• Title, Summary, Keyword: Liquid Semen

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Effect of Production In Vitro Embryo with Frozen-thawed Semen using AndroMed Extender in Korean Black Cow Semen (AndroMed를 이용한 흑우 동결 정액으로 체외수정란 생산 효과)

  • Cho, Sang-Rae;Choi, Sun-Ho;Choe, Chang-Yong;Son, Jun-Kyu;Kim, Jae-Bum;Kim, Sung-Jae;Son, Dong-Soo;Kim, Hyun-Jong
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.207-212
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    • 2009
  • The aim of present experiment was to examine commercial synthetic extender(AndroMed) for semen cryopreservation of Korean Black Bull. Semen was collected from a Korean Black Bull using an artificial vagina and transported to the laboratory. The semen was diluted 1:1 by AndroMed. The pellect was diluted to final sperm concentration of $5{\times}10^5/ml$ by doubling in every 10 minutes at $4^{\circ}C$ cold chamber. The semen was equilibrated for 1 hr at cold chamber and packed to 0.5 ml straw. The semen straws were located above 5 cm of liquid nitrogen for 5 minutes, above 5 cm for 10 minutes and above 10 cm for 10 min. And then the frozen straw was plunged to $LN_2$. The presented straws were examined the viability and motility after thawed at $37^{\circ}C$ water bath. Hanwoo semen was used as KPN (Korea Proven Bull Number) in this experiment. The survival rates was significantly higher in fresh semen than frozen semen ($80{\pm}14%\;and\;43{\pm}11%$). However, the motility rates was similar (80.7% and 66.4%). The survival and motility rates were higher in 5cm, 10 min treatment group than the other two groups in straw-located height and duration above $LN_2$ ($50{\pm}14%$ and 70.7% vs, 33.18% and $65{\pm}7%$ vs, 30.14% and 65.7%, respectively). The development rates to cleavage was higher in Black Cow than Hanwoo semen (62.2%, 64.4%), However, The development rates to blastocyst was higher in Hanwoo than Black cow semen (25.9%, 23.0%). In conclusion. The present results that acceptable fertilization and cryopreservation could be obtained by in vitro fertilization with frozen-thawed semen using a synthetic semen extender (AndroMed).

Effects of Bacterial Contamination of Extended Boar Semen Preservation Periods on Embryo Production In Vitro (돼지 액상 정액의 보관일수에 따른 오염 정도가 체외 수정란 생산 효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Y.S.;Lee, H.T.;Kim, I.C.;Ryu, J.W.;Kim, C.W.;Chung, K.H.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.345-351
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of preservation period of porcine liquid semen on bacterial contamination and in vitro production of embryo. Extended liquid semen was prepared by three mixture of boar's ejaculates from each farm without antibiotics, and were kept in $17^{\circ}C$ semen preservation incubator until use. Sperm motility was significantly (p<0.05) decreased as semen preservation time goes by (78.7$\pm$2.4% for 1 day vs. 71.1$\pm$2.4 and 64.8$\pm$2.4% for 3 and 5 days of presentation, respectively). Quantitative of bacteria in semen was significantly (p<0.05) higher in 5 days ($57.8\pm105.2\times10^4$ Cfu) compared to 0 and 3 days ($32.1\pm76.8\times10^4$ and $26.9\pm46.6\times10^4$ Cfu, respectively) of preservation. In terms of development of in vitro fertilization of porcine embryos inseminated by preserved semen, the rate of normal fertilization (2PN) was significantly (p<0.05) decreased in 5 days (56.0$\pm$2.6%) compared to 1 and 3 days (66.0$\pm$2.7 and 64.0$\pm$2.7%, respectively) of preservation. Cleavage rate was also significantly (p<0.05) affected by preservation period (75.0$\pm$4% for 1 day, 70.0$\pm$0.3 and 71.0$\pm$0.3% for 3 and 5 days, respectively). The in vitro developmental rate of blastocyst stage embryo was significantly (p<0.05) affected by semen preservation period (15.0$\pm$1.0% for 1 day vs. 11.0$\pm$0.9 and 8.0$\pm$0.9% for 3 and 5 days, respectively). It is concluded that more than 3 days of liquid semen preservation without antibiotics increased the quantity of bacteria resulted in detrimental effect on sperm motility and decreased both normal insemination rate and the developmental rate of blastocyst stage embryo.

Effect of Rubus coreanus leaf and stem extract on boar spermatozoa

  • Yi, Young-Joo;Cho, Min;Heo, Jung Min;Lee, Sang-Myeong
    • Journal of Biomedical and Translational Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 2017
  • Rubus coreanus is known to have diverse biological properties, such as free radical scavenging activity and anti-bacterial activity. In the present study, Rubus coreanus leaf and stem extract (RLSE) was used in boar semen preservation whether it has a beneficial effect on assisted reproductive technology (ART) in mammals. Boar spermatozoa were preserved in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS) in the presence of varying concentrations of RLSE ($0-10{\mu}g/mL$). Sperm motility, sperm viability, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were examined after 2 days of preservation. The percentage of total motile spermatozoa and progressive motile spermatozoa improved in the spermatozoa preserved with $0.5{\mu}g/mL$ RLSE. Higher proportions of viable spermatozoa were seen in the presence of 0.5 and $1{\mu}g/mL$ RLSE than in the control. Intracellular ROS levels decreased when the spermatozoa were preserved in BTS with $0.1-1{\mu}g/mL$ RLSE. In order to examine the bacterial growth, E. coli was added to liquid semen diluted with antibiotics-free BTS in the presence or absence of RLSE. No anti-bacterial activity of RLSE against E. coli was observed during liquid semen preservation. Although there was no inhibition of E. coli growth, the addition of RLSE might help improve sperm motility and viability during boar semen preservation, suggesting it as a potential reagent for ART in mammals.

Effects of Skimmed Goat Milk as a Semen Extender on Preservation of Bull Spermatozoa (탈지산양유(脫脂山羊乳)가 우정자보존(牛精子保存)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Hyo Jong;Oh, Soo Kak
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.207-213
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    • 1975
  • Skimmed goat milk heated at $92^{\circ}C$ for 10 minutes was used as a basal extender for bull semen. The extenders for liquid semen were prepared by adding simultaneously at various ratio of 5% dextrose solution and egg yolk to skimmed goat milk. After bull seven was diluted with the extenders at the rate of 20 million spermatozoa per ml of the extenders. The extenders were stored at $5^{\circ}C$ and the survival rates of spermatozoa were examined at 4 and 24 hours, and 3, 5 and 7 days after dilution. The extenders for frozen semen were prepared by adding various ratlo of glycerol to skimmed goat milk containing 20 parts of 5% dextrose solution and 3 parts of egg folk to 77 parts of skimmed goat milk. After bull semen was diluted with the extenders at the rate of 40 million spermatozoa per ml of the extenders, the extenders were frozen in liquid nitrogen tank. The frozen extenders were thawed at $40^{\circ}C$ for 2 minutes, and the revival rates of the spermatozoa in the extenders were examined. These thawed extenders were stored at $5^{\circ}C$ and the survival rates of the spermatozoa were examined at 10 minutes and 24 hours and 3 and 5 days after thawing. The results obtained were as follows: 1. Among the extenders stored at $5^{\circ}C$, the survival rate of the sperm was the highest in the extender including 20 parts of 5% dextrose solution and 3 parts of egg yolk to 77 parts of skimmed goat milk, and the survival rate was significantly higher that of the spermatozoa in egg folk-2.9% sodium citrate (1 : 4) extender. (P<0.05) 2.Among the extenders frozen in liquid nitrogen tank, the revival rate of the spermatozoa was the highest in the extender containing 7ml of glycerol per 100ml of the extender with consisted of 77 parts of skimmed goat milk, 20hparts of 5% dextrose solution and 3 parts of egg yolk, and the revival rate was significantly higher than that of the spermatozoa in egg yolk-2.9% sodium citrate (1 : 4) extender containing 8ml of glycerol per 100ml of the extender (p<0.01). 3. Among the extenders stored at $5^{\circ}C$ after thawing, the survival rate of the spermatozoa was the highest in the extender containing 7ml of glycerol per 100ml of extender which consisted of 77 parts of skimmed goat milk, 20 parts of 5% dextrose solution and 3 parts of egg yolk, and the survival rate was significantly higher than that of the spermatozoa in egg yolk -2.9% sodium citrate (1 : 4) extender containing 8ml of glycerol per 100ml of the extender (p<0.01).

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Effect of Extenders and Temperatures on Sperm Viability and Fertilizing Capacity of Harbin White Boar Semen during Long-term Liquid Storage

  • Zhou, J.B.;Yue, K.Z.;Luo, M.J.;Chang, Z.L.;Liang, H.;Wang, Z.Y.;Tan, J.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.1501-1508
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    • 2004
  • In this study the effect of extenders and temperatures on sperm viability and fertilizing capacity of boar sperm during long-term storage was investigated. Acrosomal integrity, membrane integrity, motility and hypo-osmotic resistance were evaluated by fluorescence and light microscopy. An in vitro fertilization test was performed to assess the fertilizing capacity of stored spermatozoa. The five diluents tested were ranked according to their ability to maintain sperm functional parameters and Zorlesco (ZO) extender with BSA or with PVA instead of BSA produced the best results. Zorlesco extender substituted with PVA (ZO+PVA) was found to maintain motility both at 15 and 20$^{\circ}C$. within 5 days of storage, but the quality of semen stored at 15$^{\circ}C$ decreased thereafter as compared to semen stored at 20$^{\circ}C$ Semen stored at 5$^{\circ}C$ demonstrated rapid loss of motility already within 24 h. Both fertilization and cleavage of semen stored at 20$^{\circ}C$ in ZO substituted with PVA instead of BSA did not change significantly until day 8 of storage. It is therefore concluded that PVA can be used to substitute for BSA and 20$^{\circ}C$ was more suitable than 15$^{\circ}C$ for boar semen storage, and in vitro fertilizing capacity of spermatozoa was maintained for at least 8 days in ZO+PVA at 20$^{\circ}C$.

Study on Suitable Semen Additives Incorporation into the Extender Stored at Refrigerated Temperature

  • Bhakat, M.;Mohanty, T.K.;Raina, V.S.;Gupta, A.K.;Pankaj, P.K.;Mahapatra, R.K.;Sarkar, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.10
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    • pp.1348-1357
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to compare the effect of Butylated Hydroxy Toluene (BHT), Pentoxifylline (PTX) and ${\alpha}$-tocopherol (Vit E) on semen quality parameters of Karan Fries bulls. The fortification of extender by various semen additives improves motility as well as fertility of spermatozoa. Split samples of 24 ejaculates of four Karan Fries bulls were extended in extender with or without various additives such as BHT, PTX and Vit E, and performance was evaluated at an interval of 0, 24, 48 and 72 h at refrigerated temperature (4-$7^{\circ}C$). Results of the present study revealed that addition of BHT, PTX and Vit E in extender improved sperm cell function, such as motility, viability, HOST, and acrosome integrity, as compared to the control during liquid storage up to 48 h of preservation at refrigerated temperature. There was no significant (p<0.05) difference between any of the additives up to 48 h of preservation. Overall, the results showed a significant (p<0.05) deterioration in motility after each storage interval. The results showed a significant deterioration in the acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity up to 48 h; subsequently, there was not much degradation of both the semen quality parameters. There was a significant increase in spermatozoal tail and total abnormality after each storage interval at refrigerator temperature (4 to $7^{\circ}C$); however, the head and mid-piece abnormalities were almost unaffected. Tail and total abnormality were least in extender fortified with BHT, PTX and Vit E at different hours of incubation as compared to the control. The addition of 1.5 mM BHT, 3.6 mM PTX and 1 mg/ml Vit E in the semen extender has more beneficial effect in terms of semen quality and preservability of spermatozoa.

Effects of L-Carnitine during the Storage of Fresh Semen in Miniature Pigs

  • Lee, Yeon-Ju;Lee, Sang-Hee;Lee, Eunsong;Lee, Seung Tae;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Lee, Seunghyung;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.171-177
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    • 2014
  • L-Carnitine is an antioxidant for the transport of fatty acids in mitochondria and breakdown of lipids for metabolic energy. Some studies have suggested that carnitine improves sperm motility in mammals. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of L-carnitine on the characteristics in fresh semen of miniature pigs. The collected fresh semen was stored in modena B medium with L-carnitine (0, 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mg/ml) for 10 days at $18^{\circ}C$. The semen quality of viability, acrosome reaction and mitochondria integrity was analyzed on 0, 3, 7, and 10 day of semen storage. The percentages of live and dying sperm were not different among treatment groups with different concentrations of L-carnitine during the storage period. In acrosome reaction analysis, when the sperm stored for 7 day, the percentages of live sperm with acrosome reaction were significantly (p<0.05) lower in 1 ($9.0{\pm}0.9%$), 2 ($7.6{\pm}0.2%$) or 4 mg/ml ($7.9{\pm}0.8%$) L-carnitine-treated groups than the control group (0 mg/ml L-carnitine) ($11.12{\pm}0.2%$). However, there were no difference in percentages of live sperm with acrosome reaction for 3 and 10 days of storage with each concentrations of L-carnitine. When sperm was stored for 3 and 10 days, the percentages of live sperm with mitochondria integrity were significantly higher in 2 mg/ml of L-carnitine-treated group than control group (p<0.05). In conclusion, the L-carnitine has a positive effect on acrosome reaction and mitochondria integrity in liquid state of fresh semen in miniature pigs.

Effect of Nicotinic Acid on Fresh Semen Characteristics in Miniature Pigs

  • Lee, Yeon-Ju;Lee, Sang-Hee;Lee, Eunsong;Lee, Seung Tae;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Lee, Seunghyung;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2014
  • Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of nicotinic acid (NA) on the characteristics in fresh semen of miniature pig. We evaluated viability, acrosome reaction and mitochondrial integrity of sperm on 0, 3, 7 and 10 days during storage period with nicotinic acid. As results, the survival rate of sperm in 15 mM NA (day 3, $87.8{\pm}1.2%$; day 5, $84.0{\pm}2.7%$; day 7, $82.2{\pm}0.9%$) and 30 mM NA (day 3, $87.7{\pm}0.3%$; day 5, $84.4{\pm}2.5%$; day 7, $82.3{\pm}0.7%$) groups were higher than control and 5 mM NA groups in 3, 7 and 10 days of semen storage. The NA-treated sperm on 10 day was used day for observing acrosome integrity. The survival sperm with acrosome reaction was higher in 30 mM NA group (day 3, $2.7{\pm}0.2%$; day 5, $3.3{\pm}0.6%$; day 7, $11.4{\pm}0.3%$) than in the control, significantly (P<0.05). Moreover, the live sperm with mitochondrial integrity was higher in whole treatment groups of NA than control group, significantly (P<0.05). Specially, most mitochondrial integrity on 10 day of semen storage was significantly higher in 30 mM NA group ($90.2{\pm}1.6%$) than other treatment groups (control, $81.8{\pm}3.1%$; 5 mM NA, $83.4{\pm}3.0%$; 15 mM NA, $89.1{\pm}0.7%$, P<0.05). In conclusion, supplement of NA in liquid semen of miniature pig can improve and maintain semen quality, such as viability, acrosome reaction, and mitochondria integrity.

Quantitative Analysis of Anthraquinones in Cassiae Semen by Processing Method (수치에 따른 결명자 주요 Anthraquinone의 함량분석)

  • Seo, Chang-Seob;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo;Hwang, Seock-Yeon;Kim, Byoung-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Pharmacognosy
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.200-208
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we performed quantification determination of four major components including aurantio-obtusin, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion in the 70% ethanol extracts of non-processed Cassiae Semen and processed Cassiae Semen using a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector. The analytical column for separation of the 4 constituents used a Gemini $C_{18}$ column kept at $40^{\circ}C$ by the gradient elution with 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid in water and 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.0 mL/min and the injection volume was $10{\mu}L$. The amount of aurantio-obtusin, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion in non-processed Cassiae Semen were 0.07%, 0.02%, 0.25%, and 0.10%, respectively. The amount of aurantio-obtusin, emodin, chrysophanol, and physcion in processed Cassiae Semen were 0.04-0.14%, 0.01-0.03%, 0.02-0.42%, and 0.01-0.24%, respectively. Consequently, the optimal processing condition of Cassiae Semen for the improvements of amounts of four anthraquinone compounds was obtained by roasting at $240^{\circ}C$ for 15 min.

Biological Activities of Phellinus linteus Mycelium Culture with Cassiae Semen Extract on β-Glucuronidase Inhibitory Activity (β-Glucuronidase 저해 활성이 우수한 결명자를 첨가한 상황 균사체 배양액의 생리활성)

  • Oh, Eun-Hee;Park, Jung-Mi;Kim, Sang-Hee;Song, In-Gyu;Han, Nam-Soo;Yoon, Hyang-Sik
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.620-628
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    • 2012
  • We examined the effects of biological activity Phellinus linteus mycelium culture with cassiae semen extract. Firstly, the optimal temperature, initial pH and culture period for mycelial growth in a liquid culture of P. linteus were determined, and they were $30^{\circ}C$, pH 5.0 and 8 days respectively. The five herbal materials were examined against several health functional efficacies, and, as a result, Cassiae semen was chosen, with its superior inhibitory effects in ${\beta}$-glucuronidase inhibitory activity, electron donating activity, ACE inhibitory, and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activities(95.3%, 80.9%, 96.1 and 24.2%, respectively). P. linteus fruit body was investigated on ${\beta}$-glucuronidase inhibitory activity, electron donating activity, ACE inhibitory, and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activities, and they were 54.7%, 81.9%, 30.0% and 20.1%, respectively. Accordingly, C. semen was used in the following experiment, to give an additive functional effect on the P. linteus. As the amount of C. semen in the cultural media increased, mycelial weight and ${\beta}$-glucan contents also increased, but final pH was not influenced. In addition, the ${\beta}$-glucuronidase inhibitory activity, electron donating activity, and ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibitory activity increased. P. linteus mycelium culture showed higher activities in the other three tests above, except for electron donating activity, when C. semen was added to the medium before cultivation.