• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lithium Primary Batteries

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Optimum Conditions of Dismantlement for Recovery of Valuables from Spent Lithium Primary Batteries (폐일차리튬전지로부터 유가금속을 회수하기 위한 해체공정의 최적화)

  • Yoo, Koungkeun;Kim, Hong-in;Sohn, Jeong-Soo
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2019
  • Dismantlement of lithium primary batteries without explosion is required to recycle the lithium primary batteries which could be exploded by heating too much or crushing. In the present study, the optimum discharging condition was investigated to dismantle the batteries without explosion. When the batteries were discharged with $0.5kmol{\cdot}m^{-3}$ sulfuric acid, the reactivity of the batteries decreased after 4 days at $35^{\circ}C$ and after 1 day at $50^{\circ}C$, respectively. This result shows that higher temperature removed the high reactivity of the batteries. Because loss of metals recycled increases when the batteries are discharged only with the sulfuric acid, discharging process using acid solution and water was newly proposed. When the batteries were discharged with water during 24 hours after discharging with $0.5kmol{\cdot}m^{-3}$ sulfuric acid during 6 hours, the batteries discharged were dismantled without explosion. Because decrease in loss of metals was accomplished by new process, the recycling process of the batteries could become economic by the 2-step discharging process.

Electrochemical Properties of Acetylene Black/Multi-walled Carbon Nanotube Cathodes for Lithium Thionyl Chloride Batteries at High Discharge Currents

  • Song, Hee-Youb;Jung, Moon-Hyung;Jeong, Soon-Ki
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.430-436
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    • 2020
  • Lithium thionyl chloride (Li/SOCl2) batteries exhibit the highest energy densities seen in commercially available primary batteries because of their high operating voltages and discharge capacities. They are widely used in various extreme environments; however, they show signs of degradation at high discharge currents. The discharge performance of Li/SOCl2 is considered to be greatly dependent on the carbon materials used in the cathode. Therefore, suitable carbon materials must be chosen to improve discharge performances. In this work, we investigated the discharge properties of Li/SOCl2 batteries in which the cathodes contained various ratios of acetylene black (AB) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) at high discharge currents. It was confirmed that the MWCNTs were effectively dispersed in the mixed AB/MWCNT cathodes. Moreover, the discharge capacity and operating voltage improved at high discharge currents in these mixed cathodes when compared with pure AB cathodes. It was found that the mesopores present in the cathodes have a strong impact on the discharge capacity, while the macropores present on the cathode surface influence the discharge properties at high discharge rates in Li/SOCl2 batteries. These results indicate that the ratio of mesopores and macropores in the cathode is key to improving the discharge performance of Li/SOCl2 batteries, as is the dispersion of the MWCNTs.

Lithium/Sulfur Secondary Batteries: A Review

  • Zhao, Xiaohui;Cheruvally, Gouri;Kim, Changhyeon;Cho, Kwon-Koo;Ahn, Hyo-Jun;Kim, Ki-Won;Ahn, Jou-Hyeon
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.97-114
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    • 2016
  • Lithium batteries based on elemental sulfur as the cathode-active material capture great attraction due to the high theoretical capacity, easy availability, low cost and non-toxicity of sulfur. Although lithium/sulfur (Li/S) primary cells were known much earlier, the interest in developing Li/S secondary batteries that can deliver high energy and high power was actively pursued since early 1990’s. A lot of technical challenges including the low conductivity of sulfur, dissolution of sulfur-reduction products in the electrolyte leading to their migration away from the cathode, and deposition of solid reaction products on cathode matrix had to be tackled to realize a high and stable performance from rechargeable Li/S cells. This article presents briefly an overview of the studies pertaining to the different aspects of Li/S batteries including those that deal with the sulfur electrode, electrolytes, lithium anode and configuration of the batteries.

Safety Improvement of Military Primary Lithium Batteries by New Protection Circuit for Low Current System (신규 보호회로 적용을 통한 저전류 장비용 군 리튬전지 안전성 개선)

  • Youn, Seong Gi;Cho, Yu Seup
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.256-261
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    • 2019
  • The use of military lithium batteries in this field accelerates the generation of internal pressure because the active materials, lithium and the electrolyte, react to form sulfur dioxide gas. This also reduces the amount of electrolyte. In this condition, batteries can 'vent' or 'explode' especially when completely discharged. Such venting and explosion can be regarded as a safety accident, as toxic gases and shrapnel are ejected from the batteries which can harm the user. A DTaQ was carried out in 2017 as a quality problem solution project to solve this safety issue. A protection circuit was thereby developed, which included a micro controller unit (MCU) which can stop battery usage when in an over-discharging state by sensing its low-voltage condition. In 2018, this concept was expanded to lithium batteries for the remote controlled ammunition system. This paper reports results of the improved performance.

Dismantlement of Spent Lithium Primary Batteries for Recycling (폐(廢)리튬일차전지(一次電池)의 안정적(安定的) 해체(解體)를 위한 연구(硏究))

  • Yoo, Kyoung-Keun;Kim, Myoung-Hwa;Shin, Shun-Myung;Yang, Dong-Hyo;Kang, Jin-Gu;Sohn, Jeong-Soo
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.3-9
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    • 2007
  • Dismantlement of lithium primary batteries without explosion is required to recycle the lithium primary batteries which could be exploded by heating too much or crushing. In the present study, the optimum discharging condition was investigated to dismantle the batteries without explosion. When the batteries were discharged with $0.5kmol{\cdot}m^{-3}$ sulfuric acid, the batteries became inert after 4 days at $35^{\circ}C$ and after 1 day at $50^{\circ}C$, respectively. This result shows that higher temperature accelerates inert of the batteries. Because loss of metals recycled increases when the batteries are discharged only with the sulfuric acid, discharging process using acid solution and water was newly proposed. When the batteries were discharged with water during 24 hours after discharging with $0.5kmol{\cdot}m^{-3}$ sulfuric acid during 6 hours, the batteries discharged were dismantled without explosion. Because decrease in loss of metals was accomplished by new process, the recycling process of the batteries could become economic by the 2-step discharging process.

Electrical Characteristics According to the Manufacturing Process of the Flexible Li/MnO2 Primary Cell (플렉서블 Li/MnO2 일차전지의 제조공정에 따른 전기적 특성)

  • Lee, Mi-Jai;Chae, Yoo-Jin;Kim, Jin-Ho;Hwang, Jong-Hee;Park, Sang-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.22 no.12
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    • pp.717-721
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    • 2012
  • Manganese dioxide ($MnO_2$) is one of the most important cathode materials used in both aqueous and non-aqueous batteries. The $MnO_2$ polymorph that is used for lithium primary batteries is synthesized either by electrolytic (EMD-$MnO_2$) or chemical methods (CMD-$MnO_2$). Commonly, electrolytic manganese dioxide (EMD) is used as a cathode mixture material for dry-cell batteries, such as a alkaline batteries, zinc-carbon batteries, rechargeable alkaline batteries, etc. The characteristics of lithium/manganese-dioxide primary cells fabricated with EMD-$MnO_2$ powders as cathode were compared as a function of the parameters of a manufacturing process. The flexible primary cells were prepared with EMD-$MnO_2$, active carbon, and poly vinylidene fluoride (PVDF) binder (10 wt.%) coated on an Al foil substrate. A cathode sheet with micro-porous showed a higher discharge capacity than a cathode sheet compacted by a press process. As the amount of EMD-$MnO_2$ increased, the electrical conductivity decreased and the electrical capacity increased. The cell subjected to heat-treatment at $200^{\circ}C$ for 1 hr showed a high discharge capacity. The flexible primary cell made using the optimum conditions showed a capacity and an average voltage of 220 mAh/g and 2.8 V, respectively, at $437.5{\mu}A$.

Preparation and Electrochemical Performance of 1.5 V and 3.0 V-Class Primary Film Batteries for Radio Frequency Identification (RFID)

  • Lee, Young-Gi;Choi, Min-Gyu;Kang, Kun-Young;Kim, Kwang-Man
    • Journal of Electrochemical Science and Technology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.39-44
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    • 2010
  • 1.5 V and 3.0 V-class film-type primary batteries were designed for radio frequency identification (RFID) tag. Efficient fabrication processes such as screen-printings of conducting layer ($25{\mu}m$), active material layer ($40{\mu}m$ for anode and $80{\mu}m$ for cathode), and electrolyte/separator/electrolyte layer ($100{\mu}m$), were adopted to give better performances of the 1.5 V-class film-type Leclanch$\acute{e}$ primary battery for battery-assisted passive (BAP) RFID tag. Lithium (Li) metal is used as an anode material in a 3.0 V-class film-type $MnO_2||$Li primary battery to increase the operating voltage and discharge capacity for application to active sensor tags of a radio frequency identification system. The fabricated 3.0 V-class film-type Li primary battery passes several safety tests and achieves a discharge capacity of more than 9 mAh $cm^{-2}$.

New Design of Li[Ni0.8Co0.15Al0.05]O2 Nano-bush Structure as Cathode Material through Electrospinning

  • Nam, Yun-Chae;Lee, Seon-Jin;Kim, Hae-In;Son, Jong-Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2021
  • In this study, new morphology of NCA cathode material for lithium ion batteries was obtained through the electrospinning method. The prepared NCA nanofibers formed a nano-bush structure, and the primary particles were formed on the surface of the nanofibers. The embossing primary particles increased the surface area thus increasing the reactivity of lithium ions. The nano-bush structure could shorten the Li+ diffusion path and improve the Li+ diffusion coefficient. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the synthesized material consisted of nanofibers. The surface area of the nanofibers increased by primary particles was measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was carried out to determine the structure of the NCA nanofibers.

Lithium - A Critical Metal for Clean Energy Technologies: A Comprehensive Review on Challenges and Opportunities for Securing Lithium from Primary and Secondary Resources (리튬-청정 에너지 기술의 핵심금속: 1차 및 2차 자원으로부터 리튬 확보를 위한 도전과 기회에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Swain, Basudev;Kim, Min-seuk;Lee, Chan-Gi;Chung, Kyeong Woo;Lee, Jae-chun
    • Resources Recycling
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.3-18
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    • 2019
  • Due to the increasing demand for clean energy, the consumption of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) is expected to grow steadily. Therefore, stable supply of lithium is becoming an important issue globally. Commercially, most of lithium is produced from the brine and minerals viz., spodumene, although various processes/technologies have been developed to recover lithium from other resources such as low grade ores, clays, seawaters and waste lithium ion batteries. In particular, commercialization of such recycling technologies for end-of-life LIBs being generated from various sources including mobile phones and electric vehicles(EVs), has a great potential. This review presents the commercial processes and also the emerging technologies for exploiting minerals and brines, besides that of newly developed lithium-recovery-processes for the waste LIBs. In addition, the future lithium-supply is discussed from the technical point of view. Amongst the emerging processes being developed for lithium recovery from low-grade ores, focus is mostly on the pyro-cum-hydrometallurgical based approaches, though only a few of such approaches have matured. Because of low recycling rate (<1%) of lithium globally compared to the consumption of lithium ion batteries (56% of lithium produced currently), processing of secondary resources could be foresighted as the grand opportunity. Considering the carbon economy, environment, and energy concerns, the hydrometallurgical process may potentially resolve the issue.

Relationship between Particle Density and Electrochemical Properties of Spherical LiMn2-xMxO4 (M = Al, Mg, B) Spinel Cathode Materials (구형 스피넬계 LiMxMn2-xO4 (M = Al, Mg, B) 양극소재의 입자치밀도와 전지성능간의 상관관계에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Kyoung-Hee;Jung, Tae-Gyu;Song, Jun-Ho;Kim, Young-Jun
    • Journal of the Korean Electrochemical Society
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2012
  • Spherical lithium manganese oxide spinel, $LiMn_{2-x}M_xO_4$ (M = Al, Mg, B) prepared by wet-milling, spray-drying, and sintering process has been investigated as a cathode material for lithium ion batteries. As-prepared powders exhibit various surface morphologies and internal density in terms of boron (B) doping level. It is found that the dopant B drives the growth of the primary particle and minimizes the surface area of the powder. As a result, the dopant enhances the internal density of the particles. Electrochemical tests demonstrated that the capacity of the synthesized material at 5 C could be maintained up to 90% of that at 0.2 C. The cycle performance of the material showed that the initial capacity was retained up to 80% even after 500 cycles under the high temperature of $60^{\circ}C$.