• Title, Summary, Keyword: Localized Corrosion

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Proposed Guidelines for Selection of Methods for Erosion-corrosion testing in Flowing Liquids

  • Matsumura, Masanobu
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.6 no.6
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 2007
  • The corrosion of metals and alloys in flowing liquids can be classified into uniform corrosion and localized corrosion which may be categorized as follows. (1) Localized corrosion of the erosion-corrosion type: the protective oxide layer is assumed to be removed from the metal surface by shear stress or turbulence of the fluid flow. A macro-cell may be defined as a situation in which the bare surface is the macro-anode and the other surface covered with the oxide layer is the macro-cathode. (2) Localized corrosion of the differential flow-velocity corrosion type: at a location of lower fluid velocity, a thin and coarse oxide layer with poor protective qualities may be produced because of an insufficient supply of oxygen. A macro-cell may be defined as a situation in which this surface is the macro-anode and the other surface covered with a dense and stable oxide layer is the macro-cathode. (3) Localized corrosion of the active/passive-cell type: on a metal surface a macro-cell may be defined as a situation in which a part of it is in a passivation state and another in an active dissolution state. This situation may arise from differences in temperature as well as in the supply of the dissolved oxygen. Compared to uniform corrosion, localized corrosion tends to involve a higher wall thinning rate (corrosion rate) due to the macro-cell current as well as to the ratio of the surface area of the macro-anode to that of the macro-cathode, which may be rationalized using potential vs. current density diagrams. The three types of localized corrosion described above can be reproduced in a Jet-in-slit test by changing the flow direction of the test liquid and arranging environmental conditions in an appropriate manner.

A Study of Localized Corrosion Mechanisms in the Multilayered Coatings by Cathodic Arc Deposition (음극아크증착법으로 합성한 다층박막의 국부부식 기구에 관한 연구)

  • 김호건;안승호;이정호;김정구;한전건
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.301-306
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    • 2003
  • Multilayered WC-Ti/suv $1-x/Al_{x}$ N coatings were deposited on AISI D2 steel using cathodic arc deposition (CAD) method. These coatings contain structural defects such as pores or droplets. Thus, the substrate is not completely isolated from the corrosive environment. The growth defects (pores, pinholes) in the coatings are detrimental to corrosion resistance of the coatings used in severe corrosion environments. The localized corrosion behavior of the coatings was studied in deaerated 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using electrochemical techniques (potentiodynamic polarization test) and surface analyses (GDOES, SEM, AES, TEM). The porosity was calculated from the result of potentiodynamic polarization test of the uncoated and coated specimens. The calculated porosity is higher in the $WC-Ti_{0.6}$ $Al_{0.4}$ N than others, which is closely related to the packing factor. The positive effects of greater packing factor act on inhibiting the passage of the corrosive electrolyte to the substrate and lowering the localized corrosion kinetics. From the electrochemical tests and surface analyses, the major corrosion mechanisms can be classified into two basic categories: localized corrosion and galvanic corrosion.

Respondence Between Electrochemicl Fluctuations and Phenomenon for Localized Corrosion of Less-Noble Metals

  • Itoi, Yasuhiko;Take, Seisho;Tsuru, Tooru
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.35-39
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    • 2008
  • We have been studying application of electrochemical noise (Fluctuation) analysis for localized corrosion. Foils of Zinc, Aluminum and Magnesium were used as specimens for electrochemical cell simulating localized corrosion. These specimens were dipped in sodium chloride solutions adjusted to each exponent of Hydrogen ion concentration (pH) condition of 5.5, 10, 12 respectively. Time variations of potential and current were measured in those solutions, and simultaneously the surfaces of specimens were observed using microscope with television monitor. Two types of electrochemical cells were arranged for experiments simulated localized corrosion. The fluctuations on trendy component of short-circuited potential and short-circuited current were appeared in synchronization. It was seemed that these fluctuations result from hydrogen evolution on the aluminum active site in the crevice from the microscopic observation. In the case of zinc and magnesium, fluctuations appeared on the trendy component of the corrosion potential. Two types fluctuation were detected. First one is the fluctuation varied periodically. The second one is the random fluctuation. It was seemed that these fluctuations result from generation of corrosion products and hydrogen evolution on the active site in the crevice of zinc and magnesium from the microscopic observation.

Effect of Delayed Oxygen Evolution in Anodic Polarization on the Passive Film Characteristic and Localized Corrosion Resistance of Titanium Alloys (타이타늄 합금에서 산소발생전위 지연이 부동태 피막 특성과 국부부식 저항성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Yu Soo;Seo, Dong-Il;Lee, Jae-Bong
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.156-162
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    • 2020
  • The objective of this study was to investigate delayed oxygen evolution and localized corrosion resistance of titanium alloys by performing potentiodynamic polarization, potentiostatic polarization, and Mott-Schottky measurements. Delayed oxygen evolution was compared among titanium alloys, 316 stainless steel, and platinum. Difference in delayed oxygen evolution between titanium alloys and other metals was attributed to specific surface characteristic of each metal. Delayed oxygen evolution of titanium alloys resulted from the predominant process of ionic conduction over electronic conduction. The effect of oxygen evolution on localized corrosion of titanium alloys was investigated using electrochemical critical localized corrosion temperature (E-CLCT) technique. Mott-Schottky measurement was performed to clarify the difference in film properties between titanium alloys and stainless steels. Titanium alloys were found to have much lower donor density than stainless steels by 1/28. These results indicate that delayed oxygen evolution has little influence on the concreteness of passive film and the resistance to localized corrosion of titanium alloys.

Electrochemical Random Signal Analysis during Localized Corrosion of Anodized 1100 Aluminum Alloy in Chloride Environments

  • Sakairi, M.;Shimoyama, Y.;Nagasawa, D.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.168-172
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    • 2008
  • A new type of electrochemical random signal (electrochemical noise) analysis technique was applied to localized corrosion of anodic oxide film formed 1100 aluminum alloy in $0.5kmol/m^3$ $H_3BO_4/0.05kmol/m^3$ $Na_2B_4O_7$ with $0.01kmol/m^3$ NaCl. The effect of anodic oxide film structure, barrier type, porous type, and composite type on galvanic corrosion resistance was also examined. Before localized corrosion started, incubation period for pitting corrosion, both current and potential slightly change as initial value with time. The incubation period of porous type anodic oxide specimens are longer than that of barrier type anodic oxide specimens. While pitting corrosion, the current and potential were changed with fluctuations and the potential and the current fluctuations show a good correlation. The records of the current and potential were processed by calculating the power spectrum density (PSD) by the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) method. The potential and current PSD decrease with increasing frequency, and the slopes are steeper than or equal to minus one (-1). This technique allows observation of electrochemical impedance changes during localized corrosion.

Study on Localized Corrosion Cracking of Alloy 600 using EN-DCPD Technique (EN-DCPD 방법을 이용한 Alloy 600 재료의 국부부식균열 연구)

  • Lee, Yeon-Ju;Kim, Sung-Woo;Kim, Hong-Pyo;Hwang, Seong-Sik
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2013
  • The object of this work is to establish an electrochemical noise(EN) measurement technique combined with a direct current potential drop(DCPD) method for monitoring of localized corrosion cracking of nickel-based alloy, and to analyze its mechanism. The electrochemical current and potential noises were measured under various conditions of applied stress to a compact tension specimen in a simulated primary water chemistry of a pressurized water reactor. The amplitude and frequency of the EN signals were evaluated in both time and frequency domains based on a shot noise theory, and then quantitatively analyzed using statistical Weibull distribution function. From the spectral analysis, the effect of the current application in DCPD was found to be effectively excluded from the EN signals generated from the localized corrosion cracking. With the aid of a microstructural analysis, the relationship between EN signals and the localized corrosion cracking mechanism was investigated by comparing the shape parameter of Weibull distribution of a mean time-to-failure.

Case studies on the probabilistic characteristics of ultimate strength of stiffened panels with uniform and non-uniform localized corrosion subjected to uniaxial and biaxial thrust

  • Cui, Jinju;Wang, Deyu;Ma, Ning
    • International Journal of Naval Architecture and Ocean Engineering
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.97-118
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    • 2019
  • Based on Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis (NFEA), this paper focuses on the bi-axial ultimate strength of typical bottom structures under corrosion. On one hand, uniform and not simultaneous corrosion across different structures is introduced, and surrogate models by Gaussian Process (GP) are built for both longitudinal and transverse cases individually, and corresponding probabilistic characteristics are investigated; meanwhile, corrosion effects on interaction between bi-axial stresses at ultimate state are studied. On the other hand, non-uniform localized pitting corrosion of normally distributed circular shapes is introduced, and different pitting corrosion densities are considered; structural bi-axial ultimate strengths under pitting corrosion are studied, and the results are compared with that from equivalent uniform corrosion; the probabilistic characteristics of structural ultimate strength in life cycle are studied; finally, the ultimate strength under randomly distributed pitting corrosion is compared with results from normally distributed pitting and uniform corrosion under various boundary conditions.

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Microstructures and Properties of HVOF Sprayed Ni-Cr-W-Mo-B Alloy Coatings (초고속화염용사법으로 제조된 Ni-Cr-W-Mo-B 합금 코팅의 미세조직과 특성에 미치는 열처리 효과)

  • 민경오;이창희
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.48-54
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    • 2000
  • The corrosion properties of Ni-Cr-W-Mo-B alloy sprayed by the high velocity oxy-fuel spraying (HVOF) was studied as a function of heat treatment by using both potentiodynamic polarization and immersion tests in the H₂SO₄ solution. The mechanical property was also evaluated by a microhardness tester. Microstructural characteristics of te as-sprayed and annealed coatings at 550, 750 and 950℃ have been analyzed by means of OM, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results showed that the corrosion resistance was improved by increasing the annealing temperature. As-sprayed coating had metastable and heterogeneous phases such as amorphous, nanocrystalline and very refined grain and precipitates, which induced a localized corrosion. The localized corrosion occurred preferentially at the unmelted particles which were composed of Ni matrix and Cr, W and Mo riched phase segregated in the boundaries. As annealing temperature was increased, the microstructure had shown some changes - reduction of porosity and s[plat boundary decomposition and crystallization of amorphous/nanocrystalline phases, grain coarsening,, formation and growth of precipitates such as {TEX}$M_{23}C_{6}${/TEX} and {TEX}$M_{7}C_{3}${/TEX}. In addition, the compositional difference between matrix and boundary phases gradually disappeared, which changed the corrosion type from localized corrosion to general corrosion and thus enhanced corrosion resistance.

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Corrosion Fatigue of Austenitic Stainless Steel in Different Hot Chloride Solutions

  • Visser, A.;Mori, G.;Panzenbock, M.;Pippan, R.
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.172-176
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    • 2015
  • Austenitic stainless steel was investigated under cyclic loading in electrolytes with different chloride contents and pH and at different temperatures. The testing solutions were 13.2 % NaCl (80,000 ppm $Cl^-$) at $80^{\circ}C$and 43 % $CaCl_2$ (275,000 ppm $Cl^-$) at $120^{\circ}C$. In addition to S-N curves in inert and corrosive media, the fracture surfaces were investigated with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to analyse the type of attack. The experimental results showed that a sharp decrease in corrosion fatigue properties can be correlated with the occurrence of stress corrosion cracking. The correlation of occurring types of damage in different corrosion systems is described.

Effect of Precipitate on the Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation Behaviors of Stainless Steels and Nickel Base Alloys

  • Wu, Tsung-Feng;Chen, Tzu-Sheng;Tsai, Wen-Ta
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.59-67
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    • 2003
  • Electrochemical potentiokinetic reactivation (EPR) tests are used to evaluate the degree of sensitization (DOS) of stainless steels and nickel base alloys. The validity of EPR test to detect DOS of these alloys, however, depends all the electrolyte composition employed. The existence of precipitates such as NbC, and TiC, etc. in the alloys also affects the reactivation behaviors of these alloys. In this investigation, the reactions involved during EPR processes are analyzed. In 0.5 M $H_2SO_4$+ 0.01 M KSCN electrolyte, a reactivation peak associated with the localized attack around NbC, different from that of intergranular corrosion, is observed for the solution annealed 347 SS. For solution annealed Alloy 600, matrix corrosion and localized attack around TiC with distinct anodic peaks appeared in the EPR curves are seen in the $H_2SO_4$+ KSCN electrolyte. With proper adjustment of elect rolyte composition, the contribution from intergranular corrosion, as a result of chromium carbide precipitation along the grain boundaries, can be distingui shed from the matrix and localized corrosion for the sensitized Alloy 600.