• Title, Summary, Keyword: Liver cancer

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Effects of Galhwahyejung-tang (GHT) on Protection for Alcohol-induced Liver Injury

  • Ahn Tae-Kyu;Shin Jang-Woo;Cho Chong-Kwan;Cho Jung-Hyo;Yoo Hwa-Seung;Lee Yeon-Weol;Lee Nam-heon;Yun Dam-hee;Son Chang-Gue
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.76-84
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    • 2005
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the protective efficacy of GHT on alcoholic liver injury. Methods: We measured the rate of alcohol oxidation, serum level of liver enzyme, lipid peroxidation level in liver tissue, and inflammatory related cytokine expressions in the liver. Results : GHT showed liver protective effects, lowered the levels of AST and LDH in serum and inhibited lipid peroxidation in liver tissue, and enhanced alcohol oxidation. GHT treatment up-regulated IL-10 in the liver, whereas it down­regulated $TNF-\alpha,\;TGF-\beta$, and Fas ligand. Conclusion : From these results, GHT is presumed to work in the liver in protective roles not through the pathway of alcohol metabolism but mainly by anti-inflammation activity in our model.

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Serum Amyloid A is a Novel Prognostic Biomarker in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Ni, Xiao-Chun;Yi, Yong;Fu, Yi-Peng;He, Hong-Wei;Cai, Xiao-Yan;Wang, Jia-Xing;Zhou, Jian;Fan, Jia;Qiu, Shuang-Jian
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10713-10718
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of serum amyloid A (SAA) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) undergoing surgery. Materials and Methods: Preoperative serum samples of 328 patients with HCC who underwent curative resection and of 47 patients with benign liver lesion were assayed. Serum levels of SAA were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its correlations with clinicopathological characteristics and survival were explored. Results: Levels of SAA were significantly higher in patients with HCC than those with benign liver lesion. There were strong correlations between preoperative serum SAA level and tumor size and more advanced BCLC stage. On univariate analysis, elevated SAA was associated with reduced disease-free survival and overall survival (p=0.001 and 0.03, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that serum SAA level was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival (hazard ratio 2.80, p=0.01). Conclusions: High SAA serum level is a novel biomarker for the prognosis of HCC patients.

Factors Associated with Attending the National Cancer Screening Program for Liver Cancer in Korea

  • Noh, Dai-Keun;Choi, Kui-Son;Jun, Jae-Kwan;Lee, Hoo-Yeon;Park, Eun-Cheol
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.731-736
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    • 2012
  • Background and Aims: The National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) for liver cancer was initiated in 2003 in Korea. The objective of this study was to evaluate the participation rate of the program and to provide preliminary information on its results based on data collected by the NCSP in 2009. Methods: The target population of the NCSP for liver cancer in 2009 was comprised of 373,590 adults aged ${\geq}40$ years at high risk for liver cancer. Participation rates and positivity rates were assessed in this population. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors associated with participation in the NCSP for liver cancer. Results: The overall participation rate was 37.9% and 1,126 participants were positive at screening. The highest participation rates were observed in women, those in their 60s, National Health Insurance beneficiaries, and individuals positive for hepatitis B surface antigen. Positivity rates for men, those in their 70s, Medical Aid Program recipients and individuals with liver cirrhosis were the highest in the respective categories of gender, age, health insurance type, and risk factor for liver cancer. Conclusions: The participation rates of the NCSP for liver cancer are still low, despite the fact that the program targets a high-risk group much smaller than the general population. Efforts to facilitate participation and to reduce disparities in liver cancer screening among Korean men and women are needed. These results provide essential data for evidence-based strategies for liver cancer control in Korea.

Viral Hepatitis and Liver Cancer on the Island of Guam

  • Haddock, R.L.;Paulino, Y.C.;Bordallo, R.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.3175-3176
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    • 2013
  • Patient records from the Guam Cancer Registry were compared with patients listed in a health department viral hepatitis case registry and the numbers of liver cancer and viral hepatitis cases were compared by ethnicity. Hepatitis C was the form of viral hepatitis most common among liver cancer cases on Guam (63.3% of viral hepatitis-associated liver cancer cases). Since viral hepatitis is an important cause of liver cancer, studies such as the present one may provide the information necessary to establish programs (screening of populations at risk and infant vaccination in the case of hepatitis B, for example) that may lessen the impact of liver cancer in the future.

Proximal Resection Margins: More Prognostic than Distal Resection Margins in Patients Undergoing Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma Resection

  • Yoo, Tae;Park, Sang-Jae;Han, Sung-Sik;Kim, Seong Hoon;Lee, Seung Duk;Kim, Tae Hyun;Lee, Soon-ae;Woo, Sang Myung;Lee, Woo Jin;Hong, Eun Kyung
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.1106-1113
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    • 2018
  • Purpose Even though the therapeutic gold standard of hilar cholangiocarcinoma (HCCA) resection is cancer-free resection margin (RM), surgical treatment still remains challenging. This study evaluated the prognostic significance of RM status in resected HCCA patients and identified survival prognostic factors. Materials and Methods We reviewed records of 96 HCCA patients who underwent surgery from 2001 to 2012 and analyzed the RM status and prognostic factors that affecting survival. Results Negative RM (n=31, 33%) was significantly associated with better survival vs. positive RM (n=65, 67%) (mean survival time [MST], 33 months vs. 21 months; p=0.011). Margins with histological findings of non-dysplastic epithelium, low-grade dysplasia, and carcinoma in situ were not associated with survival differences (MST, 33 months vs. 33 months vs. 30 months; p=0.452), whereas positive margins were associated with poorer survival relative to carcinoma in situ (MST, 30 months vs. 21 months; p=0.050). Among patients with R0 resection, narrow (${\leq}5mm$) and wide (> 5 mm) margins were not associated with survival differences (MST, 33 months vs. 30 months; p=0.234). Although positive proximal RM was associated with poorer survival compared to negative RM (MST, 19 vs. 33; p=0.002), no survival difference was observed between positive and negative distal RMs (MST, 30 vs. 33; p=0.628). Proximal RM positivity (hazard ratio [HR], 2.688; p=0.007) and nodal involvement (HR, 3.293; p < 0.001) were independent survival prognostic factors. Conclusion A clear RM, especially proximal RM status, was significant prognosticator, and proximal bile duct resection to the greatest technically feasible extent may be necessary, with careful consideration of the potential morbidity and oncologic outcomes after resection. However, an aggressive approach to obtain a negative distal RM might be controversial and should be considered carefully, depending on the patient's status.

Attributable Causes of Liver Cancer Mortality and Incidence in China

  • Fan, Jin-Hu;Wang, Jian-Bing;Jiang, Yong;Xiang, Wang;Liang, Hao;Wei, Wen-Qiang;Qiao, You-Lin;Boffetta, Paolo
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.12
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    • pp.7251-7256
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: To estimate the proportion of liver cancer cases and deaths due to infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), aflatoxin exposure, alcohol drinking and smoking in China in 2005. Study design: Systemic assessment of the burden of five modifiable risk factors on the occurrence of liver cancer in China using the population attributable fraction. Methods: We estimated the population attributable fraction of liver cancer caused by five modifiable risk factors using the prevalence data around 1990 and data on relative risks from meta-analyses, and large-scale observational studies. Liver cancer mortality data were from the 3rd National Death Causes Survey, and data on liver cancer incidence were estimated from the mortality data from cancer registries in China and a mortality/incidence ratio calculated. Results: We estimated that HBV infection was responsible for 65.9% of liver cancer deaths in men and 58.4% in women, while HCV was responsible for 27.3% and 28.6% respectively. The fraction of liver cancer deaths attributable to aflatoxin was estimated to be 25.0% for both men and women. Alcohol drinking was responsible for 23.4% of liver cancer deaths in men and 2.2% in women. Smoking was responsible for 18.7% and 1.0%. Overall, 86% of liver cancer mortality and incidence (88% in men and 78% in women) was attributable to these five modifiable risk factors. Conclusions: HBV, HCV, aflatoxin, alcohol drinking and tobacco smoking were responsible for 86% of liver cancer mortality and incidence in China in 2005. Our findings provide useful data for developing guidelines for liver cancer prevention and control in China and other developing countries.

Prognostic Significance of Hes-1, a Downstream Target of Notch Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

  • Zou, Jing-Huai;Xue, Tong-Chun;Sun, Chun;Li, Yan;Liu, Bin-Bin;Sun, Rui-Xia;Chen, Jie;Ren, Zheng-Gang;Ye, Sheng-Long
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.3811-3816
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    • 2015
  • Background: Hairy and enhancer of split 1 (Hes-1) protein is a downstream target of Notch signaling and is a basic helix-loop-helix transcriptional repressor. However, definitive evidence for a role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells has not been reported. Here, Hes-1 was revealed to an important component of the Notch signaling cascade in HCC cell lines possessing different potential for lung metastasis. Materials and Methods: RNAi mediated by plasmid constructs was used to analyze the role of Hes-1 in MHCC-97L HCC cells by assessing proliferation, apoptosis, cell migration and matrigel invasion following transfection. Hes-1 protein expression analysis in HCC tissue was also conducted by immunohistochemistry. Results: Our studies revealed that Hes-1 was decreased in HCC cell lines with higher lung metastasis potential at both the mRNA and protein levels. Down-regulation of the Hes-1 gene in MHCC-97L cells resulted in increased cell proliferation, reduced apoptosis and increased migration and invasion. Conclusions: Hes-1 has potential prognostic value in post-surgical HCC patients and may be an independent prognostic indicator for overall survival and tumor recurrence. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms by which Hes-1 participates in tumor proliferation and invasion.

Cohort Analysis of Incidence/Mortality of Liver Cancer in Japan through Logistic Curve Fitting

  • Okamoto, Etsuji
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.10
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    • pp.5891-5893
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    • 2013
  • Incidence/mortality of liver cancer follow logistic curves because there is a limit reflecting the prevalence of hepatitis virus carriers in the cohort. The author fitted logistic curves to incidence/mortality data covering the nine five-year cohorts born in 1911-1955 of both sexes. Goodness-of-fit of logistic curves was sufficiently precise to be used for future predictions. Younger cohorts born in 1936 or later were predicted to show constant decline in incidence/mortality in the future. The male cohort born in 1931-35 showed an elevated incidence/mortality of liver cancer early in their lives supporting the previous claim that this particular cohort had suffered massive HCV infection due to nation-wide drug abuse in the 1950s. Declining case-fatality observed in younger cohorts suggested improved treatment of liver cancer. This study demonstrated that incidence/mortality of liver cancer follow logistic curves and fitted logistic formulae can be used for future prediction. Given the predicted decline of incidence/mortality in younger cohorts, liver cancer is likely to be lost to history in the not-so-distant future.

Correlations of Tumor-associated Macrophage Subtypes with Liver Metastases of Colorectal Cancer

  • Cui, Yun-Long;Li, Hui-Kai;Zhou, Hong-Yuan;Zhang, Ti;Li, Qiang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.1003-1007
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    • 2013
  • Objective: This work aimed to investigate the correlations of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) and their subtypes M1 and M2 with liver metastasis of colorectal cancer, and provide useful references for seeking predictors of liver metastasis and studying mechanisms. Methods: 120 patients with colorectal cancer from 2000 to 2009 were divided into low, middle and high liver metastasis groups (group A, B and C, respectively). S-P immunohistochemical staining and microscopic observation were conducted to compare expression in CD68-positive cells (TAMs), CD80-positive cells (M1) and CD163-positive cells (M2) in three groups. Correlations of TAMs, M1, M2, and M2/M1 ratio with clinical and pathological parameters were analyzed. Results: With increase of liver metastatic ability, the number of TAMs decreased gradually, with no significant difference between any two of the three groups (P > 0.05), while the numbers of M1 and M2 were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, with significant difference between any two of three groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). In addition, the M2/M1 ratio increased with increase of liver metastatic ability (P < 0.01). There was no statistical significance of correlation of TAMs with each clinical and pathological parameter. M1 was negatively related with lymphatic metastasis and liver metastatic ability. M2 was positively correlated with preoperative CEA level, lymphatic metastasis, tumor differentiation degree and liver metastatic ability. The same was the case for the M2/M1 ratio. Conclusions: Effects of TAMs on liver metastasis of colorectal cancer do not depend on the total number of TAMs, but on the number and proportion of functional subtypes M1 and M2. M2 number and M2/M1 ratio are more accurate predictors for liver metastasis of colorectal cancer.