• Title, Summary, Keyword: Logical Consequence

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Model-theoretic Consequence and Modality (모형론적 귀결과 양상성)

  • Choi, Wonbae
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.21-36
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    • 2012
  • It is commonly believed that the model-theoretic account of logical consequence is originated from Tarski' s 1936 paper. But Etchemendy has denied this. This paper discusses and evaluates the recent controversies over whether the definition of logical consequence presented in Tarski' s paper is based on the fixed-domain conception or the variable-domain conception.

Model-theoretic Conceptions of Logical Consequences and Logical Constants (모형론적 논리적 귀결과 논리상항)

  • Park, Jun-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.71-109
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    • 2014
  • Gila Sher believes that Tarskian definition of logical consequence is a conceptually and extensionally adequate explanation. She has tried to show this on the basis of Mostowskian conceptions of generalized quantifiers as being invariant under isomorphic structures and her own conceptions of models. In this paper I try to show that her attempt to justify the Tarskian definition is only partially successful. I admit that her conceptions of the logical as being invariant under isomorphic structures are enough to show the logical formality of logical consequence relations. But I think that since her conceptions of meanings of terms are quite inadequate for dealing with the problem of empty predicates, she fails to distinguish logically necessary truths from other kinds of truths.

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The effects of the class management with Adler's logical consequences on elementary children's problem behavior (아들러의 '논리적 결과'를 활용한 학급운영이 초등학생의 문제 행동 개선에 미치는 효과)

  • Nam, Eun-Mi
    • The Korean Journal of Elementary Counseling
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.135-163
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    • 2008
  • This study intends to confirm if it is effective in improving the problem behaviors by applying "Logical Consequence" suggested by Adler to the class management. The researcher who is in charge of the 4th grade class of elementary school in G city applied Adlerian logical consequence to her children, observed and examined the effectiveness of reducing the problem behaviors by the qualitative study method of in-depth interview from March to October. The problem behaviors treated in this study includes irrelevant remarks and gossip in school time, no preparation for taking lessons in time, no preparation of a textbook and a supply, no involvement in doing homework, scribbling and poor handwriting on a textbook, teasing a friend (abusive language, joking, violence), indoor running, no involvement in doing a task, being late and no arrangement of indoor shoes. In conclusion, this study indicated that the use of Logical Consequence was relatively effective in improving the problem behaviors and more effective in individual behaviors rather than group's behaviors. While the problem behaviors conducted in a class in the daily routine were effective at the point of the occurred problems, the problem behaviors occurred at the point of time related to a home or the finish of daily routine were ineffective.

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The Background of Tarski's Definition of Logical Consequence (타르스키의 논리적 귀결 정의의 역사적 배경)

  • Park, Woosuk
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.33-70
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    • 2014
  • We still do not know against what histocial/philosophical background and motivation was Tarski's definition of logical consequence introduced, even if it has had such a strong influence. In view of the centrality of the notion of logical consequence in logic and philosophy of logic, it is rather shocking. There must be various intertwined reasons to blame for this uncomfortable situation. There has been remarkable progress achieved recently on the history of analytic philosophy and modern logic. In view of the recent developments of the controversies involved, however, we will have to wait years to resolve all this uneasiness. In this gloomy situation, Douglas Patterson's recent study of Tarski's philosophy of language and logic seems to have the potential to turn out to be a ground breaking achievement. [Patterson (2012)] This article aims at reporting the state-of-the-art in this problem area, and fathoming the future directions of research by examining critically some unclear components of Patterson's study.

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Logical Activity Recognition Model for Smart Home Environment

  • Choi, Jung-In;Lim, Sung-Ju;Yong, Hwan-Seung
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2015
  • Recently, studies that interact with human and things through motion recognition are increasing due to the expansion of IoT(Internet of Things). This paper proposed the system that recognizes the user's logical activity in home environment by attaching some sensors to various objects. We employ Arduino sensors and appreciate the logical activity by using the physical activitymodel that we processed in the previous researches. In this System, we can cognize the activities such as watching TV, listening music, talking, eating, cooking, sleeping and using computer. After we produce experimental data through setting virtual scenario, then the average result of recognition rate was 95% but depending on experiment sensor situation and physical activity errors the consequence could be changed. To provide the recognized results to user, we visualized diverse graphs.

Korean EFL Learners' Cognitive Tendencies in Critical Reading of Argumentative Texts

  • Lee, Jong-Hee
    • English Language & Literature Teaching
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.107-125
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    • 2006
  • This article reports some Korean EFL learners' cognitive tendencies drawn up from their responses to logical fallacies in the argument passages, and its pedagogical implications. The findings of experimental study show the meaningful disparities in three sets of judgment tests designed to identify and explicate faulty arguments: based on the three general types of fallacies using language, emotions, and distraction tactics, subjects on average gained the highest scores in the test questions with language-loaded fallacies and the lowest scores in those with emotion-based ones among the three different types; for this reason, the scores that subjects obtained in the test of distraction-loaded fallacious arguments fell in between the two poles. These discrepancies, mainly based on statistical inferences, support the possibility that the Korean EFL learners are most likely to be manipulated by emotions/distraction- loaded argument tactics than by language-based ones in the three types of fallacious arguments; and, they are least likely to be influenced by language-oriented trickeries. As a consequence, such variances in abilities to recognize the intrinsic elements of logical fallacies suggest some basic instructional approaches to critical reading of argumentative texts with due weights on the Korean EFL learners' culture-specific cognitive tendencies.

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Argument Structures of Predicates and Their Semantic Aspects in Korean. (서술어의 논항 구조와 의미적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Young-Hern
    • Language and Information
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.155-183
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this paper is to explore the syntactic criteria for determining a secondary predicates as a predicate modifier or a conjunction, and to formalize the semantic aspects of the [-ke] structure as a predicate in Korean. Syntactically, the [-ke] structure is considered to be a secondary predicate when the shared arguments appear in both the [-ke] structure and the main verb structure. On the other hand, if they do not appear in both structures, the [-ke] structure is considered to be a connective element. Semantically the [-ke] structure has numerous aspects such as depictives, resultatives, objectivity, and emphasis. The depictives of the secondary predicate can be formalize as $p{\wedge}q$ where p represents a propositional expression of the secondary predicate and q is a propositional expression of the main verb. Resultatives have the logical form $q{\rightarrow}{\Box}p$, because the consequence has to always be true. However, objectivity has the logical form $q{\rightarrow}{\diamondsuit}p$, because the consequence can be either true or false. Emphasis is represented as $q{\rightarrow}p{\uparrow}$ because the secondary predicate represents the polarity of the event.

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Performance Based Design of Passive Fire Protection Using Consequence Analysis (사고 영향 분석을 이용한 성능위주의 내화설계)

  • Han, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2004
  • Performance based design is a recent evolutionary step in the process of designing fire protection systems. In essence, it is a logical design process resulting in a solution that achieves a specified performance. Sometimes the prescriptive solutions presented in various codes and standards are too expensive or inflexible. Often the solutions do not and enables optimization of a solution for cost and function. In this study, performance based design was carried out to determine the extent of passive fire protection for oil terminal facilities. The results of performance based design were compared with those of prescriptive code based design. Performance based design is not always more economic than prescriptive code based design but provides more reliable and effective design that is fit for the purpose.

The Indefinite Description Analysis of Belief Ascription Sentences: A Trouble with the Analysis\ulcorner

  • Sunwoo, Hwan
    • Lingua Humanitatis
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.301-319
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    • 2002
  • In a recent paper, I have proposed an analysis concerning propositions and 'that'-clauses as a solution to Kripke's puzzle and other similar puzzles, which I now call 'the Indefinite Description Analysis of Belief Ascription Sentences.' I have listed some of the major advantages of this analysis besides its merit as a solution to the puzzles: it is amenable to the direct-reference theory of proper names; it does not nevertheless need to introduce Russellian (singular) propositions or any other new entities. David Lewis has constructed an interesting argument to refute this analysis. His argument seems to show that my analysis has an unwelcome consequence: if someone believes any proposition, then he or she should, ipso facto, believe any necessary (mathematical or logical) proposition (such as the proposition that 1 succeeds 0). In this paper, I argue that Lewis's argument does not pose a real threat to my analysis. All his argument shows is that we should not accept the assumption called 'the equivalence thesis': if two sentences are equivalent, then they express the same proposition. I argue that this thesis is already in trouble for independent reasons. Especially, I argue that if we accept the equivalence thesis then, even without my analysis, we can derive a sentence like 'Fred believes that 1 succeeds 0 and snow is white' from a sentence like 'Fred believes that snow is white.' The consequence mentioned above is not worse than this consequence.

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Logical Consistency in Risk Assessment using the Korean Fuzzy Linguistic Variables (한국어 퍼지 언어변수를 이용한 리스크 평가의 논리적 일관성)

  • Lim, Hyeon-Kyo;Byun, Sanghun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Safety
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.120-125
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    • 2016
  • Usually, a risk can be expressed as a product of likelihood and consequence of a hazard factor. Therefore, conventional risk assessment is carried out by frequency analysis and severity analysis, in turns. However, it is well known that intuitive thinking is another excellent way of thinking of human beings. This study aimed to confirm whether there exist any difference in risk assessment results derived by two different procedures - intuitive and analytical. Thus, the present study showed 10 different illustrations to 30 undergraduate students. Their responses were organized as fuzzy membership functions, and summarized as risk assessments, and compared. The results were also verified with the help of statistical hypothesis testing, which showed no significant difference. On the contrary, however, similarity measure used in fuzzy set theory was not credible as anticipated. Many cases failed to satisfy statistical hypothesis even with similarity measure higher than 0.60 so that only a trend could be accepted. In addition, a subject showed a somewhat consistent logical discrepancy in his response, which implied the necessity of sincere analysis in fuzzy formulations.