• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lithium Thionyl Chloride

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Electrochemical Properties of Acetylene Black/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Cathodes for Lithium Thionyl Chloride Batteries at High Discharge Currents

  • Song, Hee-Youb;Jung, Moon-Hyung;Jeong, Soon-Ki
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.430-436
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    • 2020
  • Lithium thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2) batteries exhibit the highest energy densities seen in commercially available primary batteries because of their high operating voltages and discharge capacities. They are widely used in various extreme environments; however, they show signs of degradation at high discharge currents. The discharge performance of Li/SOCl2 is considered to be greatly dependent on the carbon materials used in the cathode. Therefore, suitable carbon materials must be chosen to improve discharge performances. In this work, we investigated the discharge properties of Li/SOCl2 batteries in which the cathodes contained various ratios of acetylene black (AB) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at high discharge currents. It was confirmed that the MWCNTs were effectively dispersed in the mixed AB/MWCNT cathodes. Moreover, the discharge capacity and operating voltage improved at high discharge currents in these mixed cathodes when compared with pure AB cathodes. It was found that the mesopores present in the cathodes have a strong impact on the discharge capacity, while the macropores present on the cathode surface influence the discharge properties at high discharge rates in Li/SOCl2 batteries. These results indicate that the ratio of mesopores and macropores in the cathode is key to improving the discharge performance of Li/SOCl2 batteries, as is the dispersion of the MWCNTs.

Self-reported Irritation Symptoms among Workers Exposed to Ultra-low Relative Humidity and Thionyl Chloride (극건조 환경에서 염화티오닐 동시 노출자의 자각증상 경험률)

  • Chae, Yoo Mi
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.412-424
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: An ultra dry air environment of nearly ${\leq}2%$ RH is often required in lithium battery factories. The objective of this study is to evaluate the subjective eye, pulmonary, nose, and skin symptoms of workers exposed to ultra-low relative humidity and thionyl chloride. Methods: We recruited 274 workers using a self-reported questionnaire in March 2014. Those who worked in ultra-low relative humidity and with thionyl chloride were identified and their prevalence of symptoms was compared with that of other workers. We excluded white collar workers, researchers and other workers who were exposed to various hazard factors, and finally included 164 workers. Results: There were significant differences in the rate of self-reported eye and skin symptoms between exposure group_1 and exposure group_2. Exposure group_2 experienced more frequent eye, and skin symptoms. Multinomial logistic regression analysis for experience of dry eye symptoms and skin symptoms in exposure group_2 showed that dry eye symptoms (odds ratio [OR], 6.33, 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.19-18.24, p<0.001), and itchiness (OR, 6.45, 95% CI, 1.94-21.43, p<0.01) were the significant variables. The complaints of workers experiencing ultra-low relative humidity and thionyl chloride were high compared with other workers. Conclusion: These findings suggest that exposure to ultra-low relative humidity and thionyl chloride may be associated with more frequent eye and skin symptoms than exposure to ultra-low relative humidity alone. The current precautions to protect workers from the adverse effects of ultra-low relative humidity and thionyl chloride appear to be insufficient, indicating that additional management plans to reduce symptoms should be considered.

Studies on Electrochemical properties of Lithium/Oxyhalide Cell: Electrocatalytic Effects on the Reduction of Thionyl Chloride

  • Kim Woo Seong;Choi Yong-Kook;Chjo Ki-Hyung
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.456-460
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    • 1994
  • Catalytic effects of various cobalt phenylporphyrin compounds on the reduction of thionyl chloride at glassy carbon electrode have been evaluated by determining kinetic parameters with cyclic voltammetric techniques. The concentration of catalysts and the electrode immersion time have been found to affect the catalyst performance strongly, leading to a conclusion that the compounds are first adsorbed at the electrode surface and act as catalysts. Significant improvements in cell performance have been noted in terms of both exchange rate constants of up to 3 times and current densities of up to 150% at glassy carbon electrode.

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Cycling Behavior of Binder-Free Graphite-Lithium Intercalation Anode In AICI3-EMIC-LiCI-SOCI2 Room-Temperature Molten Salt

  • Koura, Nobuyuki;Minami, Takuto;Etoh, Keiko;Idemoto, Yasushi;Matsumoto, Futoshi
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.178-182
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    • 2002
  • The electrochemical behavior of binder-free carbon anode, comprising of only artificial and natural graphite (AG and NG) particles, for intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ion $(Li^+)$ in aluminum chloride (AICI_3)-I-ethyl­3-methylimidazolium chloride (EMIC)-lithium chloride (LiCl)-thionyl chloride $(SOCI_2)$ room-temperature molten salt (RTMS) was studied. Binder-free carbon electrodes were fabricated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD) method. The binder-free carbon anodes provided a relatively flat charge and discharge potentials $(0\;to\;0.2V\;vs.\;Li/Li^+)$ and current capabilities $(250-340mAh{\cdot}g^{-1})$ for the intercalation and deintercalation of $Li^+$. Stability of the binder-free carbon anodes for intercalation and deintercalation of 50 cycles was confirmed.