• Title/Summary/Keyword: Liquid fertilizer

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Nitrate Concentration and ${\delta}^{15}N$ Value of the Groundwater in the Miyakojima Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan (일본(日本) 궁고도(宮古島)의 지하수중(地下水中)의 $NO_3-N$${\delta}^{15}N$치(値))

  • Park, Kwang-Lai;Kikuo, Kumazawa.
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.97-108
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    • 1995
  • Nitrate concentration and ${\delta}^{15}N$ value in the groundwater in Miyakojima Island, Okinawa, were measured during 1992-1993. Water from the shallow and the deep wells at the ten separate sites were sampled. Mineral contents and natural nitrogen isotope abundance(${\delta}^{15}N$) were analyzed using a liquid chromatography and a mass spectrometry (Finnigan MAT 252). Except for waters which were directly influenced by sea water invasion, most of the groundwater showed small variations among their mineral contents and ${\delta}^{15}N$ values. The average nitrate nitrogen concentrations were $1.4{\sim}11.5mgL^{-1}$ and average ${\delta}^{15}N$ values were +4.3${\sim}$+9.7$%_o$. From the nitrate concentration and ${\delta}^{15}N$ value observed, the types of the groundwater could be categorized into four groups, such as high ${\delta}^{15}N$ and high nitrate, high ${\delta}^{15}N$ and medium nitrate, low ${\delta}^{15}N$ and medium nitrate, and low ${\delta}^{15}N$ and low nitrate, reflecting the main source of nitrate contamination, such as animal and domestic waste, animal waste and soil organic matter, soil organic matter and chemical fertilizer, and chemical fertilizer, respectively. It was discussed that the lowest ${\delta}^{15}N$ value was higher than the ${\delta}^{15}N$ value of the chemical fertilizers used in this island(-3.9${\sim}$-1.4$%_o$), then considerable amounts of nitrogen must be lost by ammonium evaporation or denitrification after fertilization.

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Survey on Occurrence and Management of Disease and Pests in Organic Peach Orchards (유기재배 복숭아 과원의 관리현황 및 병해충 발생 실태)

  • Kim, Min-Gi;An, Min-Sil;Park, Jong-Ho;Lee, Cho-Rong;Lee, Sang-Beom;Park, Kwang-Lai;Hong, Seung-Gil
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.603-617
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    • 2017
  • The occurrence and management of disease and pests in six organic peach orchards were surveyed from March 2015 to March 2017. In this period, the number of certified organic and non-chemical peach farms increased to 65.5% and 31.7%, respectively. Certified organic peach farms were selected based on more than $4,000m^2$ of cultivation area and three tons of production, and their cultivation status was examined. All of the farms were either cultivated green manure crop or sod, and limited vegetation control to a minimum. For the management of soil nutrients, many farmers used livestock manure, oilcake and self-manufacturing liquid fertilizer. It was surveyed that bordeaux mixture, lime sulfur, pheromone for mating disruption of moths and plant extract were used for disease and pest control. The damage caused by the pests and diseases were 31.6% and 24.1%, respectively. The oriental fruit moth showed the highest damage rate (13.5%) in the organic peach orchards, followed by the brown rot (13.0%), peach fruit moth (7.3%) and bacterial shot hole (7.3%).

Increase of Growth on Cool Season Turfgrass by Foliar Application of Preparations of Turfgrass Fertilizer during Fall Season (잔디 비료 제형의 엽면 살포가 가을철 한지형 잔디의 생장 증대)

  • Koo, Jun Hwak;Heo, Hyug Jae;Kim, Yang Sun;Yun, Jeong Ho;Chang, Seog Won;Lee, Seong Jun;Chang, Taehyun
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2014
  • Four preparations of liquid turfgrass fertilizers were tested cool season turfgrasses during fall season. The preparations of PS-A, PS-B, PH-C and PH-D for commercial products were contained with essential nutrient elements, seaweed extract, amino acids, and humus substance. Growth and quality of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds cv. Penn-A1) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) mixture (Midnight 33%, Moonlight 33%, Prosperity 33%) were evaluated by normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), root length and fresh weight, shoot density, turf color, and chlorophyll content. Three foliar sprays of 4 preparations with an interval of 7 days were made in the fall of 2013 in the sod production field at Hapchun, Korea. No significant difference among 3 preparations was found in NDVI of creeping bentgrass. However, PS-A was significantly increased NDVI of Kentucky bluegrass. Two to three applications of PS-A significantly increased chlorophyll content and turf color. Three foliar sprays of PS-A and PS-B were significantly increased the shoot density of Kentucky bluegrass on 20 days after final application. These results may indicate that the use of some preparation is beneficial in producing higher quality turfgrass sod with better color and chlorophyll content during fall season.

Situation and Composting Probability of Livestock Manure Generated from Kangwon-do (강원도내 가축분뇨의 오염현황 및 퇴비화 가능성 검토)

  • Kim, Joung-Dae;Park, Joon-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.75-86
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to investigate situation of livestock manure generated from Kangwon-do and to evaluate its composting probability. The scale of livesrock-farming is bigger and bigger in Korea. Regulation based on the heads of livestock is slightly different from that based on livestock-farming household. So it is needed ro evaluate regulations for livestock head and livestock-farming household. Composting and liquid fertilization were thought to be appropriate technologies to the trearment of Korean cattle and pig manures, respectively. Generation quantity of pig manure was the greatest among pig, Korean cattle, cow and chicken manures. Pig manure generated the greatest amounts of BOD in Kangwon-do. Pig manure contained nitrogen, Korean cattle manure contained $K_2O$, and chicken and pig manures contained $P_2O_5$ in great amount. Alternative ratio of livestock manure to crops-fertilizer was 51% for nitrogen, 38% for $K_2O$, and 34% for $P_2O_5$.

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Preparation and Characterization of the Hydrolyzed Protein from Shaving Scraps of Leather Waste Containing Chromium by the Combination Treatment with Alkaline Inducing Agent and Alkaline Proteolytic Enzyme (Alkaline Inducing Agent 및 Alkaline Proteolytic Enzyme 혼용처리에 의한 Shaving Scraps 가수분해 단백질의 제조 및 특성)

  • Kim, Won-Ju;Cho, Ju-Sik;Lee, Hong-Jae;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 1998
  • To examine the possibility of protein recycling of shaving scraps containing chromium generated from manufacturing process of leather, the optimum hydrolysis conditions and the withdrawal methods of low molecular weight protein for using the liquid fertilizer sources by investigation of solubilities of hydrolyzed protein, inorganic nutrients contents and molecular weight distributions of hydrolyzed protein from shaving scraps treated with mixed alkaline inducing agents and mixed alkaline proteolytic enzymes including MgO were investigated. In hydrolysis of shaving scraps treated with mixed alkaline inducing agents, the solubility of shaving scraps were clearly different with 65~85% according to the sorts of the inducing agents, and the degree of hydrolysis was high in the order of NaOH, $Ca(OH)_2$ and KOH. The average molecular weights of withdrawal hydrolyzed protein were 10, 40 and 80 KD treated with NaOH, $Ca(OH)_2$ and KOH, respectively. And the chromium contents was about 15 ppm. In hydrolysis of shaving scraps treated with mixed alkaline proteolytic enzymes, the bility of shaving scraps were high in the order of alcalase, esperase and savinase. In c of treating 0.5% alcalase, the low molecular weight of hydrolyzed protein could be withdrawn. The solubility of the hydrolyzed protein was about 85%, the average molecular weight of the protein was below 1 KD and chrome content of the protein was below 10 ppm.

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Preparation and Characterization of the Hydrolyzed Protein from Shaving Scraps of Leather Waste Containing Chromium (피혁폐기물(皮革廢棄物)인 Shaving scraps으로 부터 가수분해(加水分解) 단백질(蛋白質)의 제조(製造) 및 특성(特性))

  • Kim, Won-Ju;Cho, Ju-Sik;Lee, Hong-Jae;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 1997
  • To examine of possibility protein recycling of shaving scraps contained chrome generated from manufacturing process of leather, the characteristics of hydrolyzed protein that differently treated with MgO as alkaline agent were investigated. In alkaline hydrolysis of saving scraps treated with MgO, MgO had to be treated over 5.0% to maintain over pH 8.0 that is insoluble of chrome. Under the condition of alkaline treated with MgO, the solubility of chrome is low with about 60%. The average molecular weight of hydrolyzed proteins from shaving scraps treated with MgO was about 80~100 KD. The amino acid contents of that were largely collagen proteins such as glycine, alanine and proline, and acidic amino acids such as aspartic acid and glutatamic acid. The contents of Mg, Ca and Na in hydrolyzed protein were too much as liquid fertilizer, and chrome contents was 30~40 ppm that largely decreased in comparing with raw materials (40,000~42,000 ppm).

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Study on the Manufacturing of Leather-like Material using Leather and Textile Scrap (피혁 및 섬유 제조공정 폐기물을 활용한 피혁 대체 소재의 제조에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Won-Ju;Ko, Jae-Yong;Heo, Jong-Soom
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.93-99
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    • 2000
  • Treatment of shaving scrap, a chrome containing solid scrap generated by leather manufacturing process, has been so far depended on mainly incineration, soil landfill and ocean dumping, which give bad impact on environment and cause pollution. Shaving scrap generates from the mechanical work for controlling the final thickness of leather and its main components are collagen protein and pan of chromium compound. For the purpose of reusing this leather waste as resources, researches in connection with collagen fiber recovery, gelable protein recovery and liquid fertilizer is being speedily progressed. In the experiment, shaving scrap went through wet pulverizing treatment by physical and chemical methods. Then, making the leather sheet evenly, it is mixed with natural latex and every kind of binding materials in the container, and the mixtures were passed through experimental hydraulic press machine and applied to Fourdrinier machine respectively. Lastly, a test for fading out physical strength and properties of multiple-purpose of leather-like material was performed on a continuous leather sheet prepared by the experiment. In result, the physical strength and properties of leather-like material showed noticeable differences according to mixing ratio of binding materials, beating methods and the Ends of binding materials selected, and generally tear strength was the weakest property among others. Also, by the pilot scale experiment in sequence, it was possible to manufacture recycled goods made of soft and hard types of leather-like material with various performances.

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Maturity Evaluation and Determination of Aeration Time Using Germination Index of Co-Digestates (발아지수를 이용한 혼합 혐기소화액의 부숙도 평가 및 폭기기간 설정)

  • Byeon, Ji-Eun;Lee, Hong-Ju;Hwang, Sun-Goo;Rhim, Tae-Jin;Ryoo, Jong-Won
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.5-13
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of optimal aeration time of livestock manure slurry with fruits pomace on germination index. Six co-digestates of livestock manure slurry with fruits was aerated with 0.1 ㎥ air/㎥·min for 54 days. The maturity of digestates was evaluated using the germination method. The germination index(GI) of co-digestate of SS + CS + MP was more than 70 at the 30th day of aeration. The GI of co-digestate of SS + CS was more than 70 at the 36th day of aeration. The GI of digestate of swine manure slurry alone was 70 at the 54th day of aeration. The co-digestate of SS + MP caused to shorten 24 days of aeration period to reach GI of 70, compared to swine manure digestate. These results suggest that the germination index of seed could be used to establish the optimal aeration time for co-digestate of liquid fertilizer.

Growth Characteristics of Microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis by LED Light Source (LED 광원에 따른 미세조류 Haematococcus pluvialis의 성장 특성)

  • Lee, Geon Woo;Kim, Song Yi;Yoo, Yong Jin;Lee, Young Bok;Kim, Jin Woo;Kim, Ho Seob
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.10
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2020
  • This study evaluated the effects of the culture media and light sources on the growth of microalgae Haematococuus pluvialis. Limited ingredient medium, Modified Bold's Basic Medium (MBBM), commercial liquid fertilizer medium Neo, and seven different light sources with different wavelengths were used to incubate H. pluvialis for 39 days, and the growth rates were compared. As a result, the growth of H. pluvialis, a limited ingredient medium, produced the highest cell growth in the fluorescent light source while cell growth was the lowest in the blue+red LED. The growth of H. pluvialis in commercial medium Neo was highest in the fluorescent light source, and cell growth was lowest in the blue LED. In this study, the MBBM culture medium showed better results than the Neo culture medium. Microalgae grown in the fluorescent light source using the MBBM culture medium showed the best cell growth result in this study. The results were optimized for the culture medium, light source, and light quantity in H. pluvialis culture for the production of secondary metabolites and provide basic data for the mass culture of microalgae.

Livestock Manure Nutrients Flow Analysis of Integrated Crop-Livestock Farming Model Reflecting the Regional Characteristics (지역특성을 고려한 경축순환농업 모형의 가축분뇨 양분 흐름분석)

  • Lee, Joon Hee;Choi, Hong Lim
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.36-46
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    • 2015
  • Integration of crop-livestock farming has been a problem-solving mode for abatement of environmental pollution and recovery of resources in recent years. The objectives of this study were 1) to suggest the customized integration of crop-livestock farming model reflecting the regional characteristics through in-depth analysis of case study and 2) to analyze the livestock nutrients flow in terms of three primary elements as nitrogen(N), phosphorous(P), and potassium(K). The personal interview and survey were carried out in 2012 for a total of 161 farms from four different regions(NS, NW, JJ, YC) in South Korea. The mass balance analysis was used to suggest and evaluate the models for two sites(JJ and YC). The results showed that NS and NW sites produced relatively more livestock manure than the sites of YC and JJ because of the regional differences in livestock numbers and urbanization. The models were suggested for the site JJ and site YC, and 'two track model(energy and resource recovery)' and 'dispersal type model' were assigned respectively. For the nutrient flows, the releasing P and K with new models had increased up to 7%, while N release had decreased down to 15% in both YC and JJ sites compared to the present treatment system. Estimated value showed that there was oversupply of N (719 ton/yr) and $P_2O_5$ (1,269 ton/yr) in YC and deficiency of N (671 ton/yr) and excessive $P_2O_5$ (32 ton/yr) in JJ respectively. Therefore, P runoff has to be considered an eutrophication occurs in rural small stream when an integration of crop-livestock farm system is applied into both sites.