• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Logical consequence

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모형론적 귀결과 양상성 (Model-theoretic Consequence and Modality)

  • 최원배
    • 한국수학사학회지
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.21-36
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    • 2012
  • 모형론적 귀결 개념은 타르스키의 1936년 논문에 기원을 두고 있다고 보통 말한다. 하지만 에치멘디는 이를 부정한다. 이 논문은 1936년 논문에 나와 있는 타르스키의 정의가 과연 표준적인 모형론적 귀결 개념에서 받아들이는 것과는 다른 고정 도메인 견해에 기반을 둔 것인지 아니면 그것과 같은 가변 도메인 견해에 기반을 둔 것인지를 둘러싸고 전개된 논란을 다룬다.

모형론적 논리적 귀결과 논리상항 (Model-theoretic Conceptions of Logical Consequences and Logical Constants)

  • 박준용
    • 논리연구
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.71-109
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    • 2014
  • 셔어는 타르스키의 논리적 귀결 정의가 개념적으로나 외연적으로 적합한 설명이라고 믿는다. 셔어는 모스토프스키의 동형 구조 내의 불변적인 것으로서 일반화된 양화사 개념, 그리고 자신의 모형 이론에 근거해서 그 믿음을 정당화하려 하였다. 이 글에서 나는 타르스키의 정의를 정당화하려는 셔어의 시도는 반만 성공한 것임을 보이려 한다. 나는 논리적인 것이 동형 구조 내의 불변적인 것이라는 셔어의 생각은 논리적 귀결의 형식적 특징을 보이기에 충분하다는 점을 인정한다. 반면 나는 용어의 의미에 대한 셔어의 생각은 외연이 빈 술어의 문제를 제대로 다루기에는 아주 부적합해서, 결국 셔어는 논리적으로 필연적인 진리들과 그 밖의 진리들을 구별하는 데 실패하였다고 생각한다.

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아들러의 '논리적 결과'를 활용한 학급운영이 초등학생의 문제 행동 개선에 미치는 효과 (The effects of the class management with Adler's logical consequences on elementary children's problem behavior)

  • 남은미
    • 초등상담연구
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.135-163
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    • 2008
  • This study intends to confirm if it is effective in improving the problem behaviors by applying "Logical Consequence" suggested by Adler to the class management. The researcher who is in charge of the 4th grade class of elementary school in G city applied Adlerian logical consequence to her children, observed and examined the effectiveness of reducing the problem behaviors by the qualitative study method of in-depth interview from March to October. The problem behaviors treated in this study includes irrelevant remarks and gossip in school time, no preparation for taking lessons in time, no preparation of a textbook and a supply, no involvement in doing homework, scribbling and poor handwriting on a textbook, teasing a friend (abusive language, joking, violence), indoor running, no involvement in doing a task, being late and no arrangement of indoor shoes. In conclusion, this study indicated that the use of Logical Consequence was relatively effective in improving the problem behaviors and more effective in individual behaviors rather than group's behaviors. While the problem behaviors conducted in a class in the daily routine were effective at the point of the occurred problems, the problem behaviors occurred at the point of time related to a home or the finish of daily routine were ineffective.

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타르스키의 논리적 귀결 정의의 역사적 배경 (The Background of Tarski's Definition of Logical Consequence)

  • 박우석
    • 논리연구
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.33-70
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    • 2014
  • 그것이 지녀온 막강한 영향력에도 불구하고 우리는 타르스키류 논리적 귀결의 정의가 역사적/철학적으로 어떤 배경과 동기를 지닌 것인지를 알지 못하고 있다. 논리적 귀결 개념이 논리학과 논리철학의 핵심 개념이라는 점을 감안할 때, 이는 충격적이다. 그리고 이런 불만스러운 상황이 초래된 데에는 여러 가지 요인이 복합적으로 작용한 것으로 보인다. 분석철학과 현대 논리학의 역사에 관하여 최근 이루어진 성과는 고무적이다. 그러나 관련된 여러 논쟁들의 추이를 볼 때 불만을 해소하기까지는 상당한 세월이 요구되리라 예상된다. 이런 우울한 정황 속에서 극히 최근 더글라스 패터슨에 의해 수행된 타르스키의 언어철학 및 논리학 연구는 획기적인 업적으로 판명될 만한 잠재력을 지닌 것으로 여겨진다. [Patterson (2012)] 본 논문은 패터슨의 연구에서 미심쩍은 부분을 비판적으로 검토함으로써 이 문제 영역에서의 연구의 현주소와 후속 연구의 방향을 가늠해 보고자 한다.

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Logical Activity Recognition Model for Smart Home Environment

  • Choi, Jung-In;Lim, Sung-Ju;Yong, Hwan-Seung
    • 한국컴퓨터정보학회논문지
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2015
  • Recently, studies that interact with human and things through motion recognition are increasing due to the expansion of IoT(Internet of Things). This paper proposed the system that recognizes the user's logical activity in home environment by attaching some sensors to various objects. We employ Arduino sensors and appreciate the logical activity by using the physical activitymodel that we processed in the previous researches. In this System, we can cognize the activities such as watching TV, listening music, talking, eating, cooking, sleeping and using computer. After we produce experimental data through setting virtual scenario, then the average result of recognition rate was 95% but depending on experiment sensor situation and physical activity errors the consequence could be changed. To provide the recognized results to user, we visualized diverse graphs.

Korean EFL Learners' Cognitive Tendencies in Critical Reading of Argumentative Texts

  • Lee, Jong-Hee
    • 영어어문교육
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.107-125
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    • 2006
  • This article reports some Korean EFL learners' cognitive tendencies drawn up from their responses to logical fallacies in the argument passages, and its pedagogical implications. The findings of experimental study show the meaningful disparities in three sets of judgment tests designed to identify and explicate faulty arguments: based on the three general types of fallacies using language, emotions, and distraction tactics, subjects on average gained the highest scores in the test questions with language-loaded fallacies and the lowest scores in those with emotion-based ones among the three different types; for this reason, the scores that subjects obtained in the test of distraction-loaded fallacious arguments fell in between the two poles. These discrepancies, mainly based on statistical inferences, support the possibility that the Korean EFL learners are most likely to be manipulated by emotions/distraction- loaded argument tactics than by language-based ones in the three types of fallacious arguments; and, they are least likely to be influenced by language-oriented trickeries. As a consequence, such variances in abilities to recognize the intrinsic elements of logical fallacies suggest some basic instructional approaches to critical reading of argumentative texts with due weights on the Korean EFL learners' culture-specific cognitive tendencies.

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서술어의 논항 구조와 의미적 특성에 관한 연구 (Argument Structures of Predicates and Their Semantic Aspects in Korean.)

  • 이영헌
    • 한국언어정보학회지:언어와정보
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.155-183
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this paper is to explore the syntactic criteria for determining a secondary predicates as a predicate modifier or a conjunction, and to formalize the semantic aspects of the [-ke] structure as a predicate in Korean. Syntactically, the [-ke] structure is considered to be a secondary predicate when the shared arguments appear in both the [-ke] structure and the main verb structure. On the other hand, if they do not appear in both structures, the [-ke] structure is considered to be a connective element. Semantically the [-ke] structure has numerous aspects such as depictives, resultatives, objectivity, and emphasis. The depictives of the secondary predicate can be formalize as $p{\wedge}q$ where p represents a propositional expression of the secondary predicate and q is a propositional expression of the main verb. Resultatives have the logical form $q{\rightarrow}{\Box}p$, because the consequence has to always be true. However, objectivity has the logical form $q{\rightarrow}{\diamondsuit}p$, because the consequence can be either true or false. Emphasis is represented as $q{\rightarrow}p{\uparrow}$ because the secondary predicate represents the polarity of the event.

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사고 영향 분석을 이용한 성능위주의 내화설계 (Performance Based Design of Passive Fire Protection Using Consequence Analysis)

  • 한동훈;이종호
    • 한국안전학회지
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2004
  • Performance based design is a recent evolutionary step in the process of designing fire protection systems. In essence, it is a logical design process resulting in a solution that achieves a specified performance. Sometimes the prescriptive solutions presented in various codes and standards are too expensive or inflexible. Often the solutions do not and enables optimization of a solution for cost and function. In this study, performance based design was carried out to determine the extent of passive fire protection for oil terminal facilities. The results of performance based design were compared with those of prescriptive code based design. Performance based design is not always more economic than prescriptive code based design but provides more reliable and effective design that is fit for the purpose.

The Indefinite Description Analysis of Belief Ascription Sentences: A Trouble with the Analysis\ulcorner

  • Sunwoo, Hwan
    • 인문언어
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.301-319
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    • 2002
  • In a recent paper, I have proposed an analysis concerning propositions and 'that'-clauses as a solution to Kripke's puzzle and other similar puzzles, which I now call 'the Indefinite Description Analysis of Belief Ascription Sentences.' I have listed some of the major advantages of this analysis besides its merit as a solution to the puzzles: it is amenable to the direct-reference theory of proper names; it does not nevertheless need to introduce Russellian (singular) propositions or any other new entities. David Lewis has constructed an interesting argument to refute this analysis. His argument seems to show that my analysis has an unwelcome consequence: if someone believes any proposition, then he or she should, ipso facto, believe any necessary (mathematical or logical) proposition (such as the proposition that 1 succeeds 0). In this paper, I argue that Lewis's argument does not pose a real threat to my analysis. All his argument shows is that we should not accept the assumption called 'the equivalence thesis': if two sentences are equivalent, then they express the same proposition. I argue that this thesis is already in trouble for independent reasons. Especially, I argue that if we accept the equivalence thesis then, even without my analysis, we can derive a sentence like 'Fred believes that 1 succeeds 0 and snow is white' from a sentence like 'Fred believes that snow is white.' The consequence mentioned above is not worse than this consequence.

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한국어 퍼지 언어변수를 이용한 리스크 평가의 논리적 일관성 (Logical Consistency in Risk Assessment using the Korean Fuzzy Linguistic Variables)

  • 임현교;변상훈
    • 한국안전학회지
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2016
  • Usually, a risk can be expressed as a product of likelihood and consequence of a hazard factor. Therefore, conventional risk assessment is carried out by frequency analysis and severity analysis, in turns. However, it is well known that intuitive thinking is another excellent way of thinking of human beings. This study aimed to confirm whether there exist any difference in risk assessment results derived by two different procedures - intuitive and analytical. Thus, the present study showed 10 different illustrations to 30 undergraduate students. Their responses were organized as fuzzy membership functions, and summarized as risk assessments, and compared. The results were also verified with the help of statistical hypothesis testing, which showed no significant difference. On the contrary, however, similarity measure used in fuzzy set theory was not credible as anticipated. Many cases failed to satisfy statistical hypothesis even with similarity measure higher than 0.60 so that only a trend could be accepted. In addition, a subject showed a somewhat consistent logical discrepancy in his response, which implied the necessity of sincere analysis in fuzzy formulations.