• Title/Summary/Keyword: Locally advanced breast cancer

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Locally Advanced Breast Cancer in Jamaica: Prevalence, Disease Characteristics and Response to Preoperative Therapy

  • Chin, Sheray Nicole;Green, Cheryl May Antoinette;Gordon-Strachan, Georgiana Marie;Wharfe, Gilian Helen Frances
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.3323-3326
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    • 2014
  • Breast cancer is the most common cancer in Jamaican women. Locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is associated with aggressive biology and poor prognosis, and has a predilection for African-American women. In this retrospective review, we assessed the prevalence of LABC as a breast cancer presentation in a population of mainly Afro-centric ethnicity, and determined disease characteristics and response to pre-operative chemotherapy. LABC was prevalent (20%), and had a low pathological response rate to pre-operative chemotherapy, with a high risk of disease recurrence. Increased utilization of breast cancer screening may help detect cancer at less advanced stages, and optimizing pre-operative chemotherapy is recommended to improve response rates and ultimately survival.

Expression of Nuclear Factor Kappa B (NF-κB) as a Predictor of Poor Pathologic Response to Chemotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Prajoko, Yan Wisnu;Aryandono, Teguh
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.595-598
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    • 2014
  • Background: NF-${\kappa}B$ inhibits apoptosis through induction of antiapoptotic proteins and suppression of proapoptotic genes. Various chemotherapy agents induce NF-${\kappa}B$ translocation and target gene activation. We conducted the present study to assess the predictive value of NF-${\kappa}B$ regarding pathologic responses after receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 131 patients with locally advanced invasive ductal breast carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was used to detect NF-${\kappa}B$ expression. Evaluation of pathologic response was elaborated with the Ribero classification. Results: Expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ was significantly associated with poor pathological response (p=0.02). From the multivariate analysis, it was found that the positive expression of NF-${\kappa}B$ yielded RR=1.74 (95%CI 0.77 to 3.94). Conclusions: NF-${\kappa}B$ can be used as a predictor of poor pathological response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

A Multicenter Phase II Trial of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy with Docetaxel and Gemcitabine in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Jeon, Ye Won;Kim, Tae Hyun;Youn, Hyun Jo;Han, Sehwan;Jung, Yongsik;Gwak, Geumhee;Park, Young Sam;Kim, Jeong Soo;Suh, Young Jin
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.340-346
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The current multicenter phase II study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine as neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for locally advanced breast cancer. Methods: A total of 98 patients with stage II-III breast cancer were enrolled. The primary endpoint was pathological complete response (pCR) rate of invasive cancer after the completion of the fourth cycle of NAC. The secondary endpoints included response rate (RR), rate of breast-conserving surgery, toxicity, and disease-free survival (DFS). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01352494). Results: pCR in the breast and the axillary lymph node was observed in seven of the 98 enrolled patients (7.1%). The overall clinical RR, including partial responses, was 65.3%. Breast-conserving surgery was performed in 75 of the 98 assessable patients (76.5%). Neutropenia was frequent and was observed in 92 of the 98 patients (93.9%), including grade 3 and 4 in 24 patients (24.5%) and 63 patients (64.3%), respectively. Dose reductions were required for 30 of the 92 patients (32.6%). After a median follow-up of 24 months, the overall DFS of the group was 86.7%. Conclusion: The combination of docetaxel and gemcitabine did not improve pCR. However, this regimen has shown potential as a NAC by producing a reasonable rate of breast-conserving surgery and favorable responses in patients with locally advanced breast cancer. The therapeutic efficacy of this regimen will be determined in additional trials to overcome the limitations of the current study.

Using Local Flaps in a Chest Wall Reconstruction after Mastectomy for Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Park, Joo Seok;Ahn, Sei Hyun;Son, Byung Ho;Kim, Eun Key
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.288-294
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    • 2015
  • Background Surgical ablation for locally advanced breast cancer results in large chest wall defects, which can then be managed with local flaps or skin grafts. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the outcomes of three types of local skin flaps. Methods Among 25 local flaps in 24 patients, 6 were bilateral advancement (BA) flaps, 9 were thoracoabdominal (TA) flaps, and 10 were thoracoepigastric (TE) flaps. Clinical outcomes were compared including complications, the need for a secondary surgical intervention, and the timing of adjuvant therapy. Results The mean defect size was $436.2cm^2$. Two patients with TA flaps and 6 patients with TE flaps developed distal flap necrosis, and skin grafts were needed to treat 2 patients with TE flaps. Radiation was administered to the BA, TA, and TE patients after average postoperative durations of 28, 30, or 41 days, respectively. The incidence of flap necrosis tended to be higher in TE patients, which lead to significant delays in adjuvant radiation therapy (P=0.02). Conclusions Three types of local skin flaps can be used to treat large chest wall defects after the excision of locally advanced breast cancer. Each flap has its own merits and demerits, and selecting flaps should be based on strict indications based on the dimensions and locations of the defects.

Mean Platelet Volume as an Independent Predictive Marker for Pathologic Complete Response after Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Mutlu, Hasan;Eryilmaz, Melek Karakurt;Musri, Fatma Yalccn;Gunduz, Seyda;Salim, Derya Kivrak;Coskun, Hasan Senol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.2089-2092
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    • 2016
  • Background: The impact of mean platelet volume (MPV) on prognosis, diagnosis and response to therapy in cancer patients has been widely investigated. In the present study, we evaluated whether MPV at diagnosis has predictive value for pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Materials and Methods: A total of 109 patients with LABC from Akdeniz University and Antalya Research and Training Hospital were evaluated retrospectively. Results: ROC curve analysis suggested that the optimum MPV cut-off point for LABC patients with pCR (+) was 8.15 (AUC:0.378, 95%CI [0.256-0.499], p=0.077). The patients with MPV <8.15 had higher pCR rates (29.2% vs. 13.1%, p=0.038). After binary logistic regression analysis, MPV and estrogen receptor absence were independent predictors for pCR. Conclusions: MPV has an independent predictive value for pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with LABC.

Detection of Circulating Tumor Cells in Breast Cancer Patients Using Cytokeratin-19 Real-Time RT-PCR

  • Park, Hyung Seok;Han, Hyun Ju;Lee, Soohyeon;Kim, Gun Min;Park, Seho;Choi, Yeon A;Lee, Jeong Dong;Kim, Gi Moon;Sohn, Joohyuk;Kim, Seung Il
    • Yonsei Medical Journal
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.19-26
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: The roles of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) as predictive and prognostic factors, as well as key mediators in the metastatic cascade, have been investigated. This study aimed to validate a method to quantify CTCs in peripheral blood using a real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay for cytokeratin (CK)-19 and to evaluate the utility of this assay in detecting CTCs in breast cancer patients. Materials and Methods: Real-time monitoring PCR of fluorescently labeled specific hybridization probes for CK-19 mRNA was established. Peripheral blood samples from 30 healthy donors, 69 patients with early breast cancer, 47 patients with locally advanced breast cancer, and 126 patients with metastatic breast cancer were prospectively obtained and analyzed for CTC detection. Results: CK-19 mRNA was not detectable in healthy subjects using the real-time RT-PCR method. The detection rates of CK-19 mRNA in breast cancer patients were 47.8% for early breast cancer (33/69), 46.8% for locally advanced breast cancer (22/47), and 61.1% for metastatic breast cancer (77/129). The detection rate of CK-19-positive CTCs in metastatic disease was slightly higher than early or locally advanced breast cancer; however, the detection rate according to disease burden was not statistically different (p=0.097). The detection rate was higher in patients with pleural metastasis (p=0.045). CTC detection was associated with poor survival (p=0.014). Conclusion: A highly specific and sensitive CK-19 mRNA-based method to detect CTCs in peripheral blood in breast cancer patients can be used in further prospective studies to evaluate the predictive and prognostic importance of CTCs.

The Neutrophil to Lymphocyte Ratio has a High Negative Predictive Value for Pathologic Complete Response in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer Patients Receiving Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy

  • Eryilmaz, Melek Karakurt;Mutlu, Hasan;Salim, Derya Kivrak;Musri, Fatma Yalcin;Tural, Deniz;Coskun, Hasan Senol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.18
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    • pp.7737-7740
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    • 2014
  • Background: The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is a strong predictor of mortality in patients with pancreatic, colorectal, lung, gastric cancer and renal cell carcinoma. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between pathological complete response (pCR) and pretreatment NLR values in locally advanced breast cancer (BC) patients receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NACT). Materials and Methods: Datawere collected retrospectively from the Akdeniz University School of Medicine Database for locally advanced BC patients treated with NACT between January 2000-December 2013. Results: A total of 78 patients were analyzed. Sixteen (20%) patients achieved pCR. Estrogen receptor (ER) positivity was lower in pCR+ than pCR-cases (p=0.011). The median NLR values were similar in both arms. The optimum NLR cut-off point for BC patients with PCR+ was 2.33 (AUC:0.544, 95%CI [0.401-0.688], p=0.586) with sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value (NPV) of 50%, 51,6%, 21,1%, and 80%, respectively. Conclusions: This study showed no relationship between the pCR and pretreatment NLR values. Because of a considerable high NPV, in the patients with higher NLR who had luminal type BC in which pCR is lower after NACT, such treatment may not be recommended.

Result of Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy, Surgery and Radiation Therapy in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer (국소 진행성 유방암 환자에서 선행 항암화학요법의 치료결과)

  • Bae, Sun-Hyun;Park, Won;Huh, Seung-Jae;Choi, Doo-Ho;Nam, Hee-Rim;Yang, Jung-Hyun;Nam, Seok-Jin;Lee, Jeong-Eon;Im,, Young-Hyuck;Ahn, Jin-Seok;Park, Yeon-Hee
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: To evaluate the result of neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation therapy in locally advanced breast cancer as well as analyze the prognostic factors affecting survival. Materials and Methods: One hundred fifty-nine patients with breast cancer were treated by neoadjuvant chemotherapy between April 1995 and November 2006 at the Samsung Medical Center. Among these patients, we retrospectively reviewed 105 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by surgery and radiation therapy for a cure with an initial tumor size >5 cm or clinically positive lymph nodes. All patients received anthracycline based chemotherapy except for 2 patients. According to clinical tumor stage, 3 patients (3%) were cT1, 26 (25%) were cT2, 39 (37%) were T3 and 37 (35%) were T4. Initially, 98 patients (93%) showed axillary lymph node metastasis. The follow-up periods ranged from 7~142 months (median, 41 months) after the beginning of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Results: Locoregional failure free survival rate and distant metastasis free survival rate at 5 years were 82.1% and 69.9%, respectively. Disease free survival rate and overall survival rate at 5 years were 66.1% and 77.1%, respectively. The results of a univariate analysis indicate that clinical tumor stage, pathologic tumor stage, pathologic nodal stage and pathologic TNM stage were statistically significant factors for disease free survival rate and overall survival rate. Whereas, a multivariate analysis indicated that only hormone therapy was a statistically significant factor for survival. Conclusion: The current study results were comparable to other published studies for neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer. Hormone therapy was a statistically significant prognostic factor. The patients with early clinical or pathologic stage had a tendency to improve their survival rate.

Serum Tumor Marker Levels might have Little Significance in Evaluating Neoadjuvant Treatment Response in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer

  • Wang, Yu-Jie;Huang, Xiao-Yan;Mo, Miao;Li, Jian-Wei;Jia, Xiao-Qing;Shao, Zhi-Min;Shen, Zhen-Zhou;Wu, Jiong;Liu, Guang-Yu
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.11
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    • pp.4603-4608
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    • 2015
  • Background: To determine the potential value of serum tumor markers in predicting pCR (pathological complete response) during neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively monitored the pro-, mid-, and post-neoadjuvant treatment serum tumor marker concentrations in patients with locally advanced breast cancer (stage II-III) who accepted pre-surgical chemotherapy or chemotherapy in combination with targeted therapy at Fudan University Shanghai Cancer Center between September 2011 and January 2014 and investigated the association of serum tumor marker levels with therapeutic effect. Core needle biopsy samples were assessed using immunohistochemistry (IHC) prior to neoadjuvant treatment to determine hormone receptor, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2), and proliferation index Ki67 values. In our study, therapeutic response was evaluated by pCR, defined as the disappearance of all invasive cancer cells from excised tissue (including primary lesion and axillary lymph nodes) after completion of chemotherapy. Analysis of variance of repeated measures and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were employed for statistical analysis of the data. Results: A total of 348 patients were recruited in our study after excluding patients with incomplete clinical information. Of these, 106 patients were observed to have acquired pCR status after treatment completion, accounting for approximately 30.5% of study individuals. In addition, 147patients were determined to be Her-2 positive, among whom the pCR rate was 45.6% (69 patients). General linear model analysis (repeated measures analysis of variance) showed that the concentration of cancer antigen (CA) 15-3 increased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in both pCR and non-pCR groups, and that there were significant differences between the two groups (P=0.008). The areas under the ROC curves (AUCs) of pre-, mid-, and post-treatment CA15-3 concentrations demonstrated low-level predictive value (AUC=0.594, 0.644, 0.621, respectively). No significant differences in carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) or CA12-5 serum levels were observed between the pCR and non-pCR groups (P=0.196 and 0.693, respectively). No efficient AUC of CEA or CA12-5 concentrations were observed to predict patient response toward neoadjuvant treatment (both less than 0.7), nor were differences between the two groups observed at different time points. We then analyzed the Her-2 positive subset of our cohort. Significant differences in CEA concentrations were identified between the pCR and non-pCR groups (P=0.039), but not in CA15-3 or CA12-5 levels (p=0.092 and 0.89, respectively). None of the ROC curves showed underlying prognostic value, as the AUCs of these three markers were less than 0.7. The ROC-AUCs for the CA12-5 concentrations of inter-and post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy in the estrogen receptor negative HER2 positive subgroup were 0.735 and 0.767, respectively. However, the specificity and sensitivity values were at odds with each other which meant that improving either the sensitivity or specificity would impair the efficiency of the other. Conclusions: Serum tumor markers CA15-3, CA12-5, and CEA might have little clinical significance in predicting neoadjuvant treatment response in locally advanced breast cancer.

Long-Term Survival of Women with Locally Advanced Breast Cancer with ≥10 Involved Lymph Nodes at Diagnosis

  • Zeichner, Simon Blechman;Cavalcante, Ludimila;Suciu, Gabriel Pius;Ruiz, Ana Lourdes;Hirzel, Alicia;Krill-Jackson, Elisa
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3435-3441
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    • 2014
  • Background: Axillary lymph node status at diagnosis remains the strongest predictor of long-term survival in breast cancer. Patients with more than ten axillary lymph nodes at diagnosis have a poor long-term survival. In this single institutional study, we set out to evaluate the prognosis of this high-risk group in the era of multimodality therapy. Materials and Methods: In this retrospective study, we looked at all breast cancer patients with greater than ten axillary lymph nodes diagnosed at Mount Sinai Medical Center (MSMC) from January 1st 1990 to December 31st 2007 (n=161). In the univariate analysis, descriptive frequencies, median survival, and 5- and 10-year survival rates were estimated for common prognostic factors. A multivariate prognostic analysis for time-to-event data, using the extended Cox regression model was carried out. Results: With a median and mean follow-up of 70 and 89.9 months, respectively, the overall median survival was estimated to be 99 months. The five-year disease-free survival (DFS) was 59.3% and the ten-year DFS was 37.9%, whereas the five- and ten-year overall survival (OS) was 66.6% and 43.9%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed a significant improvement in DFS among black patients compared to whites (p=0.05), improved DFS and OS among young patients (ages 21-45) compared to elderly patients (age greater than 70) (p=0.00176, p=0.0034, respectively), and improved DFS and OS among patients whose tumors were ER positive (p=0.049, p=0.0034). Conclusions: In this single institution study of patients with greater than 10 positive axillary nodes, black patients had a significantly improved DFS compared with white patients. Young age and ER tumor positivity was associated with improved outcomes. Using multivariate analysis, there were no other variables associated with statistically significant improvements in DFS or OS including date of diagnosis. Further work is needed to improve breast cancer survival in this subgroup of patients.