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    • 2011
  • The great discovery of microRNAs (miRNAs) has revolutionized current cell biology and medical science. miRNAs are small conserved non-coding RNA molecules that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression by targeting the 3' untranslated region of specific messenger RNAs for degradation or translational repression. New members of the miRNA family are being discovered on a daily basis and emerging evidence has demonstrated that miRNAs play a major role in a wide range of developmental process including cell proliferation, cell cycle, cell differentiation, metabolism, apoptosis, developmental timing, neuronal cell fate, neuronal gene expression, brain morphogenesis, muscle differentiation and stem cell division. Moreover, a large number of studies have reported links between alterations of miRNA homeostasis and pathological conditions such as cancer, psychiatric and neurological diseases, cardiovascular disease, and autoimmune disease. Interestingly, in addition, miRNA deficiencies or excesses have been correlated with a number of clinically important diseases ranging from cancer to myocardial infarction. miRNAs can repress the gene translation of hundreds of their targets and are therefore well-positioned to target a multitude of cellular mechanisms. As a consequence of extensive participation in normal functions, it is quite logical to ask the question if abnormalities in miRNAs should have importance in human diseases. Great discoveries and rapid progress in the past few years on miRNAs provide the hope that miRNAs will in the near future have a great potential in the diagnosis and treatment of many diseases. Currently, an explosive literature has focussed on the role of miRNA in human cancer and cardiovascular disease. In this review, I briefly summarize the explosive current studies about involvement of miRNA in various human cancers and cardiovascular disease.

Learning System of Programming Language using Basic Algorithms (기초 알고리즘을 활용한 프로그래밍 언어 학습 시스템)

  • Park, Kyoung-Wook;Oh, Kyeong-Sug;Ryu, Nam-Hoon;Lee, Hye-Mi;Kim, Eung-Kon
    • The Journal of the Korea institute of electronic communication sciences
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2010
  • The curriculum of programming education including algorithm has been recognized as a very important subject to many students majoring in natural sciences and engineering including electronic engineering and computer related departments. However, many students have had difficulties with it due to its characteristics; as a consequence, they have been in trouble taking upper-level subjects. Flow chart is a diagram that expresses logical stages necessary to solve certain problems and has been widely used to have an understanding of the flow of algorithm. The practice-oriented education of algorithm and programming would be very important to assist the understanding of operation processes. Furthermore, it has been desperately required to the necessity of auxiliary programs that could enhance an understanding of the concept of algorithm and program execution process. This study was aimed to design and embody the learning system of programming languages using basic algorithms so as for students to easily learn basic algorithm among the entire programming curriculum.

An Analysis of the Class 'Philosophy' in tile 4th Revised and Enlarged Edition of KDC (한국십진분류법 치4판 철학류의 분석)

  • Park Ok-Wha
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Library and Information Science
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.7-22
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    • 1997
  • Korean Library Association brought out the fourth revised and enlarged edition of KDC last year. Compared with the former edition It Is a marked improvement. Neverthless, it leaves much room for improvement. In order to examine and evaluate the edition more effectively, I confined my study to the class 'Philosophy'. In my judgment the problem resolves itself into following three points: 1) Each regions, blanches of philosophy is not properly balanced. As is generally known KDC was originally derived from DDC. As a result KDC and DBC are similiar with regard to their stress on the philosophical tradition of the West. In consequence, it is lacking in universality. 2) The classifiers neglected on several occassions the logical regulations of classification. The vertical and horizontal relations between the subjects are not strictly respected. 3) The persons concerned were not well informed of philosophical conceptions and genealogies. There are some misused conceptions and disorganized genealogies of philosophy. To my knowledge these problems originate in the lack of professional understanding of philosophy necessary to make the work satisfactory As a result of the examination I came to the conclusion that it is inevitable for the classifiers, to ask to specialists in philosophy for mutual cooperation. Without their professional advices the classifiers will find difficulty in solving the problems and in improving the classification

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Male Mating Strategies through Manipulation of Female-perceived Predation Risk: A Minireview and a Hypothesis

  • Han, Chang-S.;Jablonski, Piotr G.
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2008
  • In this minireview we focus on how males may exploit female's sensitivity to predation risk in the context of mating. It has been shown in studies on guppies and jumping spiders that in response to altered female behaviors, which are adaptations to the unfavorable environment and a consequence of females' higher sensitivity to predator's presence as well as females' higher predation risk, males can adopt condition-dependent mating tactics. It appears that in such cases males do not modify their reproductive behavior directly in response to their own perception of predation risk, but indirectly in response to changes in female behavior induced by predator presence. It has also been recently shown in crabs that males can exploit female behavior by creating safer habitat spots, which increases the male mating success. Hence all the evidence suggests that males not only respond to female sensitivity to the natural variation in predation risk, but that males can also exploit female behavior by altering the environment. As a logical extension of these findings, we present a hypothesis that in certain conditions males can manipulate the environment in order to increase the predation risk and to induce female behaviors that enhance the male's mating success with the increased predation risk. We propose that such a manipulation to increase predation risk is expected to evolve in males of species with a strong sexual conflict and female-biased predation risk. Although empirical evidence has not been yet shown, initial observations in a water strider species in Korea, Gerris gracilicornis, seem to support this hypothesis.

A Study about Preventing Improper Working of Equipment on ATS System by Signaling Equipment (신호장치에 의한 ATS 신호장치 오동작 방지에 대한 연구)

  • Ko, Young-Hwan;Choi, Kyu-Hyoung
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.579-587
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    • 2008
  • Promotion of the line no.2 in Seoul Metro was changing from the existing signaling facilities for ATS(Automatic Train Stop) vehicles to the up-to-date signaling facilities for ATO(Automatic Train Operation). But, in consequence of conducting a trial run after being equipped with the ATO signaling facilities, the matter related to mix-operation with the existing ATS signaling facilities appeared. The operation of the existing ATS signaling system in combination with the ATO signaling system has made improper working related to frequency recognition of the ATS On-board Computerized Equipment. This obstructs operation of a working ATS vehicle. That is, as barring operation of an ATS vehicle that should proceed, it may make the proceeding ATS vehicle stop suddenly and after all, it will cause safety concerns. In this paper, we designed a wayside track occupancy detector that previously prevents improper working related to frequency recognition of the ATS On-board Computerized Equipment by gripping classification and working processes of operating trains throughout transmission of local signaling information from the existing facilities, which does not need to change or replace the existing signaling facilities. Furthermore, we described general characteristics of the wayside track occupancy detector and modeled the IFC(InterFace Contrivance) device and the logical circuit recognizing signal information. Then, we made an application program of PLC(programmable Logic Computer) based on the stated model. We, in relation to data transfer method, used the frame in TCP/IP transfer mode as the standard, and we demonstrated that ATO transmission frequency is intercepted.

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Informed Consent' in Public Health Activities: Based on the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights, UNESCO (공중보건 활동에서의 '사전 동의' 문제 - 유네스코 <생명윤리 및 인권에 관한 선언>을 중심으로 -)

  • Meng, Kwang-Ho
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.339-344
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : The objective of this paper is to discuss the importance of obtaining informed consent for conducting epidemiological studies and public health activities, based on the Report of the UNESCO's Working Group on Informed Consent. Methods : The Report of the UNESCO's Working Group on Informed Consent was reviewed and discussed in connection with the ethical considerations of public health activities and epidemiological research. Results : It was at the Nuremberg Trial for the German war criminals of the Second World War that the principle of 'consent' was first stated as a consequence of the medical abuses carried out during the War. As a result of the Trial, the Nuremberg Code came out in 1947. Since then, various international declarations or ethical principles on 'informed consent' have been developed and published. These ethical principles on 'informed consent' have mostly to do with the clinical research that involves human subjects, and not with epidemiological studies and public health activities. However, UNESCO recently issued a comprehensive Report on Informed Consent based on the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights adopted in 2005, and this included detailed guidelines on informed consent in epidemiological studies and public health activities. Conclusions : Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights emphasizes the principle of autonomy to protect the human rights of the human subjects involved in any public health activities and epidemiological research. As a practical guideline, obtaining informed consent is strongly recommended.

Aristotle and Praxis (아리스토텔레스와 실천행위)

  • Jeon, Jae-won
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.116
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    • pp.371-387
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    • 2010
  • On the one hand Aristotle seems to insist that practical acts are intrinsically good. On the other hand his doctrine of certain connected concepts is such that as a consequence practical acts must be considered good due to their being means to eudaimonia. This Aristotelian dilemma challenged by commenters. Cooper bases his attack on a consideration of Aristotle's account of deliberations. Deliberation is not just concerned with means in a strictly causal sense, but with things that contribute to the end. And these may also be constituent parts of complex ends or particular things that a given end may be seen to consist in. The difference between energeia and kinesis implies the distinction between praxis and poiesis. In kinesis such as 'building a house' and 'trying to save a child from drowning' we cannot sever, logically, 'the act' from the intended act-result, since no act will be left once that logical operation has been performed. The definition of poiesis relies on the possibility of such severance. But the fact that an act is kinesis has no implications whatever for the question whether it is a praxis or poiesis.

The Origin of Thinking Mind (우리는 왜 생각하는 존재가 되었는가?)

  • Park, Man-joon
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.131
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    • pp.131-163
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    • 2014
  • This Paper aims to elaborate on the origin of thinking mind. And this is a cooperative project between philosophy and neuroscience and brain science. I have written this paper in admiration for the achievements of twentieth century neuroscience and brain science, and out of desire to assist the subject in future. Much of the history of modern philosophy, from Descartes and Kant forward, consists of failed models of brain. As Edward O. Wilson precisely said, the shortcoming is not the fault of the philosophers, who have doggedly pushed their methods to the limit, but a straightforward consequence of the biological evolution of the brain. Guiding that investigation down pathways that will illuminate brain research is a task of neuroscience and brain science. Investigating logical relations among concepts is a philosophical task. If we are to understand the neural structures and dynamics that make perception, thought, intentional behaviour possible, clarity about these concepts and categories and their relations is essential. Hence our joint venture of philosophy and science. Sure, it is human beings that perceives, not parts of its brain. And it is human beings that who think and reason, not their brain. But the brain and its activities make it possible for human beings-not for it-to perceive and think, to feel emotions, and to form and pursue projects. Thus We try to investigate and reveal the origin of thinking mind as follow: 1) The difference between chimpanzee and human beings 2) brain and mind 3) the origin of thinking 4) the wisdom of nature.

The Publicity of Reasons and the Requirement of Non-Interference (이유의 공지성과 방해하지 않음의 요구조건)

  • Sung, Changwon
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.117
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    • pp.113-136
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    • 2011
  • According to the thesis of the publicity of reasons, practical reasons are public in their nature: the normative force of reasons may extend across different agents. Wallace argues that the normative mode of public reasons can be exhausted by what he calls the requirement of non-interference. I argue that the publicity thesis as he presents it equally applies to both (non-special) interpersonal relations and special relationships. At first, Wallace's version of the publicity thesis may seem incompatible with the fact that there exists reasons of positive aid. He says that when these reasons obtain in the case of interpersonal relations, they are accommodated by relevant specific moral principles. I defend this claim by showing that there is a kind of internal relation between the publicity thesis and moral principles in question. It is true that the reasons of positive aid obtain in the case of special relationships as well. I show that in this case such reasons are grounded by the requirements of the given special relationships themselves. I argue that the logical consequence of these claims is what I call the dualistic conception of our practical reasoning about what to do and that this dualism does not raise a serious challenge to the publicity thesis. The overall arguments of this paper, I believe, make us to be "realistic" about the philosophical significance of the thesis in question in moral discourses.

The Approaches of Cultural Studies to Theatre -The Limits of Theory Application- (연극에 대한 문화연구적 접근 -'이론' 도입의 한계를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Yongn Soo
    • Journal of Korean Theatre Studies Association
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    • no.40
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    • pp.307-344
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    • 2010
  • Cultural Studies built on the critical mind of New Left exposes the relationship between culture and power, and investigates how this relationship develops the cultural convention. It has achieved the new perspective that could make us to think culture and art in terms of political correctness. However, the critical voices against the theoretical premises of Cultural Studies have been increased as its heyday in 1980s was nearly over. For instance, Terry Eagleton, a former Marxist literary critic, declared in 2003 that the golden age of cultural theory is long past. This essay, therefore, intends to show the weak foundations on which the approaches of cultural studies to theatre rest and to clarify the general problem of their introduction to theatre studies. The approach of cultural studies to theatre takes the form of 'top-down inquiry' as it applies a theory to a particular play or historical period. In other word, from the theory the writer moves to the particular case. The result is not an inquiry but rather a demonstration. This circularity can destroy the point of serious intellectual investigation as the theory dictates answers. The goal-oriented narrow viewpoint as a logical consequence of 'top-down inquiry' makes the researcher to favor the plays or the parts of a play that are proper to test a theory. As a result it loses the fair judgment on the artistic value of a play, and brings about the misinterpretation. The interpreter-oriented reading is the other defect of cultural studies as it disregards the inherent meaning of the text, distorting a play. The approach of cultural studies also consists of a conventionality as it arrives at a stereotyped interpretation by using certain conventions of reasoning and rhetoric. The cultural theories are fundamentally the 'outside theories' that seek to explain not theatre but the very broad features of society and politics. Consequently their application to theatre risks the destructive criticism, disregarding the inherent experience of theatre. Most of, if not all, cultural theories, furthermore, are proven to be lack of empirical basis. The alternative method to them is a 'cognitive science' that proves scientifically our mind being influenced by bodily experience. The application of cultural materialism to Shakespeare's is one of the cases that reveal the limits of cultural studies. Jonathan Dollimore and Water Cohen provide a kind of 'canonical study' in this application that is imitated by the succeeding researchers. As a result the interpretation of has been flooded with repetitive critical remarks, revealing the problem of 'top-down inquiry' and conventional reasoning. Cultural Studies is antipodal to theatre in some respect. It is interested chiefly in the social and political reality while theatre aims to create the fiction world. The theatre studies, therefore, may have to risk the danger of destroying its own base when it adopts cultural studies uncritically. The different stance between theatre and cultural theories also occurs from the opposition of humanism vs. antihumanism. We have to introduce cultural theories selectively and properly not to destroy the inherent experience and domain of theatre.