• Title, Summary, Keyword: Litter quality

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Effects of Dietary Hermetia illucens Powder on Duck Litter Quality and Livestock Environment (동애등에(Hermetia illucens) 분말을 오리 사료에 첨가 시 오리 깔짚 특성과 축산환경에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.713-717
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary Hermetia illucens powder on duck litter quality. One hundred twenty Pekin ducks (0 day old) were assigned to 2 groups (0% and 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder) with 3 replicates (20 ducks per replicate) for 42 days. Duck litter quality included moisture, pH, VBN, total nitrogen, ammonia, and temperature. Litter pH and VBN values were significantly affected by Hermetia illucens powder (p<0.05). However, moisture and total nitrogen values were not greatly influenced by the addition of 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder (p>0.05). At 21, 28 and 35 days, both 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder and controls had a great effect (p<0.05) on ammonia contents, except at 7, 14 and 42 days. In comparison to control, ammonia contents in groups with 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder were reduced from 16.9 to 41.8% as the days increased. Duck litter showed lower temperature by 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder compare to control. In terms of environmental managements, these results suggest that using 0.5% Hermetia illucens powder as feed additives improved litter quality and decreased ammonia contents.

Assessing the Impact of Liquid Potassium Permanganate on Litter Quality of Poultry (액상 과망간산칼륨 적용시 육계 깔짚의 특성 평가)

  • Choi, In-Hag
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.119-122
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    • 2020
  • The effects of liquid potassium permanganate (KMnO4) on the litter quality of poultry were investigated. Two-hundred-forty 0-day-old broiler chickens (Arbor Acres) were randomly assigned to two treatments with four replicated pens of 30 chickens each. Treatment liquid KMnO4 at a rate of 50 g of liquid KMnO4/kg of poultry litter was sprayed onto the litter surface using a small hand pump; others served as a control that was applied without liquid KMnO4 additions. Compared with controls, the treatment liquid KMnO4 showed no differences in pH, total nitrogen and ammonia concentration. It was concluded that liquid KMnO4 did not significantly increase poultry litter quality. Mechanisms relating to increasing litter pH and ammonia using liquid KMnO4 are an oxidant agent (not acid-foaming agents).

Evaluation of the Effects of a Combination of Silicate Minerals in Duck Diets on Growth Performance and Litter Quality

  • Chung, Tae-Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.933-936
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    • 2018
  • An experiment was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a mixture of bentonite and illite as feed additives on the growth performance and litter quality of 90 Pekin ducks. The ducks were individually weighed and randomly divided into two treatments (control and 1% combination of silicate minerals), with three replicate pens per treatment, and 15 ducks per pen. Growth performance was not significantly affected (p>0.05) by the combination of bentonite and illite, but a trend of increased growth performance was observed in the control groups. Total nitrogen content and pH in the litter decreased following supplementation with the combination of bentonite and illite (p<0.05) when compared with the control group. This data indicates that the dietary supplementation with the combination of bentonite and illite (1% level) has no positive effect on the growth performance and litter quality of Pekin ducks.

Optimal Poultry Litter Management through GIS-based Transportation Analysis System

  • Kang, M.S.;Srivastava, P.;Fulton, J.P.;Tyson, T.;Owsley, W.F.;Yoo, K.H.
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.48 no.7
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    • pp.73-86
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    • 2006
  • Concentrated poultry production in the State of Alabama, U.S.A. results in excessive poultry litter. Application of poultry litter to pastures and row crops serves as a cheap alternative to commercial fertilizer. However, over the years, poultry litter application to perennial forage crops in the Appalachian Plateau region of North Alabama has resulted in phosphorus (P) buildup in soils. Phosphorus index (P-index) and comprehensive nutrient management plans (CNMP) are often used as a best management practice (BMP) for proper land application of litter. Because nutrient management planning is often not done for small animal feeding operations (AFOs), and also because, in case of excess litter, litter transportation infrastructure has not been developed, over application of poultry litter to near by area is a common practice. To alleviate this problem, optimal poultry litter management and transportation infrastructure needs to be developed. This paper presents a methodology to optimize poultry litter application and transportation through efficient nutrient management planning and transportation network analysis. The goal was accomplished through implementation of three important modules, a P-Index module, a CNMP module, and a transportation network analysis module within ArcGIS, a Geographic Information System (GIS). The CNMP and P-Index modules assist with land application of poultry litter at a rate that is protective of water quality, while the transportation network analysis module helps transport excess litter to areas requiring litter in the Appalachian Plateau and Black Belt (a nutrient-deficient area) regions. Once fully developed and implemented, such a system will help alleviate water quality problems in the Appalachian Plateau region and poor soil fertility problems in the Black Belt region by optimizing land application and transportation. The utility of the methodology is illustrated through a hypothetical case study.

Loading Rates and Characteristics of Litter from Highway Stormwater Runoff (강우로 인해 고속도로로부터 유출되는 폐기물의 성상, 부하량 및 유출 특성)

  • Kim, Lee-Hyung;Kang, Joohyon
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.415-421
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    • 2004
  • Litter wastes on highway runoff are gradually being considered one of the major pollutants of concern in protecting the integrity of receiving waters for beneficial use. The California State Water Resources Control Board has identified in their 303(d) list at least 36 water bodies where trash or litter is considered a pollutant of concern. The first TMDL adopted by the Region 4 (Los Angeles area) of the California State Water Quality Control Board was for trash in the Los Angeles River. The first flush characteristic study was developed to obtain first flush water quality and litter data from representative stormwater runoff from standard highway drainage outfalls in the Los Angeles area. Total captured gross pollutants in stormwater runoff were monitored at six Southern California highway sites over two years. The gross pollutants were 90% vegetation and 10% litter. Approximately 50% of the litter was composed of biodegradable materials. The event mean concentrations show an increasing trend with antecedent dry days and a decreasing trend with total runoff volume or total rainfall. Event mean concentrations were ranged 0.0021 to 0.259g/L for wet gross pollutants and 0.0001 to 0.027g/L for wet litters. The first flush phenomenon was evaluated and the impacts of various parameters such as rainfall intensity, drainage area, peak flow rate, and antecedent dry period on litter volume and loading rates were evaluated. First flush phenomenon was generally observed for litter concentrations, but was not apparent with litter mass loading rates. Litter volume and loading rates appear to be directly related to peak storm intensity, antecedent dry days and total flow volume.

Nutrient Dynamics in Litterfall and Decomposing Leaf Litter at the Kwangneung Deciduous Broad-Leaved Natural Forest (광릉 천연활엽수림의 낙엽낙지와 낙엽분해에 따른 양분동태)

  • Choonsig Kim;Jong-Hwan Lim;Joon Hwan Shin
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.87-93
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    • 2003
  • Litterfall and litter decomposition represent a major contribution to the carbon and nutrient inputs in a forest ecosystem. We measured litterfall quantity and nutrient dynamics in decomposing litter for two years at the Kwangneung broadleaf natural forest (DK site) in Korea. Litterfall was collected in circular littertraps (collecting area : 0.25 $m^2$) and mass loss rates and nutrient release patterns in decomposing litter were estimated using the litterbag technique employing 30 cm ${\times}$ 30 cm nylon bags with 1.5 mm mesh size. Total annual litterfall was 5,627 kg/ha/yr and leaf litter accounted for 61 % of the litterfall. The leaf litter quantity was highest in Quercus serrata, fallowed by Carpinus laxiflora and C. cordata, etc., which are dominant tree species in the site. Mass loss from decomposing leaf litter was more rapid in C. laxiflora and C. cordata than in Q. serrata litter. About 77% of C. laxiflora and 84% of C. cordata litter disappeared, while about 48% in Q. serrata litter lost over two years. Lower mass loss rates of Q. serrata litter may be attributed to the difference of substrate quality such as lower nutrient concentrations compared with the other litter types. Nutrient concentrations (N, P, Mg) of three litter types except for potassium (K) increased compared with initial nutrient concentrations of litter over the study period. Compared with Q. serrata litter, nutrients (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) in C. laxiflora and C. cordata litter were released rapidly. The results suggest that litter mass loss and nutrient dynamic processes among tree species vary considerably in the same site conditions.

The Effect of a Natural Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on the Performance of Broiler Chickens and the Quality of Their Litter

  • Karamanlis, X.;Fortomaris, P.;Arsenos, G.;Dosis, I.;Papaioannou, D.;Batzios, C.;Kamarianos, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.1642-1650
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to assess the effect of clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) on growth and performance of broilers as well as on the quality of their litter. A total of 5,200 one-day old broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were used in two consecutive rounds lasting 42 days each. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form) that was either a basal diet (B) or a 'zeolite diet' (Z; the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 2%). A $2{\times}2$ factorial design consisted of two feeding treatments (B and Z) and two bedding types, sawdust (S) and sawdust with zeolite (Sz, which was the result of adding $2kg\;zeolite/m^2$), was used. In each round the broilers were randomly assigned to one of four (n = 650), treatment groups: two fed on the basal diet (B) and had bedding of either sawdust (group BS) or sawdust and zeolite (group BSz) and two fed on the Z diet and had as bedding either sawdust (ZS) or sawdust and zeolite (ZSz). Average growth rates were significantly (p<0.05) different between broilers of different groups; broilers that were fed on the 'zeolite diet' (Z) and were placed either in a compartment with sawdust bedding or sawdust bedding and zeolite (ZS and ZSz) as well those that were fed on the basal diet in a compartment with sawdust bedding and zeolite (BSz) grew at a faster rate (p<0.05) compared with those of the control group (BS). The incorporation of NZ in broilers diets and in their bedding material decreased the organic content in litter samples throughout the experimental period. The lowest organic content was recorded in group ZSz where NZ was added in both feed and litter. Mean ammonia concentration (ppm) was significantly higher in group ZS in comparison to groups BSz and ZSz (27.00 vs. 20.55 and 21.71 respectively). The results of this study showed that the incorporation of the clinoptilolite both in feed and into the litter had a positive effect on broiler growth and also on the quality of their litter.

EPIC Simulation of Water Quality from Land Application of Poultry Litter

  • Yoon, Kwang-Sik
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.42
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    • pp.38-49
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    • 2000
  • Two application rates (9 and 18 t/ha) of poultry litter and a recommended rate of commercial fertilizer were studied to determine their effects on nutrient (N and P) losses in surface and subsurface runoff and loadings in soil layers from conventionally-tilled com by the treatments. The model predicted higher sediment losses than observed data from all treatments. The overpredicted sediment losses resulted in overprediction of organic-N and sediment-P losses in surface runoff. Simulated soluble-P losses in surface runoff were close to observed data, while NO3-N losses in surface runoff were underpredicted from all treatments. Observed NO3-N concentrations in leachate at 1.0-m depth from commercial fertilizer treatment were fairly well predicted. But the concentratins were overpredicted from poultry litter treatments due to high simulation of organic-N mineralization simulated by the model.

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Comparison of Nitrogen Removal in Free Water Surface Wetlands Purifying Stream Water with and without Litter Layer on its Bottom (자유수면습지의 잔재물층에 의한 하천수 질소제거 비교)

  • Yang, Hongmo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.120-129
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    • 2008
  • Removal rate of $NO_3-N$ and TN in a free water surface wetland system with litter layer on its bottom was compared with that without one. The system was established on floodplain in the down reach of the Gwangju Stream in 2001. Its dimensions were 31 meters in length and 12 meters in width. Water of the stream was funneled into it and its effluent was discharged back into the channel. Average litter layer of 9.6 cm was formed on its bottom in 2007. The layer and above-ground parts of reeds and cattails on the system were eliminated in Spring 2008. Volumes and water quality of inflow and outflow of the system were analyzed from May to November in 2007 and 2008, respectively. Inflow into the system both in 2007 and 2008 averaged approximately $40m^3/day$ and hydraulic residence time both in 2007 and 2008 was about 1.5 days. Average influent $NO_3-N$ concentration in 2007 and 2008 was 2.16 and 2.05 mg/L, respectively and influent TN concentration in 2007 and 2008 averaged 3.98 and 3.89 mg/L, respectively. With a 0.05 significance level, effluent temperatures, influent concentrations of $NO_3-N$ and TN, and stem numbers per square meter and height of the emergent plants showed no difference between the system with litter layer and without one. $NO_3-N$ removal in the system with litter layer and without it averaged 55.59 and 46.06%, respectively and TN retention averaged 57.24 and 48.97%, respectively. Both $NO_3-N$ and TN abatement rates in the system with litter layer were significantly high (p < 0.001) when compared with those without one. The wetland system having litter layer on its bottom was more efficient for $NO_3-N$ and TN retention than that without one.

Estimations on the Water Purification of Forest by Analyzing Water Quality Variations in Forest Hydrological Processes (산지(山地) 물순환(循環) 소과정(素過程)에 있어서 수질변화(水質變化)의 추적분석(追跡分析)에 의한 산림(山林)의 환경적(環境的) 정화기능(淨化機能)의 계량화(計量化) 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Heon-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.86 no.1
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    • pp.56-68
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    • 1997
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the capacity of environment purification of forest and to reveal formation processes of stream water quality by evaluating water quality variations in forest hydrological processes. Water quantity, pH, electric conductivity(EC), dissolved oxygen(DO), and dissolved matter concentrations were monitored in open rainfall, throughfall, stemflow, litter flow and short-term stream flow for one unit storm, and also for those were monitored in long-term stream flow in Palgong, Yongsung, and Daedong catchments. The results were summarized as follows; 1. pH and DO values of stream flow were increased as the flux increased but EC values were decreased. 2. pH values of stemflow and throughfall were decreased with the lapse of rainfall time with lower values than open rainfall. Arid EC values were higher in initial rainfall period but lower gradually with the lapse of time than open rainfall. In litter flow, pH values were lower than open rainfall but EC values were higher. In stream flow, pH values of stream flow showed a high level in initial rainfall period and decreased remarkably with the lapse of time, but it recovered after the rainfall stopped. And however, the values of EC showed almost reverse tendency. DO values of litter flow and stream flow were decreased gradually with the lapse of time in litter flow and stream flow but there were no any tendency in open rainfall, stemflow and throughfall. 3. pH values of stemflow and throughfall in Quercus acutissima were higher than in Pinus densiflora, but EC values were lower. Total amount of canons in stemflow was higher in Pinus densiflora than in Quercus acutissima. 4. pH, DO, EC and total amount of cation values in hydrological processes were in the order of; litter flow

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