• Title, Summary, Keyword: Local Cultural Heritage

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The Character of Bogamni group and trends in the surrounding area seen through the stone chamber (석실로 본 나주 복암리 세력과 주변 지역의 동향)

  • Kim, Nak jung
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.44-67
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    • 2016
  • This article studied the character of Bogamri group and trends in the surrounding area through recently excavated stone chambers. The first type of stone chamber constructed at Bogamni cemetry was Northen Kyushu style stone chamber tomb with corridor. However, According to recent survey Wa style vertical stone lined tomb had constructed earlier than these stone chamber along the southwest cost. It is likely that the background of these Wa style stone tomb was the beginning of formal diplomatic relations between Baekje and Wa. At first, grave goods as well as burial had been Wa style, but gradually local burial element and mortuary practices added. And large tomb had beginning to appear. The representative tombs are Yeongam Okyari Jangdong tomb and Naju Gaheugni Shinhueng tomb. They were built in the middle of the fifth century. It is most likely that the location was selected with regard to the use or securing of inland waterway. But the next step, Yeongsangang river style stone chamber with corridor had constructed at Jeongchon tomb. That tomb is very close to Bogamni tombs and structure and grave goods are very similar also. So these two groups were considered to be the same community. Hereby, It is believed that the inland waterway using power had been turned over to Bogamni group. Bogamni group had constantly constructed stone chamber until seventh century. This represent that Bogamni group had thrived as a leading force in the Yeongsangang river basin. After under the direct control of Baekje, Bogamni group had continued the close relationship with Wa. For this reason, Bogamni group had influenced southwest cost as well as Yeongsangang river basin. It can be estimated by the Bogamni style stone chamber founded at islands of Shinan.

The Ruling System of Silla to Gangneung Area Judged from Archaeological Resources in 5th to 6th Century (고고자료로 본 5~6세기 신라의 강릉지역 지배방식)

  • Shim, Hyun Yong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.4-24
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    • 2009
  • This paper examined archaeological resources that discuss how Silla entered the Gangneung area, the coastal region along the East Sea that has been excavated most actively. Silla expanded its territories while organizing the its system as an ancient state and acquired several independent townships in various regions, stretching its forces to the East Sea area faster than any other ancient states of the time. In particular, many early relics and heritages of Silla have been found in Gangneung, the center of the East Sea area. Many archaeological resources prove these circumstances of that time and provide brief texts that are valuable for our interpretation of historical facts. In this respect, it was possible for me to examine these resources to answer my question as to why early relics and heritages of Silla are found in the Gangneung area. Based on my research on Silla's advancement into the Gangneung area, I have acquired the following results: How did Silla rule this area after conquering Yeguk in the Gangneung area? After conquering the Gangneung area, Silla attempted an indirect ruling at first. Later, Silla adopted a direct ruling system. I divided the indirect ruling period into two phases: introduction and settlement. In detail, Silla's earthenware and stone chamber tombs first appeared in Hasi-dong in the fourth quarter of the 4th Century and the tombs spread to Chodang-dong in the second quarter of the 5th Century. A belt with dragon pattern openwork, which seems to be from the second quarter of the 5th Century, was found to tell us that the Gangneung region began receiving rewards from Silla during this time. Thus, the period from the fourth quarter of the 4th Century to the second quarter of the 5th Century is designated as the 1st Phase (Introduction) of indirect ruling in terms of aechaeological findings. This is when Silla was first advanced to the Gangneung area and tolerated independent administration of the conquered. In the third and fourth quarters of the 5th Century, old mound tombs appeared and burials of relics that symbolized power emerged. In the third quarter of the 5th Century, stone chamber tombs were prevalent, but wooden chamber tombs, stone mounded wooden chamber tombs, and lateral entrance stone chamber tombs began to emerge. Also, tombs that were clustered in Hasi-dong and Chodang-dong began to scatter to Byeongsan-dong, Yeongjin-ri, and Bangnae-ri nearby. Steel pots were the symbol of power that emerged at this time. In the fourth quarter of the 5th Century, stone chamber tombs were still dominating, but wooden chamber tombs, stone mounded wooden chamber tombs, and lateral entrance stone chamber tombs became more popular. More crowns, crown ornaments, big daggers, and belts were bestowed by Silla, mostly in Chodang-dong and Byeongsan-dong. The period from the third quarter to the fourth quarter of the 5th Century was designated as the 2nd Phase (Settlement) of indirect ruling in terms of aechaeological findings. At this time, Silla bestowed items of power to the ruling class of the Gangneung area and gave equal power to the rulers of Chodang-dong and Byeongsan-dong to keep them restrained by each other. However, Silla converted the ruling system to direct ruling once it recognized the Gangneung area as the base of its expedition of conquest to the north. In the first quarter of the 6th Century, old mound tombs disappeared and small/medium-sized mounds appeared in the western inlands and the northern areas. In this period, the tunnel entrance stone chamber tombs were large enough for people to enter with doors. A cluster of several tunnel entrance stone chamber tombs was formed in Yeongjin-ri and Bangnae-ri at this time, probably with the influence of Silla's direct ruling. In the first quarter of the 6th Century, Silla dispatched officers from the central government to complete the local administration system and replaced the ruling class of Chodang-dong and Byeongsan-dong with that of Silla-friendly Yeonjin-ri and Bangnae-ri to reorganize the local administration system and gain full control of the Gangneung area.

Jens Jensen's Naturalistic Landscape Style and Its Expression Characteristics (젠스 젠슨(Jens Peter Jensen)의 자연주의적 조경양식 및 표현특성)

  • Park, Eun-Yeong;Lee, Hyung-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.61-67
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    • 2018
  • Jens Jensen was an American landscape architect and early conservationist who pioneered a unique naturalistic landscape style. The purpose of the present study is to study Jensen's life, careers, design philosophy, and his contributions to the history of landscape architecture. Inspired by nature, Jensen worked closely with native plants, local materials, curvilineal and circular forms, and native scenery. His pioneering work in the Chicago's West Parks, including the design of Columbus Park and Humboldt, Garfield and Douglas Parks, was informed by his philosophical belief in the humanizing power of parks. In summary, first, Jensen played a prominent role in the creation of a unique native landscape style respecting regional landscape. Second, as a devoted conservationist and educator he organized conservation movements preserving landscape heritage and founded a education institution. Third, as a social reformer he emphasized the value of parks and nearby nature for urban citizens and children. Jensen's visions and philosophies have influenced on recent naturalistic landscape style and conservation efforts to preserve cultural landscape and natural environment.

Methodology for Selection and Sensitivity Index of Socio-economic Resources for Marine Oil Spill Incidents (해양 유류유출 오염으로 인한 사회·경제적 민감자원 선정 및 지수화 방안)

  • Roh, Young-Hee;Kim, Choong-Ki
    • Journal of Environmental Impact Assessment
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.402-413
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    • 2016
  • Marine oil spill accidents are occurring continuously due to the marine transportation of the oil. While building a preventive system for oil spill is uttermost necessary, we also need to have a systematic response system to handle the oil spills that inevitably occur. So far, studies have focused on the environmentally sensitive resources affected by oil spills. However, there is a need to conduct research to evaluate the damage to the socially and economically sensitive resources that make up the life of local residents. This study represents the process of building an analytical framework for the assessment of socioeconomic resources affected by marine oil spills. While it is important to provide a scheme for identification and indexation of socially and economically sensitive resources that is compatible with Korea's situations, using existing data for identifying socio-economically sensitive resources might also be meaningful. However, to allow accurate analysis for better evaluation, we need to select more applicable data among the various indicators. In this research, we have reviewed many existing case studies of sensitive resources, studies of the variables that have been used for indexing sensitive resources, and various factors considered in SIA (Social Impact Assessment). Based on the findings, we classify socio-economically sensitive resources into marine products acquisition, population, land usage, administrative area, and cultural heritage and tourist region.

Perspectives on the Landscape Ecological Function of Dangsan Forests and Rural Community Forests as a Stream Landscape (하천경관으로서 당산숲.마을숲의 경관생태학적 기능 고찰)

  • Choi, Jai-Ung;Kim, Dong-Yeob
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.31-55
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    • 2005
  • Dangsan forests and Rural Community Forests(RCF) have been historical assets for the rural communities of more than 40,000 in Korea and they have provided an identity through the cultural heritage. The Dangsan forests and the RCF are parts of a unique cultural landscape in the rural areas as components of stream landscape. In many cases, the Dangsan forests and the RCF are located close to stream corridors. The objective of this study was to understand the function of the Dangsan forests and the RCF on stream water quality and to evaluate its ecological landscape values. Through the consideration of international concensus and domestic government policy for close-to-nature stream, we could find out that Dangsan forests and RCF's have close relationship with the close-to-nature streams. The water quality of the streams close to the Dangsan forests and the RCF are maintained with local culture. It is also compared to the streams located where Dangsan forests and the RCF are absent. Eight study sites were selected. Water samples were collected at three different locations at each study site. Water samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, total P, total N, dissolved oxygen, EC, BOD, COD and SS. Aquatic invertebrates were observed as water quality indicator species. The results showed that the number of aquatic invertebrate species, GPI, DO, EC, BOD, and SS were significantly improved in stream water due to the presence of the Dangsan forests and the RCF. The role of Dangsan forests and the RCF was evident in the conservation of stream landscape and rural culture as well as in maintaining stream water quality. The management schemes of the streams with Dangsan forests and the RCF's are also suggested.

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The Present Status and the Preservation Method of the Rice Terrace as Scenic Sites Resources in Northeast Asia (동북아시아 계단식 논의 명승지정 현황 및 보전방안)

  • Youn, Kyung-Sook;Lee, Chang-Hun;Kim, Hyung-Dae;Seo, Woo-Hyun;Lee, Jae-Keun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.111-123
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    • 2011
  • This study aims to present the basic materials, which lead us to preserve the Korea Rice Terrace as scenic sites resources and study it continuously, through researching about the present status and the preservation method of the Rice Terrace in Korea, China and Japan. The results of this study are as follows. First, The Rice Terrace has a traditional agricultural technique which minimizing the damage of the scenic view while cultivating the slope. And also, it has the value of one of the Korea unique traditional scenic views. However, The no cultivation land or disappearing desert land of rice terrace were increasing by the disadvantage of operation in land cultivation. Therefore, The Government must need preparing the base of scene resources excavation by executed the established of Korea Rice Terrace Database for preserving of Korea traditional scene. however it is getting to disappearance. And also, The High valued of Rice Terrace by cultural and scenic view which is must managed by designation of scenic sites or monument. Second, The internal and external reference book researched and analyzed results are as followings for understanding about Korea Rice Terrace feature. First of all, The Rice Terrace's dictionary meaning is just difference by each nations. However, Generally speaking that It means the terraced land by cultivated of sloped land. The Rice Terrace has cross relation with mountain valley and piedmont slope cultivation in location of condition. It occurred era is before approximately estimated from 3000 of years until 6000 of years. It can divide two type by topography shape those are slope and valley type. However, The natural element of forest has very big position in this part. But, The Rice Terrace is just managed and designated by the scenic sites with the Cultural Properties Protection Law. It must needs more binding force and effectiveness for the Rice Terrace scenic view plan establishment by scenic laws and farming and fishing village laws etc. I think that it must need the Rice Terrace related law establishment as soon as possible for efficient preservation and management of the Rice Terrace. Third, The Rice Terrace were researched and analyzed results are as followings those were executed at the Korea, China and Japan. The Korea and Japan have good Rice Terrace Characteristic. And also, The high valued scenic sites area were good managed by the Cultural Properties Protection Law as well as the superior scenic valued Rice Terrace in China. Those are also managed by designated scenic sites for protection and preservation positively. Those were managed by each autonomous district management Department. The each nation's related laws of Rice Terrace protection were just little bit different. However, The basic purpose is same. for example, it based on superior scenic view preservation and protection. Especially, The Japan's Cultural Properties Law and Scenic law linkage, and China Autonomous district legislation and effectiveness. The Korea Government must need above elements for Korea Rice Terrace culture and scenic view preservation. Fourth, We need inducing the owner system and the policy of Rice Terrace preservation promotion association for efficient preservation of Rice Terrace in japan. The owner system in japan gives the owner of the land a permission to rent the land to Rice Terrace preservation promotion association and the local government. In this system the village would be revitalized by commons in the way of the management of the terraces, beautifying the area around the terraces and etc. And also, Making the each village management operating system for Rice Terrace management through educating civilization. The civilization could receive quick help from a consultative body comprised of experts such as representatives of Cultural Heritage Administration and professors. And it is in a hurry to solve the problem of revitalization of the region by exchange between cities and the village.

A Study on the Landscape Architecture Historical Significance of Reung Chambong in the Joseon Dynasty (조선시대 능참봉직(陵參奉職)의 조경사적 의의)

  • Shin, Hyun-Sil;Lee, Won-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.139-148
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    • 2011
  • This study has a purpose of base study for ascertaining landscape architect's role of Reung Chambong through analyzing old literature include Kyungkukdae-Jeon, Sokdae-Jeon, Daejeonhoitong, Joseonwangjo-Sillok, Eugye, Reung-Ji, Ilsung-Rok, Reung Chambong's diary. Reung Chambong was a government post in the Joseon dynasty, who managed Royal Tombs of Joseon Dynasty that has promoted as a World Heritage of UNESCO. the conclusions drawn from this study are as follows. First, Reung Chambong was comprised of two Jong 9 pum Chanmbong members. a position of Reung Chambong was a Eumjik appointed Saengwon, Jinsa, Yuhak completed Sammang. the standards of appointment is a experienced person and too young. it became means for accessing a government post because it had a symbolic representation of Royal Tombs guardian. Second, The management system of Reung Chambong was approved on the basis of ranking. however, due to geographical reasons, they had much authority and various mission than is possible. for example, construction supervisor of the Reung and Bongsim, manager of the Reungsuhogun and filling out Reungji. they performed an important role in management of Royal Tombs in the Joseon dynasty. Third, One of tasks related in landscape architecture, a Bongshim reported Sukmul(stonework), Sacho, Jungja-Gak of Reungsang to Yejo periodically. formational system and method of Bongshim are provided in the Kyungkukdae-Jeon and Sokdae-Jeon detailedly. Fourth, Tree management and construction supervisor of Reungsang, positions among tasks related in landscape architecture, required basic understanding and management ability of botany, various eye for spatial perception includes civil and architectural projects. also, as a site management of Royal Tombs in the Joseon dynasty, Reung Chambong was empowered tacit authorization and responsibility in mobility preoccupancy of vertical relationship with local officials and handling by-product of site. there is a close correspondence with landscape architect of today. A follow-up research is required to ascertain landscape architect historical values of Royal Tombs in the Joseon dynasty and Reung Chambong's role as a site management of Royal Tombs in the Joseon dynasty through historical seeking and research old literature on Reung Chambong's role related in landscape architect.

9 Provinces and 5 Secondary Capitals, Myeong-ju(Haseo-ju) - Revolve Around Urban Structure - (구주오소경과 명주(하서주) - 그 도시구조를 중심으로 -)

  • Takahumi, Yamada
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.20-37
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    • 2012
  • After withdrawal of military troops of Chinese Tang dynasty in the 18th year of King Moon-moo's reign(678), the Silla Kingdom had actually unified the Korean peninsula and had divided the territory into 9 states benchmarking the China's local administrations adjustment system. He had established local administrative units by deploying secondary capitals, counties and prefectures in the nine states. The so-called "9 Provinces and 5 Secondary capitals" are what constitutes the local administrations system. The provinces can be compared to current provinces of the Republic of Korea(hereinafter Korea), and secondary capitals to megalopolises. According to a chapter of the Samkuksaki(三?史記) which had recorded the achievements of king Kyoungdeok in December in his 16th year on the throne(757), the local administrative units had amounted to 5 secondary capitals, 117 counties and 293 prefectures. There are still lots of ambiguous points since there have never been any consultation on locations of provinces and secondary capitals' castles, and on structures of cities because the researches for local cities inside the 9 Provinces and 5 Secondary capitals in the Unified Silla Kingdom has been conducted centering on the historic literatures only. The research for restoring structures of cities seen from an archeological perspective are limited to the studies of Taewoo Park("A study on the local cities in the Unified Kingdom Age" 1987) and that of the author("A study on the restoration of planned cities for the Unified Silla Kingdom in terms of the structures and realities of the castles in the 9 Provinces and 5 Secondary capitals" 2009). The Gangneung city of Gangwon province was originally called Haseoryang(河西良) of the Gogureo Kingdom as an ancient nation of Ye(濊). According to "Samkuksaki", it had evolved from Haseoju(河西州) to a secondary capitals in the 8th year of King Seonduk(639). Afterwards, it had been renamed as Myeongju(溟洲) in the 16th year of King Kyoungduk(757), and then several other names were given to it after Goryo dynasty. Taewoo Park claims that it is being defined as a sanctuary remaining in Myoungjudong because of the vestige of bare castle, and this cannot be ascertained due to the on-going urbanization processes. Also, the Kwandong university authority is suggesting an opinion of regarding Myeongju mountain castle located 3 Kms southwest of the center of Gangwon city as commanding post for the pertinent state. The author has restored the pertinent area into a city composed of villages within a lattice framework like Silla Keumkyoung and many other cities. The structure is depicted next. The downtown of Gangneung is situated on a flat terrain at the west bank of Namdaecheon stream flowing southwest to northeast along the inner area of the city. Though there isn't any hill comparatively higher than others in the vicinity, hills are continuously linked east to west along the northern area of the downtown, and the maximum width of flat terrain is about 1 Km and is not so large. Currently, urbanization is being proceeded into the inner portion of Gangneung city, the lands in all directions from the hub of Gangneung station have been readjusted, and thus previous land-zoning program is almost nullified. However, referring to the topographic chart drawn at the time of Japanese colonial rule, it can be validated that land-zoning program to accord the lattice framework with the length of its one side equaling to 190m leaves its vestige about 0.8Km northwest to southeast and about 1.7Km northeast to southwest of the vicinity of Okcheondong, Imdangdong, Geumhakdong, Myeongjudong, and etcetera which comprize the hub of the downtown. The land-zoning vestige within the lattice framework, compared to other cases related with the '9 states and 5 secondary capitals', is very much likely to be that of the Unified Silla Kingdom. That the length of a side of a lattice framework is 190m as opposed to that of Silla Geumkyoung and other cities with their 140m or 160m long sides is a single survey item in the future. The baseline direction for zoning the lands is tilting approximately 37.5 degrees west of northwest to southeast axis in accordance with the topographic features. It seems that this phenomenon takes place because of the direction of Namdaecheon and the geographic constraints of the hills in the north. Reviewing minimally, a rectangular size of zoned land by 4 Pangs(坊) on the northwest to southeast side multiplied by 7 Pangs(坊) on the northeast to southwest side had been restored within a lattice framework. Otherwise, considering the extent of expansion of the existing zoned lands in the lattice framework and one more Pang(坊) being added to each side, it is likely that the size could have been with 5 Pangs(坊) on the northwest to southeast side multiplied by 8 Pangs(坊) on the northeast to southwest side(950 M on the northwest to southeast side multiplied by 1,520m on the northeast to southwest side). The overall shape is rectangle, but land-zoning programs reminiscent of rebuilt roads(red phoenix road) like Jang-an castle(長安城) of Chinese Tang dynasty or Pyoungseong castle(平城城) in Japan is not to be validated. There are some historic items among the roof tiles and earthen wares excavated at local administrative office sites or Gangneung's town castle in Joseon dynasty inside the area assumed to be containing municipal vestiges even though archeological survey for the vestige of Myeongju has not been made yet, and these items deserve dating back to the Unified Silla Kingdom age. Also, all of the construction sites at local administrative authorities of the Joseon dynasty are showing large degrees of slant in the azimuth. This is a circumstantial evidence indicating the fact that the inherited land-zoning programs to be seen in Gangneung in terms of the lattice framework had ever existed in the past. Also, the author does not decline that Myeongju mountain castle had once been the commanding post when reviewing the roof tiles at the edge of eaves in this stronghold. The ancient municipal castles in the Korean peninsula are composed of castles on the flat terrain as well as hilly areas and the cluster of strongholds like Myounghwal, Namhan, Seohyoung mountain castles built around municipal castle of Geumkyoung based on a lattice framework program. Considering that mountain castles are spread in the vicinity of municipal vestiges in other cities other than the 9 states and 5 secondary capitals, it is estimated that Myeongju was assuming the function of commanding post incorporating cities on the flat terrain and castles on the hills.

A Study on ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn (조선통폐지인(朝鮮通幣之印) 연구)

  • Moon, Sangleun
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.220-239
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    • 2019
  • According to the National Currency (國幣) article in GyeongGukDaeJeon (經國大典), the ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn (朝鮮通幣之印) was a seal that was imprinted on both ends of a piece of hemp fabric (布). It was used for the circulation of hemp fabric as a fabric currency (布幣). The issued fabric currency was used as a currency for trade or as pecuniary means to have one's crime exempted or replace one's labor duty. The ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn would be imprinted on a piece of hemp fabric (布) to collect one-twentieth of tax. The ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn (朝鮮通幣之印) was one of the historical currencies and seal materials used during the early Chosun dynasty. Its imprint was a means of collecting taxes; hence, it was one of the taxation research materials. Despite its value, however, there has been no active research undertaken on it. Thus, the investigator conducted comprehensive research on it based on related content found in JeonRokTongGo (典錄通考), Dae'JeonHu-Sok'Rok (大典後續錄), JeongHeonSwaeRok (貞軒?錄) and other geography books (地理志) as well as the materials mentioned by researchers in previous studies. The investigator demonstrated that the ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn was established based on the concept of circulating Choson fabric notes (朝鮮布貨) with a seal on ChongOseungp'o (正五升布) in entreaty documents submitted in 1401 and that the fabric currency (布幣) with the imprint of the ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn was used as a currency for trade, pecuniary or taxation means of having one's crime exempted, or replacing one's labor, and as a tool of revenue from ships. The use of ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn continued even after a ban on fabric currencies (布幣) in March 1516 due to a policy on the "use of Joehwa (paper notes)" in 1515. It was still used as an official seal on local official documents in 1598. During the reign of King Yeongjo (英祖), it was used to make a military service (軍布) hemp fabric. Some records of 1779 indicate that it was used as a means of taxation for international trade. It is estimated that approximately 330 ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn were in circulation based on records in JeongHeonSwaeRok (貞軒?錄). Although there was the imprint of ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn in An Inquiry on Choson Currency (朝鮮貨幣考) published in 1940, there had been no fabric currencies (布幣) with its imprint on them or genuine cases of the seal. It was recently found among the artifacts of Wongaksa Temple. The seal imprint was also found on historical manuscripts produced at the Jikjisa Temple in 1775. The investigator compared the seal imprints found on the historical manuscripts of the Jikjisa Temple, attached to TapJwaJongJeonGji (塔左從政志), and published in An Inquiry on Choson Currency with the ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn housed at the Wongaksa Temple. It was found that these seal imprints were the same shape as the one at Wongaksa Temple. In addition, their overall form was the same as the one depicted in Daerokji (大麓誌) and LiJaeNanGo (?齋亂藁). These findings demonstrate that the ChoSonT'ongPaeJiIn at Wongaksa Temple was a seal made in the 15th century and is, therefore, an important artifact in the study of Choson's currency history, taxation, and seals. There is a need for future research examining its various aspects.

On the Influence Each Other Between the Monks in the Buddhist Temples and the Society in Towns or Villages (중국(中國) 지방사회(地方社會)와 불교사원(佛敎寺院) 그리고 승인(僧人)의 상호(相互) 영향(影響)에 관한 일고(一考))

  • Yan, Yao zhong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.60-79
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    • 2012
  • Environment of ancient Chinese Buddhist temple can be classified to three types such as regional society(鄕村), famous mountain(名山), and urban areas(都市). This made differences in environment where a temple existed and in turn, affected development of Buddhism. And this made another type in relationship between Buddhist temple and a society. This study explains influences which regional society gave on not only Buddhist temple and a monk but also existence and development of Buddhism. When temples are placed in different environmental position, that is, urban areas and regional society, among a social structure, they eventually should adapt to a different society externally and internally. As told in above, ancient Chinese Buddhist temple was located in regional society, famous mountain, and urban areas. Since Eastern Jin and Sixteen Kingdoms, as number of temple much increased, and temples and monks were concentrated on famous mountain, temples in famous mountains and urban areas had developed showing similar aspects each other. But because temples in regional society were influenced a little differently, this study focused on the point. There are four kinds of influences between temples and monks in regional areas. Monks in regional areas had a comparatively close relationship with a society because they came from same area or surrounding areas. Therefore,powers of regional areas restrict influences made by monk group in temple. Second, temples in regional areas shared their joys and sorrows depending on regional economy. Temples in regional areas became a public place for the society and often a market place. In fact, construction and existence of a temple originally became a driving force in regional economy. This is because construction of temple needs artisans and materials and some temples had visitors and included market economy like consumption of incense and candles, though the economic size was large or small. And when regional areas experienced natural disaster or man-made disaster or had poor harvest or economy was in depression, monks left temples and then, temples themselves could not exist. Third, the relationship between temples in regional areas and Buddhists was distinguished from the temples in urban areas and famous mountains. This is because temples in China were places where monks practiced and at the same time, places where general Buddhists worshipped. So there were always a number of Buddhists around the temples. Forth, Buddhism in resional areas was connected to regional Folk beliefs. As a result, Buddhism was spread across the nation, worship with local color often was changed to Buddhist belief or was tinged with Buddhism. While temples in regional areas maintained a close relationship with regional society.they were influenced by the region or gave influences. As a representative example, temples in regional areas showed model behaviors instead of roles of facilities related to various cultures with comparatively advanced level - for example, school, hospital etc. The temples highly affected funerary rites in regional areas. Chinese tombs were mainlymade in regional areas. After death,people living in urban areas were buried in hometown or at least, they were buried in suburbs not urban areas. Temples in regional areas generally participated in funerary rites. Above shows that though most of famous Buddhist temples were located in urban areas not in famous mountains,majority of temples were located in vast regional areas. Through mutual interaction between temples and regional society, the temples in the regional areas were related to Chinese people of over 90% and regional areas became the most important foundation for Buddhism in China. Mutual influences between temples in regional areas and the general public in regions were omnidirectional and spreaded to every aspects of social life in small or large degree. Thus Tombs in temple were widely spreaded across regional areas over time and space. This is enough to explain a close relationship between Buddhist temples and rural society in ancient China.