• Title, Summary, Keyword: Litter quality

Search Result 67, Processing Time 0.036 seconds

Nutrient Recycling : The North American Experience - Review -

  • Fontenot, J.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.642-650
    • /
    • 1999
  • Options available for utilization of animal wastes include sources of plant nutrients, feed ingredients for farm animals, substrate for methane generation, and substrate for microbial and insect protein synthesis. The wastes have the most economic value for use as animal feed. Performance of animals fed diets containing animal wastes is similar to that of animals fed conventional diets. Processing of animal wastes to be used as animal feed is necessary for destruction of pathogens, improvement of handling and storage characteristics, and maintenance or enhancement of palatability. Feeding of animal waste has not adversely affected the quality and taste of animal products. In the USA copper toxicity has been reported in sheep fed high-copper poultry litter, but this is not a serious problem with cattle. Potential pathogenic microorganisms in animal wastes are destroyed by processing such as heat treatment, ensiling and deep stacking. Incidents of botulism, caused by Clostridium botulinum, have been reported in cattle in some countries, and this problem was caused by the presence of poultry carcasses in litter. This problem has not occurred in the USA. With appropriate withdrawal, heavy metal, pesticide or medicinal drug accumulation in edible tissues of animals fed animal wastes is not a problem. Feeding of animal wastes is regulated by individual states in the USA. The practice is regulated in Canada, also. With good management, animal wastes can be used safely as animal feed.

Genetic parameter estimation for reproductive traits in QingYu pigs and comparison of carcass and meat quality traits to Berkshire×QingYu crossbred pigs

  • Luo, Jia;Yang, Yiting;Liao, Kun;Liu, Bin;Chen, Ying;Shen, Linyuan;Chen, Lei;Jiang, An'an;Liu, Yihui;Li, Qiang;Wang, Jinyong;Li, Xuewei;Zhang, Shunhua;Zhu, Li
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.33 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1224-1232
    • /
    • 2020
  • Objective: The QingYu pig is well known for its excellent meat quality attributes in Sichuan province, China. In order to improve its production efficiency, the determination of genetic factors contributing to quantifiable economic traits of livestock is important. Moreover, the cross-breeding of QingYu pigs with western breeds possessing strong growth attributes is an efficient way to improve the performance of this breed. Methods: Here, the genetic parameters of several important reproductive traits of QingYu pigs were estimated, include total number born (TNB), number born alive, litter birth weight, individual birth weight, number of piglets weaned, litter weaning weight, and individual weaning weight. The data was analyzed using the ASReml 3.0 software (NSW Inc., Sydney, Australia). Furthermore, the effects of crossing Berkshire with QingYu (BQ) pigs on carcass and meat quality traits, as well as the effects of slaughter weight on carcass and meat quality of BQ were characterized. Results: QingYu pigs exhibited superior reproductive traits. The TNB available to QingYu pigs was more than 8 per parity. The observed repeatability of the reproductive traits of the QingYu pigs was between 0.10 and 0.23. The significantly correlated genetic and phenotypic of reproduction traits were consistent. Interestingly, the BQ pigs exhibited improved carcass quality, with a significant increase in loin muscle area, lean percentage and reduction in sebum percentage. As a result, BQ had higher L45min, lower cooking scores, and lower drip loss. In addition, the loin muscle area, body length, and sebum percentage were significantly higher in 90 and 100 kg animals. Cooking loss showed a significant increase at 80 kg, and marbling increased significantly from 90 kg. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that QingYu pigs exhibit excellent reproductive properties and heritability of these traits. Crossing with Berkshire is an efficient strategy to improve the carcass and meat quality of QingYu pigs for commercial operations. Furthermore, it appears as though the optimal slaughter weight of BQ pigs is at approximately 90 kg.

Quality assessment of mushroom (Agricus bisporus) composts during production using Near Infrared spectroscopy

  • Hss, Sharma;Kilpatrick, M;Lyons, G;Murray, J;Mellon, R
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.1517-1517
    • /
    • 2001
  • Cultural conditions during production of compost, using wheat straw and chicken litter as raw materials, will affect the microbial and biochemical characteristics, leading to a wide variation in mushroom productivity. Over the past 10 years, chemical and instrumental methods, suitable for assessing compost quality have been studied in Northern Ireland. In addition, the use of near subject of investigation over the past 4 years. Previous studies have shown that NIRS can be used fer assessing quality of dried and milled composts. The aim of the current investigation is to develop NIR calibrations for key quality parameters such as dry matter, pH, nitrogen, carbon, ash, microbial population and fibre factions during the two stages of production using spectra of fresh composts. Near infrared reflectance measurements of fresh composts prepared by 6 producers were made during a two-year period. Although the spectra of fresh composts were dominated by two moisture peaks at 1450 nm and 1940 nm, good calibrations for determining moisture content, conductivity, pH, nitrogen, carbon and fibre fractions were developed. The results of quality assessment during commercial production using the calibrations will be presented and discussed.

  • PDF

Denitrification potential of riparian sediments amended with organic substrates

  • Kim, Haryun
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.37 no.3
    • /
    • pp.139-145
    • /
    • 2014
  • Denitrification permanently removes nitrate from aquatic ecosystems, so construction of denitrification walls to enhance denitrification activity is often suggested to reduce the nitrate levels from tributary ecosystems. However, little information is available to guide the choice of appropriate organic materials for increasing denitrification rates in the walls. This study investigated how differences in organic substrates originating from litter and organic materials affected denitrification and carbon mineralization rates in riparian sediments. Potential denitrification rates were highest in riparian sediments that contained large quantities of extractable organic carbon (Ext. Org C) and that had high anaerobic carbon mineralization rates, but they were negatively correlated with C:N ratios. Therefore, this research suggested that the both carbon quantity and quality should be considered when assessing the efficiency of organic substrates to remove nitrate from tributary ecosystems.

Spatio-Temporal 3D Joint Noise Reduction Filter (시공간 3차원 결합 잡음제거 필터)

  • 홍성훈;홍성용
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
    • /
    • v.5 no.2
    • /
    • pp.147-157
    • /
    • 2002
  • Noise in image sequences is visually offensive and may mask important image detail. In addition to degradation of visual quality, the noise pattern increases the entropy of the image, and thus hinders effective compression. This paper proposes a spatial and a temporal joint filters to reduce the noise by jointly connecting two adaptive noise reducers with different characteristics, and we also propose an IIR-type 3D noise reduction litter scheme connecting the spatial and the temporal joint filters. The proposed 3D IIR filter not only strongly removes noise in uniform image regions while preserving edges and details but also effectively suppresses temporal flicker caused by noise. Experimental results show that the proposed scheme improves subjective quality as well as objective quality as compared with the various noise filtering techniques.

  • PDF

Prediction of Nitrogen Loading from Forest Stands in Eutrophication of Lake (호소 부영양화에 있어서 산림임반으로부터 질소부하 평가를 위한 조사)

  • Chung, Doug-Young;Lee, Young-Han;Lee, Jin-Ho;Park, Mi-Suk
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.43 no.4
    • /
    • pp.430-437
    • /
    • 2010
  • The continuous release of nutrient sources into natural water resource can be a continuing problem in eutrophication, as well as severe reductions in water quality. However, any desirable measure is not developed yet even though so many researches and efforts have been done to solve this problem. Forest as one of troublesome nonpoint sources may contributes most to nutrient loading, but the loading of N and P from forest in order to grasp the eutrophication potential of nonpoint sources has not been evaluated. The nutrient sources from the organic litter accumulated on the surface of forest soils can be a critical factor in continuity of eutrophication of a lake. The decomposition rate of litter can be estimated to predict release of N and P from the forest stand. The loss rate of nitrogen is complicated but depends in part upon the physical matrix of the element. Therefore, long-term nutrient budget and flux estimates at stand would be useful tools in calculating potential nutrient fluxes into the watercourses in a sustainable way. The present investigation can give insight to the actual situation of the eutrophication potentials of forest as the practical nonpoint sources.

Acoustic and Stroboscopic Characteristics in Clergies (목사들의 음성발성에 대한 음향분석학적 특징)

  • 진성민;박상욱;강현국;이경철;이용배;김보형
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Laryngology, Phoniatrics and Logopedics
    • /
    • v.9 no.1
    • /
    • pp.47-52
    • /
    • 1998
  • Objectives : To compare the objective differences in voice quality and voice problems between clergies and normal male control group. Materials and Methods : The sustained vowel sound of 46 clergies and 40 normal persons were analyzed, using a videostroboscopy and acoustic analyzer. Together with these analyses, a questionnaire associated with current and past voice problems was handed over to the patients. Results : The most common symptom in subjective group was the voice fatigue. Stroboscopic findings in subjective group were as following 23 cases(50%) of pachydermia, 17 cases(37%) of phase difference, 12 cases(25%) of anterior-posterior contracture, 6 cases(13%) of vocal polyp and 3 cases(7%) of vocal nodule. The mean maximal phonation time in clergies was 17.8 seconds and in control group was 19 seconds. litter, pitch perturbation quotient and shimmer were significantly increased in subjective group than in control group(p<0.05), but there were no significant differences between two groups in fundamental frequency, vFo, amplitude perturbation quotient and noise to harmonic ratio. Conclusion : In the clergies using loud and forceful voice, vocal polyp and functional voice disorder findings were frequently noted in stroboscopic examination. litter and shimmer, reflecting the roughness of voice, were increased in acoustic analysis. Therefore, clergies, classified into untrained professional voice users, need professional career guidance and counseling.

  • PDF

The Aspect of Natural Regeneration for Major Tree Species in the Natural Deciduous Forest (천연문엽수임내(天然聞葉樹林內) 주요(主要) 구성(構成) 수종(樹種)의 천연경신(天然更新) 양상(樣相))

  • Kim, Ji Hong;Yang, Hee Moon;Jin, Guang Ze;Lee, Won Sup;Kang, Sung Kee
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
    • /
    • v.17 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-17
    • /
    • 2001
  • Forming a part of "Cooperative Practical Study for the Modernization of the Management of National Forest", this study was conducted to provide overall ecological information for the natural regeneration of major tree species on the basis of community structural attributes in the deciduous forest ecosystem. Followings are summarized characteristics of the natural regeneration for the selected tree species. Betula costata : Although large number of seeds are dispersed by wind, they require mineral soils to germinate. Thick litter layer could be an obstacle to germinate. After germination, the seedling requires large amount of light for successful establishment. Acer mono : Characterized by high shade tolerance and weak drought resistance, the seedling should be overcasted with more than 50% of canopy coverage. High stand density should be maintained to produce good quality of timber. The potential of coppice may be high. Ulmus laciniata : Since this species needs high rate of troll moisture and light, around 60% of canopy coverage should be maintained to retain moisture and incoming light. The competition with other vegetation should be removed for the favor of successful seedling establishment. Fraxinus mandshurica : This species requires moist mineral soils to germinate. After germination, the seedling needs large amount of light and moisture for successful establishment. Site preparation should be applied to reduce competition with weedy vegetation. Fraxinus rhynchophylla : Interval of large seed crops may be highly varied. Thick litter layer could be an obstacle to germinate. Site preparation should be applied to reduce competition with weedy vegetation so as to achieve successful seedling establishment. Quercus mongolica : Including the difficulty of seed supply by the consumption, thick litter layer and mountain bamboo cover could be the obstacle to germinate. More than 50% of relative light intensity is necessary to achieve successful seedling establishment. Kalopanax pictus : Thick litter layer could be an obstacle to germinate. The seedling needs large amount of light and moisture for successful establishment. Abies holophylla : In spite of high shade tolerance, the growth rate in sapling stage may be extremely slow. Cornus controversa : Seeds (drups) are consumed and dispersed by animals, tending to be not sufficient in seed supply. This species requires large amount of light for successful germination and seedling establishment. Tilia amurensis : The difficulty of seed supply might be expected with low seed purity and double dormancy. Since thick litter layer could be an obstacle to germinate, the species requires moist mineral soils for successful germination. The potential of coppice may be extremely high.

  • PDF

Effects of Expander Conditioning of Corn- and Sorghum-Based Diets on Pellet Quality and Performance in Finishing Pigs and Lactating Sows

  • Johnston, S.L.;Hancock, J.D.;Hines, R.H.;Kennedy, G.A.;Traylor, S.L.;Chae, B.J.;Han, In K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.12 no.4
    • /
    • pp.565-572
    • /
    • 1999
  • Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of conditioning (conventional vs expander) corn- and sorghum-based diets on production traits for lactating sows and finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, one hundred sixty-eight sows (parity 1-4, PIC line C15) were fed the corn or sorghum grain diets as a meal, standard (steam) conditioned pellets, or expanded pellets to give a $2{\times}3$ factorial arrangement of treatments. Pellet durability index (PDD was similar for the sorghum- vs corn-based diets, but increased when diets were expanded pellets for both corn- and sorghum-based diets. The corn-based meal diet supported 3.3% greater litter weight gain than the sorghum-based meal diet (44.0 kg vs 42.8 kg). However, the advantage for the corn-based diet disappeared with expander processing (ie., sows fed the sorghum-based diet responded more to diets processed with the alternative processing technology). Sow weight change during lactation was similar (p>0.15) among treatments, although average daily feed intake tended to be greater (p<0.09) for the sows fed sorghum. For Exp. 2, a total of 71 barrows (average initial weight of 58.0 kg) were used in a growth assay to determine the effects of feeding com- and sorghum-based diets, as meal or pellets, after processing with a conventional steam conditioner or an expander (high-shear) conditioner. PDI was not different for the sorghum- vs corn-based diets, but increased from 84 to 95% with expander conditioning compared to conventional steam conditioning. Rate and efficiency of gain, and carcass leanness were similar for pigs fed sorghum and corn (p>0.15). Efficiency of gain was greater (p<0.04) for pigs fed the pelleted (356 g/kg) diets compared to those given the meal (348 g/kg) diets. However, efficiencies of gain were similar (p>0.11) for pigs fed the conventional- and expander-conditioned diets. Pelleting increased (p<0.01) the incidence and severity of stomach lesions regardless of grain type. In conclusion, corn-based meal diet resulted in a greater litter weight gain than the sorghum-based meal diet. However, that advantage disappeared when the diets were expanded and pelleted. Finishing pigs fed pelleted diets were more efficient than those fed meal diets.

Physicochemical Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of the Meat from Korean Native Black Pig with Different Slaughter Weight

  • Kim, Il-Suk;Jin, Sang-Keun;Jo, Cheo-Run;Lee, Moo-Ha;Jang, Ae-Ra
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.13 no.1
    • /
    • pp.23-27
    • /
    • 2008
  • The Korean native black pig (KNP) have several desirable meat qualities, which are highly demanded by Koreans in spite of its slow growth rate, low feed efficiency, and small litter size. The aim of this study was to evaluate meat quality and fatty acid composition of KNP at different slaughter weight in order to provide information to industry. Ninety female KNP of the same age (220 days) were divided into three groups by live body weights (30 pigs per each group); live weight of 50$\sim$59 kg (T1), 60$\sim$69 kg (T2) and 70$\sim$80 kg (T3), respectively. After slaughtering the longissimus dorsi muscle (LD) and backfat from each group were obtained after 24 hr chilling. Crude protein content and shear force of LD from T3 was higher than that from T1 and pH of LD was significantly lower in that from T1 than from T2 and T3. Color measurement indicated that LD of T2 group had a higher $L^*$-value and lower $a^*$-value than those of T1 and T3. Slaughter weight of KNP generally did not affect the fatty acid composition of LD and backfat but the content of oleic acid (C18:1) of T2 in LD was significantly higher than those of T1 and T3. The results may provide basic information to industry to promote the production and processing of KNP, and assist in meeting the Korean consumer's demand.