• Title, Summary, Keyword: Locally advanced breast cancer

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Locally Advanced Breast Cancer in Jamaica: Prevalence, Disease Characteristics and Response to Preoperative Therapy

  • Chin, Sheray Nicole;Green, Cheryl May Antoinette;Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana Marie;Wharfe, Gilian Helen Frances
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3323-3326
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    • 2014
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Jamaican women. Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is associated with aggressive biology and poor prognosis, and has a predilection for African-American women. In this retrospective review, we assessed the prevalence of LABC as a breast cancer presentation in a population of mainly Afro-centric ethnicity, and determined disease characteristics and response to pre-operative chemotherapy. LABC was prevalent (20%), and had a low pathological response rate to pre-operative chemotherapy, with a high risk of disease recurrence. Increased utilization of breast cancer screening may help detect cancer at less advanced stages, and optimizing pre-operative chemotherapy is recommended to improve response rates and ultimately survival.

Expression of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) as a Predictor of Poor Pathologic Response to Chemotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Prajoko, Yan Wisnu;Aryandono, Teguh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.595-598
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    • 2014
  • Background: NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibits apoptosis through induction of antiapoptotic proteins and suppression of proapoptotic genes. Various chemotherapy agents induce NF-${\kappa}B$ translocation and target gene activation. We conducted the present study to assess the predictive value of NF-${\kappa}B$ regarding pathologic responses after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 131 patients with locally advanced invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect NF-${\kappa}B$ expression. Evaluation of pathologic response was elaborated with the Ribero classification. Results: Expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ was significantly associated with poor pathological response (p=0.02). From the multivariate analysis, it was found that the positive expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ yielded RR=1.74 (95%CI 0.77 to 3.94). Conclusions: NF-${\kappa}B$ can be used as a predictor of poor pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

Eight Year Survival Analysis of Patients with Triple Negative Breast Cancer in India

  • Doval, Dinesh Chandra;Suresh, P;Sinha, Rupal;Azam, Saud;Batra, Ullas;Talwar, Vineet;Kumar, Kapil;Mehta, Anurag
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2995-2999
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    • 2016
  • Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) often presents as an interval cancer with short survival upon metastasis and thus represents an important clinical challenge. The present study investigated the clinicopathologic characteristics and long term survival outcome of early and locally advanced TNBC. Materials and Methods: Medical records were reviewed retrospectively for 148 consecutive confirmed cases of TNBC treated in a single unit at our centre. Demographic profile, tumor type, histopathology details, treatment and follow-up information was recorded and immunohistochemistry was performed. Results: Age group >50 years was associated with tumors of clinical stage 3 (53.8%), pathological stage 3 (46.2%), pathological grade 3 (45.7%), presence of extracapsular extension (ECE, 48.5%) and lymphovascular invasion (LVI, 64.9%). Locally advanced breast cancers (LABCs) were characterized by pathological stage 3 (96.2%), presence of ECE (100%) and absence of LVI (46.7%) as compared to early breast cancers (EBCs) which had higher incidence of lower stage tumors (100%), absence of ECE (82%) and presence of LVI (91.9%; p-value <0.001. Better relapse free survival was observed in patients with no axillary involvement (69%; p-value <0.001) and absence of ECE (64%; p-value <0.001). Improved overall survival was seen in patients with EBC (90%; p-value 0.008), clear axilla (86%; p-value <0.001), absence of ECE (87%; p-value <0.001) and negative lymph nodes (90%; p-value 0.006). Conclusions: TNBCs are aggressive tumors which show poor long term survival. Patients with TNBC benefit from chemotherapy, thus better and less toxic treatment options are needed. Identification of newer targets and development of targeted therapies are the need of the hour.

A Multicenter Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Docetaxel and Gemcitabine in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Jeon, Ye Won;Kim, Tae Hyun;Youn, Hyun Jo;Han, Sehwan;Jung, Yongsik;Gwak, Geumhee;Park, Young Sam;Kim, Jeong Soo;Suh, Young Jin
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.340-346
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The current multicenter phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer. Methods: A total of 98 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were enrolled. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR) rate of invasive cancer after the completion of the fourth cycle of NAC. The secondary endpoints included response rate (RR), rate of breast-conserving surgery, toxicity, and disease-free survival (DFS). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01352494). Results: pCR in the breast and the axillary lymph node was observed in seven of the 98 enrolled patients (7.1%). The overall clinical RR, including partial responses, was 65.3%. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in 75 of the 98 assessable patients (76.5%). Neutropenia was frequent and was observed in 92 of the 98 patients (93.9%), including grade 3 and 4 in 24 patients (24.5%) and 63 patients (64.3%), respectively. Dose reductions were required for 30 of the 92 patients (32.6%). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the overall DFS of the group was 86.7%. Conclusion: The combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine did not improve pCR. However, this regimen has shown potential as a NAC by producing a reasonable rate of breast-conserving surgery and favorable responses in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The therapeutic efficacy of this regimen will be determined in additional trials to overcome the limitations of the current study.

Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients Using Cytokeratin-19 Real-Time RT-PCR

  • Park, Hyung Seok;Han, Hyun Ju;Lee, Soohyeon;Kim, Gun Min;Park, Seho;Choi, Yeon A;Lee, Jeong Dong;Kim, Gi Moon;Sohn, Joohyuk;Kim, Seung Il
    • Yonsei Medical Journal
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The roles of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as predictive and prognostic factors, as well as key mediators in the metastatic cascade, have been investigated. This study aimed to validate a method to quantify CTCs in peripheral blood using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for cytokeratin (CK)-19 and to evaluate the utility of this assay in detecting CTCs in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Real-time monitoring PCR of fluorescently labeled specific hybridization probes for CK-19 mRNA was established. Peripheral blood samples from 30 healthy donors, 69 patients with early breast cancer, 47 patients with locally advanced breast cancer, and 126 patients with metastatic breast cancer were prospectively obtained and analyzed for CTC detection. Results: CK-19 mRNA was not detectable in healthy subjects using the real-time RT-PCR method. The detection rates of CK-19 mRNA in breast cancer patients were 47.8% for early breast cancer (33/69), 46.8% for locally advanced breast cancer (22/47), and 61.1% for metastatic breast cancer (77/129). The detection rate of CK-19-positive CTCs in metastatic disease was slightly higher than early or locally advanced breast cancer; however, the detection rate according to disease burden was not statistically different (p=0.097). The detection rate was higher in patients with pleural metastasis (p=0.045). CTC detection was associated with poor survival (p=0.014). Conclusion: A highly specific and sensitive CK-19 mRNA-based method to detect CTCs in peripheral blood in breast cancer patients can be used in further prospective studies to evaluate the predictive and prognostic importance of CTCs.

Mean Platelet Volume as an Independent Predictive Marker for Pathologic Complete Response after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Mutlu, Hasan;Eryilmaz, Melek Karakurt;Musri, Fatma Yalccn;Gunduz, Seyda;Salim, Derya Kivrak;Coskun, Hasan Senol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2089-2092
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    • 2016
  • Background: The impact of mean platelet volume (MPV) on prognosis, diagnosis and response to therapy in cancer patients has been widely investigated. In the present study, we evaluated whether MPV at diagnosis has predictive value for pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Materials and Methods: A total of 109 patients with LABC from Akdeniz University and Antalya Research and Training Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. Results: ROC curve analysis suggested that the optimum MPV cut-off point for LABC patients with pCR (+) was 8.15 (AUC:0.378, 95%CI [0.256-0.499], p=0.077). The patients with MPV <8.15 had higher pCR rates (29.2% vs. 13.1%, p=0.038). After binary logistic regression analysis, MPV and estrogen receptor absence were independent predictors for pCR. Conclusions: MPV has an independent predictive value for pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with LABC.

The Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio has a High Negative Predictive Value for Pathologic Complete Response in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

  • Eryilmaz, Melek Karakurt;Mutlu, Hasan;Salim, Derya Kivrak;Musri, Fatma Yalcin;Tural, Deniz;Coskun, Hasan Senol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7737-7740
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    • 2014
  • Background: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with pancreatic, colorectal, lung, gastric cancer and renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between pathological complete response (pCR) and pretreatment NLR values in locally advanced breast cancer (BC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Materials and Methods: Datawere collected retrospectively from the Akdeniz University School of Medicine Database for locally advanced BC patients treated with NACT between January 2000-December 2013. Results: A total of 78 patients were analyzed. Sixteen (20%) patients achieved pCR. Estrogen receptor (ER) positivity was lower in pCR+ than pCR-cases (p=0.011). The median NLR values were similar in both arms. The optimum NLR cut-off point for BC patients with PCR+ was 2.33 (AUC:0.544, 95%CI [0.401-0.688], p=0.586) with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) of 50%, 51,6%, 21,1%, and 80%, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed no relationship between the pCR and pretreatment NLR values. Because of a considerable high NPV, in the patients with higher NLR who had luminal type BC in which pCR is lower after NACT, such treatment may not be recommended.

Study of Pemetrexed-based Chemotherapy for Patients with Locally Advanced or Metastatic Cancers

  • Qian, Ting;Huang, Xin-En
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4791-4795
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to observe the efficacy and safety of pemetrexed based chemotherapy in treating patients with locally advanced or metastatic cancers as first-line, second-line or third-line therapy. Materials and Methods: From May 2011 to January 2015, we recruited 29 patients with advanced breast cancer, 19 patients with advanced ovary cancer, 17 patients with advanced esophageal cancer,5 patients with advanced gallbladder cancer,5 patients with advanced cervical cancer and 1 patient with advanced tongue cancer in Jiangsu Cancer Hospital and Research Institute.All of them were pathologically confirmed and treated with pemetrexed based chemotherapy. After two cycles of treatment,efficacy and safety can be evaluated. Results: For pemetrexed based regimens,including 76 patients with 6 kinds of advanced cancer were considered eligible for inclusion. Complete remission represents CR, partial remission represents PR, stable disease represents SD, progressive disease represents PD. Among 29 patients with advanced breast cancer, 4 patients chose pemetrexed based regimens as second-line treatment,1 of them was PR,the other 3 got SD. The last 25 patients made use of this chemotherapy as third-line treatment, except one patient could not be assessed, 2 of them got PR,6 of them got SD,the remaining 16 of them finally were PD.19 patients with advanced ovary cancer,5 patients used this regimens as second-line treatment, 3 of them got PD,the remaining patients got SD, respectively. The last 14 patients made use of pemetrexed based regimens as third-line treatment,. RR (CR+PR) was 28.5%. Among 17 patients with advanced esophageal cancer, 2 patients made use of pemetrexed based regimens as first-line treatment,both of them got PR.4 of them used this chemotherapy as second-line regimen, except 2 patients could not be assessed,the remaining 2 was PD at last. The last 11 patients was third-line users, RR (CR+PR) was 18.2%. Among 5 patients with advanced gallbladder cancer, pemetrexed based regimens was used in 1 patient as first-line treatment and 1 patient as second-line treatment. The curative effect was SD and PD, respectively. 3 patients accepted pemetrexed based regimens as third-line treatment, 2 of them got PD as results and another was SD. Among 5 patients with advanced cervical cancer, just 1 patient adopted pemetrexed based regimens as first-line treatment, whose curative effect was PR.2 patients chose this chemotherapy regimens as second-line treatment. Both of them got PD as their consequence. The last 2 patients made use of the regimens as third-line treatment, the effect of them was PD and SD, respectively. The one who with advanced tongue cancer, pemetrexed based regimens was used as second-line treatment, and the consequence was PD. About 71.1% patients experienced bone marrow suppression. Among them, 5 patients reached 4 grade. Other toxicity of pemetrexed were neurotoxicity, fatigue, diarrhea, dysphagia and vomiting. No treatment related death occurred with pemetrexed-based treatment. Conclusions: Pemetrexed based chemotherapy has considerable effect in patients with advanced cancers such as breast cancer,esophageal cancer and ovary cancer. More randomly clinical trials are needed to verify the results.

Using Local Flaps in a Chest Wall Reconstruction after Mastectomy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Park, Joo Seok;Ahn, Sei Hyun;Son, Byung Ho;Kim, Eun Key
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.288-294
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    • 2015
  • Background Surgical ablation for locally advanced breast cancer results in large chest wall defects, which can then be managed with local flaps or skin grafts. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the outcomes of three types of local skin flaps. Methods Among 25 local flaps in 24 patients, 6 were bilateral advancement (BA) flaps, 9 were thoracoabdominal (TA) flaps, and 10 were thoracoepigastric (TE) flaps. Clinical outcomes were compared including complications, the need for a secondary surgical intervention, and the timing of adjuvant therapy. Results The mean defect size was $436.2cm^2$. Two patients with TA flaps and 6 patients with TE flaps developed distal flap necrosis, and skin grafts were needed to treat 2 patients with TE flaps. Radiation was administered to the BA, TA, and TE patients after average postoperative durations of 28, 30, or 41 days, respectively. The incidence of flap necrosis tended to be higher in TE patients, which lead to significant delays in adjuvant radiation therapy (P=0.02). Conclusions Three types of local skin flaps can be used to treat large chest wall defects after the excision of locally advanced breast cancer. Each flap has its own merits and demerits, and selecting flaps should be based on strict indications based on the dimensions and locations of the defects.

Serum Tumor Marker Levels might have Little Significance in Evaluating Neoadjuvant Treatment Response in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Wang, Yu-Jie;Huang, Xiao-Yan;Mo, Miao;Li, Jian-Wei;Jia, Xiao-Qing;Shao, Zhi-Min;Shen, Zhen-Zhou;Wu, Jiong;Liu, Guang-Yu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4603-4608
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    • 2015
  • Background: To determine the potential value of serum tumor markers in predicting pCR (pathological complete response) during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively monitored the pro-, mid-, and post-neoadjuvant treatment serum tumor marker concentrations in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (stage II-III) who accepted pre-surgical chemotherapy or chemotherapy in combination with targeted therapy at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between September 2011 and January 2014 and investigated the association of serum tumor marker levels with therapeutic effect. Core needle biopsy samples were assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) prior to neoadjuvant treatment to determine hormone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2), and proliferation index Ki67 values. In our study, therapeutic response was evaluated by pCR, defined as the disappearance of all invasive cancer cells from excised tissue (including primary lesion and axillary lymph nodes) after completion of chemotherapy. Analysis of variance of repeated measures and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were employed for statistical analysis of the data. Results: A total of 348 patients were recruited in our study after excluding patients with incomplete clinical information. Of these, 106 patients were observed to have acquired pCR status after treatment completion, accounting for approximately 30.5% of study individuals. In addition, 147patients were determined to be Her-2 positive, among whom the pCR rate was 45.6% (69 patients). General linear model analysis (repeated measures analysis of variance) showed that the concentration of cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 increased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in both pCR and non-pCR groups, and that there were significant differences between the two groups (P=0.008). The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) of pre-, mid-, and post-treatment CA15-3 concentrations demonstrated low-level predictive value (AUC=0.594, 0.644, 0.621, respectively). No significant differences in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or CA12-5 serum levels were observed between the pCR and non-pCR groups (P=0.196 and 0.693, respectively). No efficient AUC of CEA or CA12-5 concentrations were observed to predict patient response toward neoadjuvant treatment (both less than 0.7), nor were differences between the two groups observed at different time points. We then analyzed the Her-2 positive subset of our cohort. Significant differences in CEA concentrations were identified between the pCR and non-pCR groups (P=0.039), but not in CA15-3 or CA12-5 levels (p=0.092 and 0.89, respectively). None of the ROC curves showed underlying prognostic value, as the AUCs of these three markers were less than 0.7. The ROC-AUCs for the CA12-5 concentrations of inter-and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the estrogen receptor negative HER2 positive subgroup were 0.735 and 0.767, respectively. However, the specificity and sensitivity values were at odds with each other which meant that improving either the sensitivity or specificity would impair the efficiency of the other. Conclusions: Serum tumor markers CA15-3, CA12-5, and CEA might have little clinical significance in predicting neoadjuvant treatment response in locally advanced breast cancer.