• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lithium-ion Batteries

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The Current Situation for Recycling of Lithium Ion Batteries

  • Hiroshi Okamoto;Lee, Sang-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.252-256
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    • 2001
  • The rapid development of communication equipment and information processing technology has led to a constant improvement in cordless communication. Lithium ion batteries used in cellular phones and laptop computers, in particular, have been in the forefront of the above revolution. These batteries use high value added raw materials and have a high and stable energy output and are increasingly coming into common use. The development of the material for the negative terminal has led to an improvement in the quality and efficiency of the batteries, whereas a reduction in the cost of the battery by researching new materials for the positive anode has become a research theme by itself. These long life batteries, it is being increasingly realized, can have value added to them by recycling. Research is increasingly being done on recycling the aluminum case and the load casing for the negative diode. This paper aims to introduce the current situation of recycling of lithium ion batteries. 1. Introduction 2. Various types of batteries and the situation of their recycling and the facts regarding recycling. 3. Example of cobalt recycling from waste Lithium ion secondary cell. 3-1) Flow Chart of Lithium ion battery recycling 3-2) Materials that make a lithium ion secondary cell. 3-3) Coarse grinding of Lithium ion secondary cell, and stabilization of current discharge 3-4) Burning 3-5) Grinding 3-6) Magnetic Separation 3-7) Dry sieving 3-8) Dry Classifying 3-9) Content Ratio of recycled cobalt parts 3-10) Summary of the Line used for the recovery of Cobalt from waste Lithium ion battery. 4. Conclusion.

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Use of grape seed as reductant for leaching of cobalt from spent lithium-ion batteries

  • Zhang, Yingjie;Meng, Qi;Dong, Peng;Duan, Jianguo;Lin, Yan
    • Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    • v.66
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    • pp.86-93
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    • 2018
  • The grape seed was novelly used as reductant for leaching of spent $LiCoO_2$ material, which is idea of "waste + waste ${\rightarrow}$ resources". About 92% Co and 99% Li could be leached under the optimized conditions of grape seed 0.6 g/g, malic acid 1.5 mol/L, 180 min, $80^{\circ}C$, and slurry density 20 g/L. The catechin, EC and EGCG contained in grape seed could be employed as efficient reductants during leaching. The leaching process is controlled by combination of surface chemical reaction and diffusion with apparent activation energy of 11.96 kJ/mol, which is related to the form of $Co(OH)_3$.

A Novel Separator Membrane for Safer Lithium-ion Rechargeable Batteries

  • Lee, Sang-Young;Kim, Seok-Koo;Hong, Jang-Hyuck;Shin, Byeong-Jin;Park, Jong-Hyuck;Sohn, Joon-Yong;Jang, Hyun-Min;Ahn, Soon-Ho
    • Proceedings of the Polymer Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.69-70
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    • 2006
  • In lithium-ion batteries, separator membrane's, main role is to physically isolate a cathode and an anode while maintaining rapid transport of ionic charge carriers during the passage of electric current. As far as battery safety is concerned, the electrical isolation of electrodes is most crucial since unexpected short-circuits across the membrane induces hot spots where thermal runaway may break out. Internal short-circuits are generally believed to occur by protrusions on the electrode surface either by unavoidable deposits of metallic impurities or by dendritic lithium growth during battery operation. Another cause is shrinkage of the separator membrane when exposed to heat. If separator membrane can be engineered to prevent the internal short-circuit, it will not be difficult to improve lithium-ion batteries' safety. Commonly the separators employed in lithium-ion batteries are made of polyethylene (PE) and/or polypropylene (PP). These materials have terrible limitations in preventing the fore-mentioned internal short-circuit between electrodes due to their poor dimensional stability and mechanical strength. In this study we have developed a novel separator membrane that possesses very high thermal and mechanical stability. The cells employing this separator provided noticeable safety improvement in the various abuse tests.

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Development of 600-MHz 19F-7Li Solid-State NMR Probe for In-Situ Analysis of Lithium Ion Batteries

  • Jeong, Ji-Ho;Park, Yu-Geun;Choi, Sung-Sub;Kim, Yongae
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.3253-3256
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    • 2013
  • Lithium is a highly attractive material for high-energy-concentration batteries, since it has low weight and high potential. Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries (LIBs), which have the extremely high gravimetric and volumetric energy densities, are currently the most preferable power sources for future electric vehicles and various portable electronic devices. In order to improve the efficiency and lifetime, new electrode compounds for lithium intercalation or insertion have been investigated for rechargeable batteries. Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a very useful tool to investigate the structural changes in electrode materials in actual working lithium-ion batteries. To detect the in-situ microstructural changes of electrode and electrolyte materials, $^7Li-^{19}F$ double-resonance solid-state NMR probe with a static solenoidal coil for a 600-MHz narrow-bore magnet was designed, constructed, and tested successfully.

Lithium-ion Stationary Battery Capacity Sizing Formula for the Establishment of Industrial Design Standard

  • Chang, Choong-koo;Sulley, Mumuni
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.2561-2567
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    • 2018
  • The extension of DC battery backup time in the DC power supply system of nuclear power plants (NPPs) remains a challenge. The lead-acid battery is the most popular at present. And it is generally the most popular energy storage device. However, extension of backup time requires too much space. The lithium-ion battery has high energy density and advanced gravimetric and volumetric properties. The aim of this paper is development of the sizing formula of stationary lithium-ion batteries. The ongoing research activities and related industrial standards for stationary lithium-ion batteries are reviewed. Then, the lithium-ion battery sizing calculation formular is proposed for the establishment of industrial design standard which is essential for the design of stationary batteries of nuclear power plants. An example of calculating the lithium-ion battery capacity for a medium voltage UPS is presented.

The performance and quality improvement of Lithium ion Batteries

  • Xiaoping Li
    • 한국전기화학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.75-108
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    • 2004
  • The market, development and trend of Lithium ion Batteries in China are introduce briefly. Early, Chinese manufactories were busy to expand and many new battery factories have been built up. Now, the relatively large companies pay more attentions on comprehensive quality improvement, therefore the production processing and facilities have been also modified in some extent. The recent technology progresses focus on High capacity (energy density), High rate, High average voltage, High safety, High temperature properties, Long cycle life, Low temperature properties, Low self discharge, Low cost, Super-large, Super-small, Super-thin, Consistency, Customization, and Environment friendly processing, simply $H_5L_4S_3C_2E_1$. Lithium ion polymer batteries which all batteries packaged with soft lamination film are named as in China have a quick growth and emphasized here because of their advantages ins $H_5L_4S_3C_2E_1$ for which it is quite difficult to be realized at the same time. Some of research works such as listed above are introduced. The other contends related to application trend of Lithium ion batteries and projects carrying out are also included.

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Recent Advances in Cathode and Anode Materials for Lithium Ion Batteries (리튬 이온 배터리용 양극 및 음극 재료의 최근 동향)

  • Nguyen, Van Hiep;Kim, Young Ho
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.29 no.6
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    • pp.635-644
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    • 2018
  • Lithium ion batteries have been broadly used in various applications to our daily life such as portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-scale energy storage devices. Significant efforts have recently been made on developing electrode materials for lithium ion batteries that meet commercial needs of the high energy density, light weight and low cost. In this review, we summarize the principles and recent research advances in cathode and anode materials for lithium ion batteries, and particularly emphasize electrode material designs and advanced characterization techniques.

Improvement of Available Battery Capacity in Electric Vehicles

  • Liu, Yow-Chyi
    • Journal of Power Electronics
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.497-506
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    • 2013
  • This paper proposes a new method to improve the available battery capacity in electric vehicles by connecting lead-acid batteries with lithium-ion battery in parallel to supply power. In addition, this method combines the discharge characteristics of batteries to improve their efficiency and lower their cost for electric vehicles. A lithium-ion battery set is used to connect with N sets of lead-acid batteries in parallel. The lead-acid battery supplies the initial power. When the lead-acid battery is discharged by the load current until its output voltage drops to the cut-off voltage, the power management unit controls the lead-acid battery and changes it to discharge continuously with a small current. This discharge can be achieved by connecting the lead-acid battery to a lithium-ion battery in parallel to supply the load power or to discharge its current to another lead-acid or lithium-ion battery. Experimental results demonstrates that the available capacity can be improved by up to 30% of the rated capacity of the lead-acid batteries.

Improved electrochemical, mechanical and transport properties of novel lithium bisnonafluoro-1-butanesulfonimidate (LiBNFSI) based solid polymer electrolytes for rechargeable lithium ion batteries

  • Karuppasamy, K.;Kim, Dongkyu;Kang, Yong Hee;Prasanna, K.;Rhee, Hee Woo
    • Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
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    • v.52
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    • pp.224-234
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    • 2017
  • In the present work, a new methodology for improving the ionic conductivity and cation transport properties of polymer electrolytes have been synthesized by adding bulky anion based novel lithium bisnonafluoro-1-butanesulfonimidate salt and characterized for its applications in lithium ion batteries. The self-standing solid polymer electrolyte films exhibit excellent mechanical, thermal, and electrochemical stability. The ion-polymer interactions are examined thoroughly by ATR Fourier Transform-Infra Red Spectroscopy. The solid polymer electrolyte prepared with EO/Li ratio 14 exhibits a highest ionic conductivity of $10^{-4}S\;cm^{-1}$ at 333 K. Also, it achieves a maximum lithium transference number of 0.31 and it is electrochemically stable in the scanned electrochemical window. This new type of polymer electrolytes with high ion conductivity and improved mechanical properties paves way to be a potential candidate along with lithium anode and $LiCoO_2$ cathode in the lithium ion batteries.

Space Qualification of Small Satellite Li-ion Battery System for the Secured Reliability (소형인공위성용 리튬이온 배터리시스템의 신뢰성 확보을 위한 우주인증시험)

  • Park, Kyung-Hwa;Yi, Kang-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.351-359
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    • 2014
  • This paper introduces the lithium ion battery system for LEO(Low Earth Orbit) small satellites. This study proves the reliability of lithium ion batteries applying to the space application. The specifications for lithium ion battery unit are proposed to supply power to the satellite and the overall mechanical design including structural simulation to confirm the reliability of the lithium ion BMS(Battery Management System) under the space environment and launching conditions. The results of structural simulation, functional tests, and space environmental tests show the lithium ion battery system is space qualified. Space qualification of the small satellite battery system to secure reliability of BMS and lithium ion batteries lend credibility for using lithium ion batteries in space application.