• Title, Summary, Keyword: Liquid fertilizer

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A Study on the Fixed Forms and Adsorption of Phosphorus in Citrus Orchard Soil Derived from Volcanic Ash (제주도(濟州道) 감귤원(柑橘園) 토양(土壤)의 인산형태(燐酸形態) 및 흡착(吸着)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Hyeong-Ok
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.219-234
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    • 1974
  • A series of experiments was conducted to study the behavior of the phosphorus added to the soils having the high phorphorus fixing capacity derived from volcanic ash in Cheju Island. Soil samples were taken from different depths of 0-10, 10-30, and 30-50cm in six citrus orchards where heavy application of phosphate fertilizer has been practised. Various forms of phosphorus were determined and phosphorus adsorption experiments were performed. The results obtained can be summarized as follows: 1. The content of inorganic phosphorus fractions determined by the method of Chang and Jackson was: water soluble P

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Effects of Livestock Manure Application on Growth Characteristics, Yield and Feed Value of Sorghum-sudangrass Hybrid and NO3-N Leaching in Paddy Field (논에서 수수 X 수단그라스 교잡종 재배시 가축분뇨 이용이 생육특성, 수량, 사료가치 및 NO3-N의 용탈에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Young-Chul;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Kim, Won-Ho;Kim, Jong-Geun;Shin, Jae-Soon;Jung, Min-Woong;Seo, Sung;Yook, Wan-Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 2006
  • The experimental work was conducted to determine the growth characteristics, yield and feed value of sorghum-sudangrass hybrid and $NO_{3^-}N$ leaching by application of various types of livestock manure (LM) at National Livestock Research Institute, Suwon, for 3years (2003-3005). The growth characteristics in chemical fertilizer (CF) was better than others in general. The growth characteristic of sorghum-sudangrass hybrid by the various type of LM was good in order of composted swine manure (CSM) > liquid swine manure (LSM) > composted cattle manure (CSM), whereas the growth characteristics by application level of LM was good in order of LM 100%+CF 25%>LM 75%+CF 25%>LM 100%. Dry matter(DM) yield in LSM and CSM increased by 23% and 18% respectively while DM yield in CCM decreased 24% as compared to CF. Moreover total digestible nutrients (TDN) in LSM and CSM increased by 24% and 18% respectively while TDN in CCM decreased 12% as compared to CF. Crude protein and relative feed value in LM decreased compared to those in CF. $NO_{3^-}N$ leaching by application level of LM showed that there was an increase in order of LM 100%+ CF 25%>LM 75%+CF 25%>LM 100%. Also the high concentration of $NO_{3^-}N$ occurred shortly after application of LM.

Biogas Production from Anaerobic Co-digestion Using the Swine Manure and Organic Byproduct (돈분과 유기성 부산물을 혼합한 혐기소화에서 바이오가스 생산)

  • Kim, W.G.;Oh, I.H.;Yang, S.Y.;Lee, K.M.;Lee, S.I.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2011
  • Animal manure is produced annually 43.7 million tonnes in Korea. Among them, about 85.6 % are used as compost or liquid fertilizer to the agricultural land. The animal manure can be effectively utilized by mixing with organic byproducts that result in generation of biogas from anaerobic co-digestion process. This study aimed to optimize the content of total solid materials (TS) and determine the effect of organic byproduct on the co-digestion process. Prior to the byproduct treatments, determination of proper content of TS was conducted by controlling at 5 or 10 %. For the byproduct treatments, swine manure without adding the byproduct was used for control treatment, and swine manure mixed with either corn silage or kitchen waste was used for other treatments. Volume of biomethane ($CH_4$) generated from digested materials was quantified before and after byproduct treatments. In result, a 1.4-fold higher biomethane, about 0.556 L/$L{\cdot}d$, was produced when the content of TS was controlled at 10 %, compared at 5 %, about 0.389 L/$L{\cdot}d$. When the swine manure was mixed with the corn silage or kitchen waste, a two-fold higher biomethane was produced, about 1.theand 1.0heL/$L{\cdot}d$, respectively, compared to the control treatment. Biogas production from organic dry matter (odm) was a3, 362eand 2h6 L/kg odm${\cdot}$d for control, corn silage, and kitchen waste treatment, respectively. The lower biogas production in the treatment of kitchen waste than that of corn silage is associated with its relatively high odm contents. The methane concentration during the whole process ranged from 40 at the beginning to 70 % at the end of process for both the control and kitchen waste treatments, and ranged from 52 to 70 % for the corn silage treatment. Hydrogen sulfide ($H_2S$) concentration ranged between 350 and 500 ppm. All the integrated results indicate that addition of organic byproduct into animal manure can double the generation of biogas from anaerobic fermentation process.

Effect of Livestock Manure Application on the Productivity of Whole Crop Rice, Feed Value and Soil Fertility (가축분뇨 시용이 총체 벼의 생산성, 사료가치 및 토양의 화학성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lim, Young-Chul;Yoon, Sei-Hyung;Jung, Min-Woong;Kim, Won-Ho;Kim, Jong-Geun;Lee, Joung-Kyong;Seo, Sung;Park, Nam-Gun;Yook, Wan-Bang
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.287-296
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    • 2007
  • The experimental work was conducted to determine the growth characteristics and yield of whole crop rice (cv. Suwon 468 and cv. Chuchungbeo) and soil properties using various type of livestock manure application on rice paddy land for 3 years ($2003{\sim}3005$). Compared Suwon 468 and Chuchungbeo, Suwon 468 has longer plant height and more DM yield than that of Chuchungbeo. Among livestock manure type, plant height was longer in order of liquid swine manure (LSM) > composted swine manure (CSM) > chemical fertilizer (CF) > composted cattle manure (CCM). Number of branch on Chuchungbeo had more than that of Suwon 468. Among livestock manure type, number of branch had more in order of LSM > CSM > CF > CCM. DM yield of whole crop rice (WCR) was affected by various types of livestock manure application and increased in order CSM > CCM = LSM. DM yield on the effects of application level of LSM was highest in LSM 75% + CF 25%. Plant diseases such as rice blast, damage by insect, smut, sheath blight occurred in LSM and CSM and there was not significantly different among application level of LSM. The nitrogen content of WCR by CSM was the highest of all treatments and the ripened ratio by CSM was in contrary order. Moreover the feed value of WCR was not significantly different among treatments. Soil pH, organic matter and total nitrogen was not different by LSM application whereas phosphorus content increased by LSM application. Cu and Zn content increased by LSM and CSM application and were not different by CCM as compared to control plots.

Effect of Chlorella vulgaris CHK0008 Fertilization on Enhancement of Storage and Freshness in Organic Strawberry and Leaf Vegetables (Chlorella vulgaris CHK0008 시비가 유기농 딸기와 엽채소의 저장성과 신선도 향상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Min-Jeong;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Yong-Ki;Park, Jong-Ho;Hong, Sung-Jun;Ji, Hyeong-Jin;Han, Eun-Jung;Yoon, Jung-Chul
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.872-878
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to enhance storage and freshness of strawberry fruits and foliage vegetables by spray treatment with Chlorella vulgaris as a bio-fertilizer. The tested strain, C. vulgaris CHK0008, was isolated from an organically cultivated rice paddy and identified as C. vulgaris by its morphology and 18S rDNA and 23S rDNA sequence homology. We successfully cultured C. vulgaris CHK0008 in BG11 modified medium (BG11MM) and adjusted $2.15{\times}10^6cell/mL$ C. vulgaris CHK0008 to one OD value by measuring the optical density at 680 nm using a UV-vis spectrophotometer. The soluble solid content of 'Seolhyang' and 'Yukbo' strawberry fruits treated by spray application with C. vulgaris CHK0008 was enhanced by 22.2% and 11.5% respectively, compared to untreated controls. Additionally, the decay rates of treated 'Seolhyang' and 'Yukbo' strawberry fruits decreased 63.8% and 74.4% respectively, compared to untreated control. Surface color changes and chlorosis of leaves in leaf vegetables such as lettuce, kale, red ornamental kale, white ornamental kale and beet were observed in samples treated with water spray for 10 days after cold storage. However, the decay rate of leafy vegetables treated with foliar application of 25% C. vulgaris CHK0008 liquid culture was significantly decreased compared to that of the untreated control during storage at $4^{\circ}C$.

Livestock Manure Nutrients Flow Analysis of Integrated Crop-Livestock Farming Model Reflecting the Regional Characteristics (지역특성을 고려한 경축순환농업 모형의 가축분뇨 양분 흐름분석)

  • Lee, Joon Hee;Choi, Hong Lim
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.36-46
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    • 2015
  • Integration of crop-livestock farming has been a problem-solving mode for abatement of environmental pollution and recovery of resources in recent years. The objectives of this study were 1) to suggest the customized integration of crop-livestock farming model reflecting the regional characteristics through in-depth analysis of case study and 2) to analyze the livestock nutrients flow in terms of three primary elements as nitrogen(N), phosphorous(P), and potassium(K). The personal interview and survey were carried out in 2012 for a total of 161 farms from four different regions(NS, NW, JJ, YC) in South Korea. The mass balance analysis was used to suggest and evaluate the models for two sites(JJ and YC). The results showed that NS and NW sites produced relatively more livestock manure than the sites of YC and JJ because of the regional differences in livestock numbers and urbanization. The models were suggested for the site JJ and site YC, and 'two track model(energy and resource recovery)' and 'dispersal type model' were assigned respectively. For the nutrient flows, the releasing P and K with new models had increased up to 7%, while N release had decreased down to 15% in both YC and JJ sites compared to the present treatment system. Estimated value showed that there was oversupply of N (719 ton/yr) and $P_2O_5$ (1,269 ton/yr) in YC and deficiency of N (671 ton/yr) and excessive $P_2O_5$ (32 ton/yr) in JJ respectively. Therefore, P runoff has to be considered an eutrophication occurs in rural small stream when an integration of crop-livestock farm system is applied into both sites.

Herbicidal Phytotoxicity under Adverse Environments and Countermeasures (불량환경하(不良環境下)에서의 제초제(除草劑) 약해(藥害)와 경감기술(輕減技術))

  • Kwon, Y.W.;Hwang, H.S.;Kang, B.H.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.210-233
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    • 1993
  • The herbicide has become indispensable as much as nitrogen fertilizer in Korean agriculture from 1970 onwards. It is estimated that in 1991 more than 40 herbicides were registered for rice crop and treated to an area 1.41 times the rice acreage ; more than 30 herbicides were registered for field crops and treated to 89% of the crop area ; the treatment acreage of 3 non-selective foliar-applied herbicides reached 2,555 thousand hectares. During the last 25 years herbicides have benefited the Korean farmers substantially in labor, cost and time of farming. Any herbicide which causes crop injury in ordinary uses is not allowed to register in most country. Herbicides, however, can cause crop injury more or less when they are misused, abused or used under adverse environments. The herbicide use more than 100% of crop acreage means an increased probability of which herbicides are used wrong or under adverse situation. This is true as evidenced by that about 25% of farmers have experienced the herbicide caused crop injury more than once during last 10 years on authors' nationwide surveys in 1992 and 1993 ; one-half of the injury incidences were with crop yield loss greater than 10%. Crop injury caused by herbicide had not occurred to a serious extent in the 1960s when the herbicides fewer than 5 were used by farmers to the field less than 12% of total acreage. Farmers ascribed about 53% of the herbicidal injury incidences at their fields to their misuses such as overdose, careless or improper application, off-time application or wrong choice of the herbicide, etc. While 47% of the incidences were mainly due to adverse natural conditions. Such misuses can be reduced to a minimum through enhanced education/extension services for right uses and, although undesirable, increased farmers' experiences of phytotoxicity. The most difficult primary problem arises from lack of countermeasures for farmers to cope with various adverse environmental conditions. At present almost all the herbicides have"Do not use!" instructions on label to avoid crop injury under adverse environments. These "Do not use!" situations Include sandy, highly percolating, or infertile soils, cool water gushing paddy, poorly draining paddy, terraced paddy, too wet or dry soils, days of abnormally cool or high air temperature, etc. Meanwhile, the cultivated lands are under poor conditions : the average organic matter content ranges 2.5 to 2.8% in paddy soil and 2.0 to 2.6% in upland soil ; the canon exchange capacity ranges 8 to 12 m.e. ; approximately 43% of paddy and 56% of upland are of sandy to sandy gravel soil ; only 42% of paddy and 16% of upland fields are on flat land. The present situation would mean that about 40 to 50% of soil applied herbicides are used on the field where the label instructs "Do not use!". Yet no positive effort has been made for 25 years long by government or companies to develop countermeasures. It is a really sophisticated social problem. In the 1960s and 1970s a subside program to incoporate hillside red clayish soil into sandy paddy as well as campaign for increased application of compost to the field had been operating. Yet majority of the sandy soils remains sandy and the program and campaign had been stopped. With regard to this sandy soil problem the authors have developed a method of "split application of a herbicide onto sandy soil field". A model case study has been carried out with success and is introduced with key procedure in this paper. Climate is variable in its nature. Among the climatic components sudden fall or rise in temperature is hardly avoidable for a crop plant. Our spring air temperature fluctuates so much ; for example, the daily mean air temperature of Inchon city varied from 6.31 to $16.81^{\circ}C$ on April 20, early seeding time of crops, within${\times}$2Sd range of 30 year records. Seeding early in season means an increased liability to phytotoxicity, and this will be more evident in direct water-seeding of rice. About 20% of farmers depend on the cold underground-water pumped for rice irrigation. If the well is deep over 70m, the fresh water may be about $10^{\circ}C$ cold. The water should be warmed to about $20^{\circ}C$ before irrigation. This is not so practiced well by farmers. In addition to the forementioned adverse conditions there exist many other aspects to be amended. Among them the worst for liquid spray type herbicides is almost total lacking in proper knowledge of nozzle types and concern with even spray by the administrative, rural extension officers, company and farmers. Even not available in the market are the nozzles and sprayers appropriate for herbicides spray. Most people perceive all the pesticide sprayers same and concern much with the speed and easiness of spray, not with correct spray. There exist many points to be improved to minimize herbicidal phytotoxicity in Korea and many ways to achieve the goal. First of all it is suggested that 1) the present evaluation of a new herbicide at standard and double doses in registration trials is to be an evaluation for standard, double and triple doses to exploit the response slope in making decision for approval and recommendation of different dose for different situation on label, 2) the government is to recognize the facts and nature of the present problem to correct the present misperceptions and to develop an appropriate national program for improvement of soil conditions, spray equipment, extention manpower and services, 3) the researchers are to enhance researches on the countermeasures and 4) the herbicide makers/dealers are to correct their misperceptions and policy for sales, to develop database on the detailed use conditions of consumer one by one and to serve the consumers with direct counsel based on the database.

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