• Title, Summary, Keyword: Litter quality

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APPLICATION AND EVALUATION OF THE GLEAMS MODEL TO A CATTLE GRAZING PASTURE FIELD IN NORTH ALABAMA

  • Kang, M. S.;P. prem, P.-Prem;Yoo, K. H.;Im, Sang-Jun
    • Water Engineering Research
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.55-68
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    • 2004
  • The GLEAMS (Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management System, version 3.0) water quality model was used to predict hydrology and water quality and to evaluate the effects of soil types from a cattle-grazed pasture field of Bermuda-Rye grass rotation with poultry litter application as a fertilizer in North Alabama. The model was applied and evaluated by using four years (1999-2002) of field-measured data to compare the simulated results for the 2.71- ha Summerford watershed. $R^2$ values between observed and simulated runoff, sediment yields, TN, and TP were 0.91, 0.86, 0.95, and 0.69, respectively. EI (Efficiency Index) of these parameters were 0.86, 0.67, 0.70, and 0.48, respectively. The statistical parameters indicated that GLEAMS provided a reasonable estimation of the runoff, sediment yield, and nutrient losses at the studied watershed. The soil infiltration rates were compared with the rainfall events. Only high intensity rainfall events generated runoff from the watershed. The measured and predicted infiltration rates were higher during dry soil conditions than wet soil conditions. The ratio of runoff to precipitation was ranging from 2.2% to 8.8% with average of 4.3%. This shows that the project site had high infiltration and evapotranspiration which generated the low runoff. The ratio of runoff to precipitation according to soil types by the GLEAMS model appeared that Sa (Sequatchie fine sandy loam) soil type was higher and Wc (Waynesboro fine sandy loam, severely eroded rolling phase) soil type relatively lower than the weighted average of the soil types in the watershed. The model under-predicted runoff, sediment yields, TN, and TP in Wb (Waynesboro fine sandy loam, eroded undulating phase) and Wc soil types. General tendency of the predicted data was similar for all soil types. The model predicted the highest runoff in Sa soil type by 105% of the weighted average and the lowest runoff in Wc soil type by 87% of the weighted average

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Preliminary Phosphorous Removal Rate in a Natural-type Constructed Wetland for Stream Water Treatment (하천수정화 근자연형 인공습지의 초기 인 제거)

  • Yang, Hongmo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.30-36
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    • 2002
  • A 0.19 hectare natural-type wetland for stream water treatment demonstration was constructed and planted with cattails from April 2001 to May 2001. Part of its bottom surfaces adjacent to levees have a variety of slope of 1 : 4~1 : 15. Two small open water areas were installed, in which emergent plants could not grow. Removal of nutrients from stream waters was a major objective of the wetland. Waters of Sinyang Stream flowing into Kohung Estuarine Lake were pumped and funneled into the wetland. The lake had been formed by a salt marsh reclamation project and was located southern coastal region of Korean Peninsula. Volumes and water quality of inflow and outflow were analyzed from July 2001 through December 2001. Inflow and outflow averaged $120.4m^3/day$ and $112.1m^3/day$, respectively. Hydraulic retention time was about 3.1 days. Average total phosphorous concentration of influent and effluent was $0.19mg/{\ell}$ and $0.075mg/{\ell}$, respectively. Total phosphorous loading rate of inflow and outflow averaged $12.05mg\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$ and $4.44mg\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$, respectively. Average total phosphorous removal rate in the wetland was $7.61mg\;m^{-2}\;day^{-1}$. Seasonal changes of phosphorous retention rates were observed. The wetland acted as effective phosphorous sinks in the initial stage of the constructed wetland.

CONSIDERATIONS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF FUTURE PIG BREEDING PROGRAM - REVIEW -

  • Haley, C.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.305-328
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    • 1991
  • Pig breeding programs have been very successful in the improvement of animals by the simple expedient of focusing on a few traits of economic importance, particularly growth efficiency and leanness. Further reductions in leanness may become more difficult to achieve, due to reduced genetic variation, and less desirable, due to adverse correlated effects on meat and eating quality. Best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) of breeding values makes possible the incorporation of data from many sources and increases the value of including traits such as sow performance in the breeding objective. Advances in technology, such as electronic animal identification, electronic feeders, improved ultrasonic scanners and automated data capture at slaughter houses, increase the number of sources of information that can be included in breeding value predictions. Breeding program structures will evolve to reflect these changes and a common structure is likely to be several or many breeding farms genetically linked by A.i., with data collected on a number of traits from many sources and integrated into a single breeding value prediction using BLUP. Future developments will include the production of a porcine gene map which may make it possible to identify genes controlling economically valuable traits, such as those for litter size in the Meishan, and introgress them into nucleus populations. Genes identified from the gene map or from other sources will provide insight into the genetic basis of performance and may provide the raw material from which transgenic programs will channel additional genetic variance into nucleus populations undergoing selection.

Effects of controlled environmental changes on the mineralization of soil organic matter

  • Choi, In-Young;Nguyen, Hang Vo-Minh;Choi, Jung Hyun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.347-355
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated how the combined changes in environmental conditions and nitrogen (N) deposition influence the mineralization processes and carbon (C) dynamics of wetland soil. For this objective, we conducted a growth chamber experiment to examine the effects of combined changes in environmental conditions and N deposition on the anaerobic decomposition of organic carbon and the emission of greenhouse gases from wetland soil. A chamber with elevated $CO_2$ and temperature showed almost twice the reduction of total decomposition rate compared to the chamber with ambient atmospheric conditions. In addition, $CO_2$ fluxes decreased during the incubation under the conditions of ambient $CO_2$ and temperature. The decrease in anaerobic microbial metabolism resulted from the presence of vegetation, which influences the litter quality of soils. This can be supported by the increase in C/N ratio over the experimental duration. Principle component analysis results demonstrated the opposite locations of loadings for the cases at the initial time and after three months of incubation, which indicates a reduction in the decomposition rate and an increasing C/N ratio during the incubation. From the distribution between the decomposition rate and gas fluxes, we concluded that anaerobic decomposition rates do not have a significantly positive relationship with the fluxes of greenhouse gas emissions from the soil.

Quality Characteristics of Baechu Kimchi at Jangsu Area as Compared with Commercial Kimchi (장수지역 배추김치와 시판 배추김치의 품질 평가)

  • Lee, Young-Sook;Cha, Jin-A;Rho, Jeong-Ok
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.413-422
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    • 2013
  • This study investigates the kimchi from Jangsu area (JSK) and its comparison with commercial kimchi (CMK). We conducted a sensory evaluation for the pH, titratable acidity, salinity, hunter's color values and mechanical characteristics of kimchi. The pH of JSK is significantly higher than CMK throughout the fermentation (p<0.001). At 15 days, JSK reached the stage of optimal maturity for pH 4.23~4.55 and CMK showed pH 3.96~4.00 as conditions after the optimal maturity (p<0.001). From the results of acidity analyses, CMK also showed higher acidity values than JSK (p<0.001), indicating that the rate of fermentation progress was faster in CMK. Salinity of JSK was a litter higher than CMK1 and CMK2 (p<0.001) and JSK indicated significantly higher L, a, b values during fermentation (p<0.001). Moreover, the textural values were significantly higher in JSK2 and JSK3 retaining hardness of the tissues. In the sensory assessment, the color, flavor, crispness, taste, and overall preferences were higher in JSK3 at 15 days and 30 days than CMK. Therefore, it seems necessary for recipe developments of kimchi with local characteristics in order to industrialize kimchi by using alpine crops at Jangsu area.

Effects of Supplementing Different Combinations of Nitrogen Supplements on Digestibility and Performance in Sheep Fed Wheat Straw Diets

  • Li, Yong;Li, Defa;Xing, Jianjun;Li, Shengli;Han, Yang;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.10
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    • pp.1428-1432
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    • 2002
  • Thirty-six (20 wethers and 16 rams) adult Gansu highland finewool sheep with an average liveweight of $19.42{\pm}1.83kg$ were used. The sheep were allocated to 4 treatments and confined in individual feeding stalls. The 80 day feeding trial was divided into 2 periods of 38 and 42 days. The sheep had access to clean water and were fed chopped wheat straw ad libitum. Daily supplemented diets of 150 g for the first period and 200 g for the later period were provided. The 4 types of supplements were: Wheat bran type (I), which is the traditional feeding practice in the area and the control group; Linseed cake type (II); Linseed cake+poultry litter type (III); Poultry litter+distiller grains type (IV). The digestibility trial was conducted using a total collection method at the end of the first period in the feeding trial. The results showed that the digestibilities of DM, OM, CP, CF, NDF and ADF in group II and III were increased to more than 50%. CP and NDF digestibility in group II were significantly increased by 23.6% and 25.5% respectively over group I (p<0.01) and by 10.1% and 13.1% respectively over group III (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, CF, NDF and ADF in group IV was lower than group I by 4.4 to 8.4% (p>0.05). Compared to group I, group II and III increased straw intake by 17.6% (p<0.01) and 10.8% (p<0.05). The ADG increased from 16.2 g in group I to 45.3 g and 32.8 g (p<0.01) in group II and III respectively. The ratio of supplement intake to gain decreased from 10.7 in group I to 3.9 and 5.4 (p<0.01) in group II and III respectively. The ratio of supplement cost to gain also decreased by 60.0% and 64.3%, respectively. The wool growth rate and wool strength in these 2 groups were noticeably improved. This significantly enhanced the wool's textile value. The above parameters in group IV were lower than in group I, except the ratio of supplement cost to gain. This research indicates that local low quality nitrogen resources could be used effectively and economically to improve the utilization of wheat straw fed to sheep on smallholder farms under harsh loess plateau conditions in the winter.

Soil Respiration in Pinus rigida and Larix leptolepis Plantations (리기다소나무와 낙엽송(落葉松) 인공조림지내(人工造林地內) 토양발생(土壤發生) 이산화탄소(二酸化炭素)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Son, Yowhan;Kim, Hyun-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.85 no.3
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    • pp.496-505
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    • 1996
  • Soil respiration was measured every two weeks from May through November 1995 using the soda lime method in 40-Year-old Pinus rigida and Larix leptolepis plantations on a similar soil in Yangpyeong, Kyonggi Province. Treatments included control and no-roots(plots trenched and root regrowth into plots prevented). Root respiration was evaluated by comparing no-roots sub-plots to control plots. Mean soil respiration showed highly significant species effects(p<0.01) and was highest at the Pinus rigida control plot($0.38g/m^2/hr$) and lowest at the Larix leptolepis no-roots plot($0.31g/m^2/hr$). High soil respiration in Pinus rigida may be related to aboveground litter production. The annual $CO_2$ fluxes ranged from 23 to 27t/ha/yr. We found significant correlations between temperatures(air : $R^2$=0.53, soil : $R^2$=0.55) and soil respiration(p<0.01), but no significant correlations between soil moisture and soil respiration(p>0.1). Root respiration was 3% of total soil respiration. We might underestimate rapt respiration because of shallow trenches and $CO_2$measurements right after trenching. Factors controlling soil respiration including belowground litterfall(especially fine roots) inputs, litter quality should be well understood to predict soil carbon fluxes and relative contributions to total soil respiration in forest ecosystems.

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Effects of low-dose organic trace minerals on performance, mineral status, and fecal mineral excretion of sows

  • Ma, Lianxiang;He, Junna;Lu, Xintao;Qiu, Jialing;Hou, Chuanchuan;Liu, Bing;Lin, Gang;Yu, Dongyou
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 2020
  • Objective: To investigate the effects of low-dose trace mineral proteinates on reproductive performance, mineral status, milk immunoglobulin contents and fecal mineral excretion of sows. Methods: Eighty crossbred sows (Landrace×Large White) were randomly allocated to two groups in a 135-day trail, from breeding through 21 d postpartum. The two treatments were inorganic trace minerals (ITM): a basal diet+inorganic iron (Fe), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) at 90, 15, 25 and 90 mg/kg, respectively and organic trace minerals (OTM): a basal diet+proteinates of Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn at 72, 12, 20, and 72 mg/kg, respectively. Results: Compared with ITM, OTM significantly increased (p<0.05) the number of piglets with birthweight >1 kg, the litter weaning weight, and milk Fe, Cu contents. No significant differences (p>0.05) were observed on sow hair mineral contents or immunoglobulin M (IgM), IgG, and IgA contents in colostrum and milk. In comparsion to ITM, OTM decreased fecal Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn contents of gestating sows (p<0.01) and Fe, Mn, and Zn in lactating sows (p<0.01). Conclusion: These results indicate that low-dose mineral proteinates can increase the number of piglets with birthweight >1 kg, the litter weaning weight and certain milk mineral concentrations while reducing fecal mineral excretion.

Using a Choice Experiment to Measure the Non-market Value of Sea Water Quality with a Focus on the Incheon Special Area Management Plan (선택실험법을 이용한 해역수질 속성의 비시장적 가치 추정: 인천특별관리해역을 중심으로)

  • Jin, Se-Jun;Park, So-Yeon;Yoo, Seung-Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.451-458
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    • 2018
  • The coast of Incheon reaches Incheon itself, Gimpo, Siheung, and Ansan of Gyunggi-do. Because this area has been seriously polluted, the Ministry of Oceans and Fisheries has established the Incheon Special Area Management Plan (SAMP) to preserve sea water quality as a marine environment asset. However, there is concern that actions taken in this area may change the surrounding marine ecology, being effected by farms, via a river that flows from waste lands, abandoned fishing activities and fishing nets, etc. Given this background, this study estimates the value of SAMP sea water quality using a choice experiment (CE). A CE survey of 1,000 households was undertaken, investigating trade-offs involving price and four attributes for selecting a preferred alternative to obtain a marginal willingness to pay (MWTP) estimate for each attribute. The estimation results showed that MWTP for a 1 %p improvement in sea water quality, the diversity of fauna species, the diversity of flora species, and a 1 %p reduction in marine litter as a result of conserving Incheon coastal sea water quality are estimated to be KRW 75, 135, 309 and 72 per household per year, respectively. All estimation results were statistically significant at the 1 % level. These findings can provide policy makers with useful information for evaluating and planning marine environmental management policies.

Water Quality Improvement by Natural Wetland (습지에 의한 수질개선 효과)

  • Kim, Bom-Chul;Kim, Ho-Sub;Jun, Man-Sig;Hwang, Gil-Son
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.295-303
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    • 2000
  • The water clarification efficiency was examined in a shallow wetland where dense vegetation was formed naturally in an abandoned paddy field. And, also two enclosure experiments were carried out to measure the effects of materials exchange between sediment and the overlying water with the existence of vegetation and accumulated litter. The hydraulic retention time of wetland was regulated in 1.2 day. The removal rates of SS (56%) and $NO_3-N$ (61%) were high, considering its short retention time. However, removal efficiencies of VSS (28%), COD (14%), DOC (1%),and TP (0.2%) were relatively lower. This low removal efficiencies were thought to be due to the release of dissolved form of organic matter and phosphorus from the sediment. Most of constituents except nitrate were higher in the enclosure at the beginning of enclosure installation than that of the outflowing water from wetland. And then, it has fluctuated and decreased with time. The wetland was in equilibrium state of settling, accumulation of organic debris, and regeneration of dissolved material from sediment. So ultimately high primary production by dense vegetation in the wetland may be the reason of unfavorable or low treatment efficiency of wetland after many years of operation for wastewater treatment. However, the water quality of effluent from the wetland showed smaller variation and better condition than that of inflow, especially during storm events. It can be concluded that this wetland is suitable for the improvement of water quality from nonpoint sources.

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