• Title, Summary, Keyword: Liquid Semen

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Antibiotic Resistant Microbial Contamination (Enterobacter cloacae) Derived from Egg Yolk and Frozen Semen Extender in Porcine In Vitro Fertilized Embryos

  • Kwak, Seong-Song;Jeong, Se-Heon;Jang, Seung-Hoon;Jeon, Yu-Byeol;Nam, Young-Hee;Biswas, Dibyendu;Lee, Wan-Kyu;Hyun, Sang-Hwan
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.267-272
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    • 2010
  • The present study was to investigate the source of contamination during semen processing for in vitro uses. In the present study, frozen semen was prepared from liquid semen in our laboratory for in vitro fertilization (IVF) experiments due to lack of fresh semen. Antibiotics were added in the frozen semen extender (kanamycin and gentamicin) and in vitro culture (IVC) medium (gentamicin) for further inhibiting growth of microorganisms. Nevertheless, proliferations of microorganisms were observed in IVC culture drop during culturing of IVF embryos using frozen semen. Randomly 3 samples were taken from the liquid semen, frozen semen and egg yolk. Contaminated IVC medium, frozen-thawed semen, liquid semen and egg yolk were cultured in de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) agar medium. Whitish colonies were detected in contaminated IVC drop, frozen-thawed semen samples and egg yolk but no colonies were formed in liquid semen samples. Gram-negative and rod-shaped identical bacteria were found in both frozen-thawed semen sample and contaminated IVC drop and egg yolk samples. Enterobacter cloacae were confirmed by API 20E kit according to manufacturer's instruction with identification value (% ID) 94.3% and T index 0.88. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were done according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) by using ampicillin, amikacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin test. Among them Enterobacter cloacae were resistant to ampicillin, amikacin, cephalothin, gentamicin, kanamycin but susceptible to tetracycline, oxytetracycline, sulfamethoxazole trimethoprim, norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. From these findings it could be suggested that this contamination sources might be from egg yolk.

Effects of Sperm Number and Semen Type on Sow Reproductive Performance in Subtropical Area

  • Kuo, Y.H.;Hnang, S.Y.;Lee, K.H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.6-9
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of lower numbers of sperm $(3{\times}10^9)$ per dose liquid semen and type of semen used in artificial insemination (AI) on sow reproductive performance in subtropical area. Semen was supplied by two commercial AI centers. A total of 671 female pigs from seven farms were inseminated with either $3{\times}10^9$ or $5{\times}10^9$ sperm per dose. Two types of semen were used: heterospermic semen from two boars of the same breed and homospermic semen from a single boar. After insemination, conception rate, farrowing rate, total litter size, and number of dead piglets were recorded. The analysis of variance indicated that there was no significant effect of interactions between pig farm, type of semen, or number of sperm on any of the traits measured. There were significant differences in conception rate, farrowing rate, and total litter size among pig farms (p<0.05). The effect of number of sperm per dose liquid semen ($3{\times}10^9$ or $5{\times}10^9$) was not significant. Sows inseminated with homospermic semen showed significantly higher conception and farrowing rates but significantly lower total litter size (p<0.05). In conclusion, the number of sperm per dose liquid semen for AI could be lowered to $3{\times}10^9 $ without affecting reproductive performance in subtropical areas like Taiwan.

THE COST OF SEMEN PRODUCTION AND THE RATE OF CONCEPTION FOR ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION IN CATTLE

  • Alam, J.;Akteruzzaman, M.;Rahman, A.;Sayeed, M.A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted to determine the cost of production of semen and the rate of conception for artificial insemination in eight randomly selected districts of Bangladesh. A sample of 640 adopting farms were investigated. Results indicate that the cost of liquid semen per dose on full-cost and cash cast basis were Tk. 16.17 and Tk. 14.48, while the cost of locally produced exotic semen and imported semen were Tk. 31.25 and Tk. 110.00 respectively. The cost of liquid semen per insemination, per conception and per progeny on full-cost were Tk. 26.65, Tk. 50.64, and Tk. 56.27 respectively and on cash cost were Tk. 23.88, Tk. 45.37 and Tk. 50.41 respectively. The average cost of semen paid by the farmers was Tk. 14.00 and it was higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Out of the cost of A.I. centres, government had subsidized 92.16 percent and the rest 7.84 percent accrued as returns. About 40 percent of the produced semen was lost in the system which could not be used at all. The conception rate on first insemination was 53.6 percent. The rate increased to 73.2 percent upto the last insemination. The difference in conception rate between liquid semen (69.97%) and frozen semen (70.48%) was not statistically significant.

Study on the Preservation of Liquid Boar Semen at Uncontrolled Room Temperature (조절되지 않은 실온에서의 돼지액상정액 보존에 관한 연구)

  • Park, C.S.;Kim, M.K.;Lee, S.H.;Xu, Z.;Lee, C.Z.;Lee, Y.H.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 1997
  • This study was done to find out the preservation possibility of liquid boar semen at variabel room temperature of 9 to 16$^{\circ}C$. The percentages of sperm motility and NAR acrosome were highest in B tschwiler extender compared to B tschwiler+Hepes, Andro+Hepes and Andro extenders. The extenders with Hepes buffer showed detrimental effect for preservation of liquid boar semen. The pH of ejaculated sperm-rich fraction was 7.5. The pH of B tschwiler+Hepes, B tschwiler, Andro+Hepes and Andro extenders was 6.9, 7.5, 7.1 and 8.1, respectively. The pH of liquid boar semen with B tschwiler+Hepes, B tschwiler, Andro+Hepes and Andro extenders was 6.6, 6.9, 6.7 and 6.9 at 1st day of storage, and 5.5, 5.7, 5.6 and 5.8 at 7th day of storage, respectively. Gilts and sows were inseminated twice with liquid boar semen stored at 9~16$^{\circ}C$ in B tschwiler extender for 3~4 days. Farrowing rate, litter size and average pig weight at birth between AI and natural service did not differ significantly in gilt and sow, respectively. However, sow showed higher farrowing rate and litter size compared to gilt both in AI and in natural service. As a result of this study, we found out that liquid boar semen can be stored for 5~7 days at uncontrolled room temperature of 9~16$^{\circ}C$ in B tschwiler extender.

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Antioxidant Supplementation Enhances the Porcine Semen Preservation Capacity

  • Chung, Ki-Hwa;Kim, In-Cheul;Son, Jung-Ho
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.7-11
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    • 2015
  • Preservation of liquid semen is an important factor for breeding management in swine industry. Oxidative stress of spermatozoa during liquid preservation has a detrimental effect on sperm quality and decreases fertility. Objective of this study was to determine the effect of antioxidant, Quercetin, on capability of porcine liquid semen preservation. Freshly collected porcine semen from boars (n=3), having proven fertility was counted, diluted to $3{\times}10^7/mL$ and divided into 5 different semen extenders. Aliquots of diluted semen with different extenders were subjected to measure the pH, motility, viability and sperm DNA structure status on elapse time after preservation for 10 days. For the first 3 days, semen preserved in all 5 different extenders maintained their initial pH and either gradually decreased or increased thereafter, indicating lipid peroxidation has started. Sperm motility (r=0.52, p=0.01) and viability (r=0.55, p=0.03) had positive correlation with semen pH. Sperm motility was maintained well (p<0.05) in especially 2 extenders containing Tris and antioxidant compared to other extenders, suggesting both Tris and antioxidant worked as pH regulator and had beneficial effects on sperm characteristic during preservation. Sperm DNA structure status accessed by sperm chromatin structure assay on elapsed time after preservation, tended to be higher in semen preserved without antioxidant. Taken together, addition of antioxidant to extender prevents the sperm from oxidative stress during storage in mechanism by which antioxidant slows the lipid peroxidation, and thus reduced the reactive oxygen species in preserved porcine semen resulted in maintaining semen pH, sperm motility and viability for 7~10 days.

Comparision of Preservation of Liquid Boar Semen between Lactose-Egg Yolk and $B\ddot{u}tschwiler$ Diluents (돼지 액상정액 보존을 위한 Lactose-Egg Yolk와 $B\ddot{u}tschwiler$ 희석액의 비교)

  • Park, C.S.;Cheon, Y.M.;Xu, Z.
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.101-109
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    • 1996
  • This study was done to find out the methods of long-term use of liquid boar semen in 100 ml plastic bottle for artificial insemination and to investigate differences between Lactose-Egg yolk and Biitschwiler diluents according to storage temperature, and effect of final glycerol concent ration in Lactose-Egg yolk diluent. Liquid boar semen diluted with Lactose-Egg yolk diluent showed significantly higher sperm motility (p<0.05) after 0.5 and 2h incubation at 37$^{\circ}C$,than Butschwiler diluent at all storage length when it was preserved in the 5$^{\circ}C$ refrigerator. The NAR acrosome in Lactose-Egg yolk diluent a after 0.5 and 2h incubation at 37$^{\circ}C$, respectively, during preservation periods was similar to that in Biitschwiler diluent. When liquid boar semen was preserved at 15$^{\circ}C$, liquid boar semen in the Butschwiler diluent showed significantly higher percentages of sperm motility and NAR acrosome from third day to seventh than that in Lactose-Egg yolk diluent. In the effect of final glycerol concentration of liquid boar semen in the Lactose-Egg yolk diluent, the final glycerol concentration of 2% showed higer percentages of sperm motility and NAR acrosome than that of 0, 1, 3, and 5%. Farrowing rate, litter size and average pig weight at birth did not differ significantly between Lactose-Egg yolk and But schwiler diluents. As a result of this study, we found out that liquid boar semen can be stored for 6-7 days at 5$^{\circ}C$ in Lactose-Egg yolk diluent and at 15$^{\circ}C$ in Butschwiler diluent.

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Comparison of Motility, Acrosome, Viability and ATP of Boar Sperm with or without Cold Shock Resistance in Liquid Semen at 17℃ and 4℃, and Frozen-thawed Semen

  • Yi, Y.J.;Li, Z.H.;Kim, E.S.;Song, E.S.;Kim, H.B.;Cong, P.Q.;Lee, J.M.;Park, Chang-Sik
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.190-197
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    • 2008
  • This study was designed to analyze boar sperm to compare motility, acrosome morphology, viability and ATP by various preservation methods between Duroc boar A with cold shock resistance sperm and Duroc boar B with cold shock sensitivity sperm. Semen volume, sperm concentration, motility and normal acrosome between Duroc boar A and B did not show any differences within 2 h after collection. There were no differences in sperm motility and normal acrosome between boar A and B at 1 day of preservation at $17^{\circ}C$ and $4^{\circ}C$, respectively. However, sperm motility and normal acrosome from 2 day of preservation at $17^{\circ}C$ and $4^{\circ}C$, respectively, were higher for boar A than boar B. The frozen-thawed sperm motility and normal acrosome were higher for boar A than boar B. The sperm viability and ATP concentration according to storage period of liquid semen at $17^{\circ}C$ and $4^{\circ}C$ were higher for boar A than boar B. Also, the sperm viability and ATP concentration of frozen-thawed semen were higher for boar A than boar B. In conclusion, we found out that the original quality of boar semen with cold shock resistance sperm played an important role.

Storage of Bull and Boar Semen: Novel Concepts Derived Using Magnetized Water and Antioxidants

  • Lee, Sang-Hee;Cheong, Hee-Tae;Yang, Boo-Keun;Park, Choon-Keun
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2014
  • Artificial insemination technique has been contributed immensely for production of livestock worldwide as a critical assisted reproductive technique to preserve and propagate excellent genes in domestic animal industry. In the past decade, methods for semen preservation have been improved mostly in liquid preservation method for boar semen and freezing method for bull semen. Among many factors affecting semen quality during preservation, reactive oxygen species, produced by aerobic respiration in sperm for survival and motility, are unfavorable to sperm physiology. In mammalian cell as well as in the sperm, antioxidant system plays a role in degradation of reactive oxygen species. Magnetized water forms smaller stabilizing water clusters, resulting in high absorption and permeability of the cell for water, implicating its application for semen preservation. Therefore, this review focuses on preservation methods of boar and bull semen with respect to improvement of extender and reduction of reactive oxygen species by using magnetized water and supplementation of antioxidants.

Effects of Liquid Rooster Sperm on Reproductive Ability in Chicken (정액의 액상보존이 닭의 정액성상 및 수정율에 미치는 영향)

  • 김학규;나재천;최철환;장병귀;상병돈;이상진;한만희;박창식;이규승
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.129-134
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of liquid rooster semen on reproductive ability in chicken. Raw and diluted semens were stored at 5$^{\circ}C$ cold temperature for 6, 30, and 54 hours after semen collection. There was no statistically difference in sperm motility throughout the 6 hours period of storage among raw semen and diluted semen groups with skim milk glucose solution (SM), egg yolk glucose solution (EY), and saline. But there was decrease in those throughout the period of 30 and 54 hours of storage. Sperm motility and normal sperm for the period of 30 and 54 hours of storage were significantly better in SM and EY diluted groups (P<0.05). Fertilization rates of rooster semen diluted with SM were 90.77, 87.70, and 59.46% for 6, 30, and 54 hours stored groups, respectively, those proved to be higher in SM-diluted group than other groups.

Effect of Storage Times on the Kinematics and Capacitation Status in Liquid Boar Semen (보존 기간이 돼지 액상정액의 운동역학 및 수정능 획득에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Yoo-Jin;Song, Won-Hee;Kim, Yeon-Hee;Mohamed, E.A.;Oh, Shin-Ae;Pang, Myung-Geol
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.59-64
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    • 2008
  • The objective of this study was to estimate modification of semen quality during storage. Liquid boar semen samples extended in Beltsville Thawing Solution were stored at $17^{\circ}C$ up to 5 days. While % motility and linearity significantly decreased eon day 3 in extender, the qualitative motility patterns were maintained satisfactorily. Also the storage of boar semen up to 5 days before insemination did not significantly changed the acrosome intactness. However, acrosome changed sperm significantly increased and capacitated sperm significantly decreased from day 4. No significant modifications in acrosome integrity were showed during sperm storage; these results suggest that liquid boar semen may keep the quality in extender for 3 days.