• 제목, 요약, 키워드: Liquid Semen

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Antibiotic Resistant Microbial Contamination (Enterobacter cloacae) Derived from Egg Yolk and Frozen Semen Extender in Porcine In Vitro Fertilized Embryos

  • Kwak, Seong-Song;Jeong, Se-Heon;Jang, Seung-Hoon;Jeon, Yu-Byeol;Nam, Young-Hee;Biswas, Dibyendu;Lee, Wan-Kyu;Hyun, Sang-Hwan
    • 한국수정란이식학회지
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.267-272
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    • 2010
  • The present study was to investigate the source of contamination during semen processing for in vitro uses. In the present study, frozen semen was prepared from liquid semen in our laboratory for in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments due to lack of fresh semen. Antibiotics were added in the frozen semen extender (kanamycin and gentamicin) and in vitro culture (IVC) medium (gentamicin) for further inhibiting growth of microorganisms. Nevertheless, proliferations of microorganisms were observed in IVC culture drop during culturing of IVF embryos using frozen semen. Randomly 3 samples were taken from the liquid semen, frozen semen and egg yolk. Contaminated IVC medium, frozen-thawed semen, liquid semen and egg yolk were cultured in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar medium. Whitish colonies were detected in contaminated IVC drop, frozen-thawed semen samples and egg yolk but no colonies were formed in liquid semen samples. Gram-negative and rod-shaped identical bacteria were found in both frozen-thawed semen sample and contaminated IVC drop and egg yolk samples. Enterobacter cloacae were confirmed by API 20E kit according to manufacturer's instruction with identification value (% ID) 94.3% and T index 0.88. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) by using ampicillin, amikacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin test. Among them Enterobacter cloacae were resistant to ampicillin, amikacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin but susceptible to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. From these findings it could be suggested that this contamination sources might be from egg yolk.

Effects of Sperm Number and Semen Type on Sow Reproductive Performance in Subtropical Area

  • Kuo, Y.H.;Hnang, S.Y.;Lee, K.H.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.6-9
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lower numbers of sperm $(3{\times}10^9)$ per dose liquid semen and type of semen used in artificial insemination (AI) on sow reproductive performance in subtropical area. Semen was supplied by two commercial AI centers. A total of 671 female pigs from seven farms were inseminated with either $3{\times}10^9$ or $5{\times}10^9$ sperm per dose. Two types of semen were used: heterospermic semen from two boars of the same breed and homospermic semen from a single boar. After insemination, conception rate, farrowing rate, total litter size, and number of dead piglets were recorded. The analysis of variance indicated that there was no significant effect of interactions between pig farm, type of semen, or number of sperm on any of the traits measured. There were significant differences in conception rate, farrowing rate, and total litter size among pig farms (p<0.05). The effect of number of sperm per dose liquid semen ($3{\times}10^9$ or $5{\times}10^9$) was not significant. Sows inseminated with homospermic semen showed significantly higher conception and farrowing rates but significantly lower total litter size (p<0.05). In conclusion, the number of sperm per dose liquid semen for AI could be lowered to $3{\times}10^9 $ without affecting reproductive performance in subtropical areas like Taiwan.

THE COST OF SEMEN PRODUCTION AND THE RATE OF CONCEPTION FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE

  • Alam, J.;Akteruzzaman, M.;Rahman, A.;Sayeed, M.A.
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted to determine the cost of production of semen and the rate of conception for artificial insemination in eight randomly selected districts of Bangladesh. A sample of 640 adopting farms were investigated. Results indicate that the cost of liquid semen per dose on full-cost and cash cast basis were Tk. 16.17 and Tk. 14.48, while the cost of locally produced exotic semen and imported semen were Tk. 31.25 and Tk. 110.00 respectively. The cost of liquid semen per insemination, per conception and per progeny on full-cost were Tk. 26.65, Tk. 50.64, and Tk. 56.27 respectively and on cash cost were Tk. 23.88, Tk. 45.37 and Tk. 50.41 respectively. The average cost of semen paid by the farmers was Tk. 14.00 and it was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Out of the cost of A.I. centres, government had subsidized 92.16 percent and the rest 7.84 percent accrued as returns. About 40 percent of the produced semen was lost in the system which could not be used at all. The conception rate on first insemination was 53.6 percent. The rate increased to 73.2 percent upto the last insemination. The difference in conception rate between liquid semen (69.97%) and frozen semen (70.48%) was not statistically significant.

조절되지 않은 실온에서의 돼지액상정액 보존에 관한 연구 (Study on the Preservation of Liquid Boar Semen at Uncontrolled Room Temperature)

  • 박창식;김민규;이성호;서직;이천군;이의해
    • 한국가축번식학회지
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 1997
  • This study was done to find out the preservation possibility of liquid boar semen at variabel room temperature of 9 to 16$^{\circ}C$. The percentages of sperm motility and NAR acrosome were highest in B tschwiler extender compared to B tschwiler+Hepes, Andro+Hepes and Andro extenders. The extenders with Hepes buffer showed detrimental effect for preservation of liquid boar semen. The pH of ejaculated sperm-rich fraction was 7.5. The pH of B tschwiler+Hepes, B tschwiler, Andro+Hepes and Andro extenders was 6.9, 7.5, 7.1 and 8.1, respectively. The pH of liquid boar semen with B tschwiler+Hepes, B tschwiler, Andro+Hepes and Andro extenders was 6.6, 6.9, 6.7 and 6.9 at 1st day of storage, and 5.5, 5.7, 5.6 and 5.8 at 7th day of storage, respectively. Gilts and sows were inseminated twice with liquid boar semen stored at 9~16$^{\circ}C$ in B tschwiler extender for 3~4 days. Farrowing rate, litter size and average pig weight at birth between AI and natural service did not differ significantly in gilt and sow, respectively. However, sow showed higher farrowing rate and litter size compared to gilt both in AI and in natural service. As a result of this study, we found out that liquid boar semen can be stored for 5~7 days at uncontrolled room temperature of 9~16$^{\circ}C$ in B tschwiler extender.

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Antioxidant Supplementation Enhances the Porcine Semen Preservation Capacity

  • Chung, Ki-Hwa;Kim, In-Cheul;Son, Jung-Ho
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 2015
  • Preservation of liquid semen is an important factor for breeding management in swine industry. Oxidative stress of spermatozoa during liquid preservation has a detrimental effect on sperm quality and decreases fertility. Objective of this study was to determine the effect of antioxidant, Quercetin, on capability of porcine liquid semen preservation. Freshly collected porcine semen from boars (n=3), having proven fertility was counted, diluted to $3{\times}10^7/mL$ and divided into 5 different semen extenders. Aliquots of diluted semen with different extenders were subjected to measure the pH, motility, viability and sperm DNA structure status on elapse time after preservation for 10 days. For the first 3 days, semen preserved in all 5 different extenders maintained their initial pH and either gradually decreased or increased thereafter, indicating lipid peroxidation has started. Sperm motility (r=0.52, p=0.01) and viability (r=0.55, p=0.03) had positive correlation with semen pH. Sperm motility was maintained well (p<0.05) in especially 2 extenders containing Tris and antioxidant compared to other extenders, suggesting both Tris and antioxidant worked as pH regulator and had beneficial effects on sperm characteristic during preservation. Sperm DNA structure status accessed by sperm chromatin structure assay on elapsed time after preservation, tended to be higher in semen preserved without antioxidant. Taken together, addition of antioxidant to extender prevents the sperm from oxidative stress during storage in mechanism by which antioxidant slows the lipid peroxidation, and thus reduced the reactive oxygen species in preserved porcine semen resulted in maintaining semen pH, sperm motility and viability for 7~10 days.

돼지 액상정액 보존을 위한 Lactose-Egg Yolk와 $B\ddot{u}tschwiler$ 희석액의 비교 (Comparision of Preservation of Liquid Boar Semen between Lactose-Egg Yolk and $B\ddot{u}tschwiler$ Diluents)

  • 박창식;천용민;서직
    • 한국가축번식학회지
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 1996
  • 본 연구는 돼지 액상정액을 인공수정용 100ml 플라스틱 병에 보존하면서 Lactose-Egg yolk 희석액과 B tschwiler 희석액 간에 보존 온도별 차이를 조사하고, Lactose-Egg yolk 희석액에서의 글리세롤 농도의 효과를 조사하여 돼지 액상정액을 좀더 장기간 사용할 수 있는 방법을 찾고자 실시하였다. 돼지 액상정액을 5$^{\circ}C$ 냉장고에 보존하면서조사한 바에 의하면, 37$^{\circ}C$에서 0.5 및 2시간 배양 후의 정자 운동성은 전체 보존기간동안 Lactose-Egg yolk 희석액이 B tschwiler 희석액보다 유의하게 (P,0.05) 높게 나타났고, 정상첨체비율은 두 희석액간에 차이가 없었다. 돼지 액상정액을 15$^{\circ}C$에 보존하면서 조사한 바에 의하면, 3일부터 7일 보존시까지 정자 운동성과 정상첨체비율에 있어서 B tschwiler 희석액이 Lactose-Egg yolk 희석액보다 유의하데 높게 나타났다. Lactose-Egg yolk 희석액을 이용한 돼지 액상정액의 글리세롤 농도의 효과에 있어서는 최종 글리세롤 농도가 0, 1, 3 및 5%보다 2%일 때 가장 높은 정자 운동성과 정상첨체비유을 나타내었다. 분만율, 복당 생존자돈수 그리고 출생시 평균 생시체중은 Lactose-Egg yolk 희석액과 B tschwiler 희석액간에 차이가 없었다. 이상의 연구 결과를 종합해 볼 때 Lactose-Egg yolk 희석액은 5$^{\circ}C$에서 B tschwiler 희석액은 15$^{\circ}C$에서 6~7일 동안 돼지 액상정액을 보존할 수 있었다.

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Comparison of Motility, Acrosome, Viability and ATP of Boar Sperm with or without Cold Shock Resistance in Liquid Semen at 17℃ and 4℃, and Frozen-thawed Semen

  • Yi, Y.J.;Li, Z.H.;Kim, E.S.;Song, E.S.;Kim, H.B.;Cong, P.Q.;Lee, J.M.;Park, Chang-Sik
    • 아세아태평양축산학회지
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to analyze boar sperm to compare motility, acrosome morphology, viability and ATP by various preservation methods between Duroc boar A with cold shock resistance sperm and Duroc boar B with cold shock sensitivity sperm. Semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and normal acrosome between Duroc boar A and B did not show any differences within 2 h after collection. There were no differences in sperm motility and normal acrosome between boar A and B at 1 day of preservation at $17^{\circ}C$ and $4^{\circ}C$, respectively. However, sperm motility and normal acrosome from 2 day of preservation at $17^{\circ}C$ and $4^{\circ}C$, respectively, were higher for boar A than boar B. The frozen-thawed sperm motility and normal acrosome were higher for boar A than boar B. The sperm viability and ATP concentration according to storage period of liquid semen at $17^{\circ}C$ and $4^{\circ}C$ were higher for boar A than boar B. Also, the sperm viability and ATP concentration of frozen-thawed semen were higher for boar A than boar B. In conclusion, we found out that the original quality of boar semen with cold shock resistance sperm played an important role.

Storage of Bull and Boar Semen: Novel Concepts Derived Using Magnetized Water and Antioxidants

  • Lee, Sang-Hee;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2014
  • Artificial insemination technique has been contributed immensely for production of livestock worldwide as a critical assisted reproductive technique to preserve and propagate excellent genes in domestic animal industry. In the past decade, methods for semen preservation have been improved mostly in liquid preservation method for boar semen and freezing method for bull semen. Among many factors affecting semen quality during preservation, reactive oxygen species, produced by aerobic respiration in sperm for survival and motility, are unfavorable to sperm physiology. In mammalian cell as well as in the sperm, antioxidant system plays a role in degradation of reactive oxygen species. Magnetized water forms smaller stabilizing water clusters, resulting in high absorption and permeability of the cell for water, implicating its application for semen preservation. Therefore, this review focuses on preservation methods of boar and bull semen with respect to improvement of extender and reduction of reactive oxygen species by using magnetized water and supplementation of antioxidants.

정액의 액상보존이 닭의 정액성상 및 수정율에 미치는 영향 (Effects of Liquid Rooster Sperm on Reproductive Ability in Chicken)

  • 김학규;나재천;최철환;장병귀;상병돈;이상진;한만희;박창식;이규승
    • 한국가금학회지
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.129-134
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    • 2003
  • 정액의 액상보존이 닭의 번식능력에 미치는 영향을 구명하기 위하여 계통이 분명한 재래닭을 정액 채취용 수탉으로 사용하였으며 인공수정용 암닭으로는 백색산란계를 사용하였다. 닭 정액을 채취 희석하여 5$^{\circ}C$ 냉장온도에서 6, 30, 54 시간보존하며 정액성상 검사와 함께 인공수정을 하였을 때, 원정액과 skim milk glucose액, egg yolk glucose액 및 saline에 희석된 정액의 정자운동성은 냉장보관 6 시간에는 처리간에 유의적인 차이가 없었으나, 냉장보관 30 및 54 시간에는 저하되는 경향이었다 그러나 skim milk glucose액과 egg yolk glucose액의 정자운동성과 정상정자율은 30 및 54 시간 냉장 보존을 하여도 원정액이나 saline액보다 현저히 높았으며 (P<0.05), 수정율에 있어서는 6, 30 및 54 시 간 냉장보존된 skim milk glucose희석정액에서 90.77, 87.70 및 59.46% 를 나타내어 다른 시험구보다 현저하게 우수한 결과를 보였다 .(P<0.05). 따라서 본 연구결과 skim milk glucose액은 닭의 액상정액 인공수정시 산업적 이용이 가능하다고 판단된다.

보존 기간이 돼지 액상정액의 운동역학 및 수정능 획득에 미치는 영향 (Effect of Storage Times on the Kinematics and Capacitation Status in Liquid Boar Semen)

  • 박유진;송원희;김연희;;오신애;방명걸
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2008
  • 본 연구는 정액의 보존 기간 동안 정액의 질적 변화를 알아보고자 시행하였다. 돼지 정액을 Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS)에 희석한 후 $17^{\circ}C$에서 5일 동안 보존하였다. 보존 기간 동안 정자의 운동성(%)과 linearity는 3일째부터 유의하게 감소하였으나, 다른 운동 역학 변수에서는 유의적 변화를 나타내지 않았다. 또한, 5일 동안 정액을 보존할 경우 첨체의 온전성에도 변화가 없었다. 그러나 제 4일째부터 첨체 변화가 야기된 정자는 유의적으로 증가하였으나, 수정능 획득이 일어난 정자는 유의적으로 감소하였다. 정액의 보존 기간 동안 첨체의 온전성의 유의적 변화가 없었다. 즉, 보존 기간 3일동안 정자의 질적 운동성 및 첨체 온전성에는 유의적인 변화가 없었으므로 상업용 돼지 액상정액은 $17^{\circ}C$에서 적어도 3일간 수정능력을 만족스럽게 유지함을 보여준다.