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A Study On Low-cost LPR(License Plate Recognition) System Based On Smart Cam System using Android (안드로이드 기반 스마트 캠 방식의 저가형 자동차 번호판 인식 시스템 구현에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Hee-Yeol;Lee, Seung-Ho
    • Journal of IKEEE
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.471-477
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, we propose a low-cost license plate recognition system based on smart cam system using Android. The proposed system consists of a portable device and server. Potable device Hardware consists of ARM Cortex-A9 (S5PV210) processor control unit, a power supply device, wired and wireless communication, input/output unit. We develope Linux kernel and dedicated device driver for WiFi module and camera. The license plate recognition algorithm is consisted of setting candidate plates areas with canny edge detector, extracting license plate number with Labeling, recognizing with template matching, etc. The number that is recognized by the device is transmitted to the remote server via the user mobile phone, and the server re-transfer the vehicle information in the database to the portable device. To verify the utility of the proposed system, user photographs the license plate of any vehicle in the natural environment. Confirming the recognition result, the recognition rate was 95%. The proposed system was suitable for low cost portable license plate recognition device, it enabled the stability of the system when used long time by using the Android operating system.

Design and Implementation of an Alternate System Interconnect based on PCI Express (PCI Express 기반 시스템 인터커넥트의 설계 및 구현)

  • Kim, Young Woo;Ren, Ye;Choi, WonHyuk
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.52 no.8
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    • pp.74-85
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    • 2015
  • PCI Express is a well-known and widely used de-facto system bus standard for connecting among a processor and IO devices. PCI Express is originated from old PCI standard, and its most of applications are limited to be used within a PC or server system. But, because of its fast speed, low power consumption, and good protocol efficiency, it is considered as one of a good candidate for an alternate system interconnect for many years. In this paper, we present design, implementation and early evaluation of an alternate system interconnect by utilizing PCI Express. The developed alternate system interconnect using PCI Express (named PCIeLINK) utilizes non-transparent bridging (NTB) technic which generally used in fail-over system in PCI and PCI Express. By using NTB technic, PCI Express device can be extended to outside of a system without electrical and logical problems arising during system boot and enumeration. To build up an alternate system interconnect, we designed and implemented a network interface card having multiple PCI Express ${\times}4$ connections (theoretically 20 Gbps) and tested, The early test results revealed that an ${\times}4$ port in the card showed 8.6 Gbps peak performance for bulk transmission and 5.1 Gbps peak for normal TCP/IP transfer.

A Porting Technique of WiFi Device on Android Platform (안드로이드 플랫폼에 WiFi 디바이스 탑재 기법)

  • Jeong, Uyeong;Ju, Youngkwan;Jeon, Joongnam
    • Journal of Convergence Society for SMB
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2012
  • Android platform is a powerful operating system developed on Linux 2.6 Kernel, and provides many features such as comprehensive libraries, a multimedia environment, and powerful interface for phone applications. Since Android is an open operating system, which can be installed in any vendors's equipments. Current smartphones as well as netbooks, navigations, car PCs, tablet PCs, Industrial PCs are used in various fields. It is difficult a lot that to mount to other devices on the Android platform or new devices. In this Paper, The process that data that occurred from a hardware was passed to the highest application and Android platform system for managing hardware devices were analyzed. Building Android & driver compilation environment, How to support the protocol for the use of WiFi in the kernel, How to Mount a WiFi device in the kernel, Device driver registration for the Android platform, WiFi Management Service Daemon (wpa_supplicant) and IP allocation services daemon (dhcpcd) registration, How to create a socket for communication between the daemon (wpa_supplicant) and HAL have been presented. In the experiment using the proposed method, WiFi devices were mounted on the Android platform in the X-86 & ARM family. Understanding the whole process of control flow in Android hierarchy is very important to porting a new device on it. The process included in this paper can help technicians who might encounter the obstacles in their porting works.

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A Comparative Study of Aggregation Schemes for Concurrent Transmission over Multiple WLAN Interfaces (다중 무선랜 인터페이스 전송을 위한 결합 방식의 성능 연구)

  • Saputra, Yuris Mulya;Hwang, Hwanwoong;Yun, Ji-Hoon
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.51 no.7
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2014
  • To increase wireless capacity, the concurrent use of multiple wireless interfaces on different frequency bands, called aggregation, can be considered. In this paper, we focus on aggregation of multiple Wi-Fi interfaces with packet-level traffic spreading between the interfaces. Two aggregation schemes, link bonding and multipath TCP (MPTCP), are tested and compared in a dualband Wi-Fi radio system with their Linux implementation. Various test conditions such as traffic types, network delay, locations, interface failures and configuration parameters are considered. Experimental results show that aggregation increases throughput performance significantly over the use of a single interface. Link bonding achieves lower throughput than MPTCP due to duplicate TCP acknowledgements (ACKs) resulting from packet reordering and filtering such duplicate ACKs out is considered as a possible solution. However, link bonding is fast responsive to links' status changes such as a link failure. It is shown that different combinations of interface weights for packet spread in link bonding result in different throughput performance, envisioning a spatio-temporal adaptation of the weights. We also develop a mathematical model of power consumption and compare the power efficiency of the schemes applying different power consumption profiles.

A Prefetching and Memory Management Policy for Personal Solid State Drives (개인용 SSD를 위한 선반입 및 메모리 관리 정책)

  • Baek, Sung-Hoon
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartA
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    • v.19A no.1
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2012
  • Traditional technologies that are used to improve the performance of hard disk drives show many negative cases if they are applied to solid state drives (SSD). Access time and block sequence in hard disk drives that consist of mechanical components are very important performance factors. Meanwhile, SSD provides superior random read performance that is not affected by block address sequence due to the characteristics of flash memory. Practically, it is recommended to disable prefetching if a SSD is installed in a personal computer. However, this paper presents a combinational method of a prefetching scheme and a memory management that consider the internal structure of SSD and the characteristics of NAND flash memory. It is important that SSD must concurrently operate multiple flash memory chips. The I/O unit size of NAND flash memory tends to increase and it exceeded the block size of operating systems. Hence, the proposed prefetching scheme performs in an operating unit of SSD. To complement a weak point of the prefetching scheme, the proposed memory management scheme adaptively evicts uselessly prefetched data to maximize the sum of cache hit rate and prefetch hit rate. We implemented the proposed schemes as a Linux kernel module and evaluated them using a commercial SSD. The schemes improved the I/O performance up to 26% in a given experiment.

Normal and Malicious Application Pattern Analysis using System Call Event on Android Mobile Devices for Similarity Extraction (안드로이드 모바일 정상 및 악성 앱 시스템 콜 이벤트 패턴 분석을 통한 유사도 추출 기법)

  • Ham, You Joung;Lee, Hyung-Woo
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.125-139
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    • 2013
  • Distribution of malicious applications developed by attackers is increasing along with general normal applications due to the openness of the Android-based open market. Mechanism that allows more accurate ways to distinguish normal apps and malicious apps for common mobile devices should be developed in order to reduce the damage caused by the rampant malicious applications. This paper analysed the normal event pattern from the most highly used game apps in the Android open market to analyse the event pattern from normal apps and malicious apps of mobile devices that are based on the Android platform, and analysed the malicious event pattern from the malicious apps and the disguising malicious apps in the form of a game app among 1260 malware samples distributed by Android MalGenome Project. As described, experiment that extracts normal app and malicious app events was performed using Strace, the Linux-based system call extraction tool, targeting normal apps and malicious apps on Android-based mobile devices. Relevance analysis for each event set was performed on collected events that occurred when normal apps and malicious apps were running. This paper successfully extracted event similarity through this process of analyzing the event occurrence characteristics, pattern and distribution on each set of normal apps and malicious apps, and lastly suggested a mechanism that determines whether any given app is malicious.

An Implementation of Dynamic Software Update System for C Application Programs (C 응용 프로그램의 동적 소프트웨어 업데이트 시스템 개발)

  • Shin, Dongha;Kim, Ji-Hyeon
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2013
  • Dynamic Software Update(DSU) is a technique, which updates a new version of the software to a running process without stopping. Many DSU systems that update C application programs are introduced. However, these DSU systems differ in implementation method or in main features. In this paper, we propose a new DSU system that can solve some disadvantages of existing DSU systems. DSU system presented in this paper splits existing program to code, global data and local data and then updates each part of the program considering the characteristics of the respective parts. The proposed system in this paper is implemented and tested on Linux. Also, we compared our DSU system with other DSU systems and we could find some strength of our DSU system. First, the code memory usage of our DSU system can be efficient since our system does not need to maintain code of an old version. Second, the global data memory waste is small because our system does not need to allocate the global data again which is not modified in the new version. Finally, we restore local data of old version in stack area of the new version using stack reconstruction technique. This paper is meaningful since we proposed a new DSU method and we implemented a full DSU system using the method.

Congestion Control Algorithms Evaluation of TCP Linux Variants in Dumbbell (덤벨 네트워크에서 TCP 리눅스 변종의 혼잡 제어 알고리즘 평가)

  • Mateen, Ahamed;Zaman, Muhanmmad
    • The Journal of The Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.139-145
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    • 2016
  • Dumbbell is the most basic topology that can be used in almost all kind of network experiment within it or just by little expansion. While Transmission Control Protocol TCP is the basic protocol that is used for the connectivity among networks and stations. TCP major and basic goal is to provide path and services to different applications for communication. For that reason TCP has to transfer a lot of data through a communication medium that cause serious congestion problem. To calculate the congestion problem, different kind of pre-cure solutions are developer which are Loss Based Variant and Delay Based Variant. While LBV keep track of the data that is going to be passed through TCP protocol, if the data packets start dropping that means congestion occurrence which notify as a symptom, TCP CUBIC use LBV for notifying the loss. Similarly the DBV work with the acknowledgment procedure that is used in when data ACK get late with respect to its set data rate time, TCP COMPOUND/VAGAS are examples of DBV. Many algorithms have been purposed to control the congestion in different TCP variants but the loss of data packets did not completely controlled. In this paper, the congestion control algorithms are implemented and corresponding results are analyzed in Dumbbell topology, it is typically used to analyze the TCP traffic flows. Fairness of throughput is evaluated for different TCP variants using network simulator (NS-2).

An Empirical Study on Linux I/O stack for the Lifetime of SSD Perspective (SSD 수명 관점에서 리눅스 I/O 스택에 대한 실험적 분석)

  • Jeong, Nam Ki;Han, Tae Hee
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.52 no.9
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2015
  • Although NAND flash-based SSD (Solid-State Drive) provides superior performance in comparison to HDD (Hard Disk Drive), it has a major drawback in write endurance. As a result, the lifetime of SSD is determined by the workload and thus it becomes a big challenge in current technology trend of such as the shifting from SLC (Single Level Cell) to MLC (Multi Level cell) and even TLC (Triple Level Cell). Most previous studies have dealt with wear-leveling or improving SSD lifetime regarding hardware architecture. In this paper, we propose the optimal configuration of host I/O stack focusing on file system, I/O scheduler, and link power management using JEDEC enterprise workloads in terms of WAF (Write Amplification Factor) which represents the efficiency perspective of SSD life time especially for host write processing into flash memory. Experimental analysis shows that the optimum configuration of I/O stack for the perspective of SSD lifetime is MinPower-Dead-XFS which prolongs the lifetime of SSD approximately 2.6 times in comparison with MaxPower-Cfq-Ext4, the best performance combination. Though the performance was reduced by 13%, this contributions demonstrates a considerable aspect of SSD lifetime in relation to I/O stack optimization.

A Web-based 'Patterns of Care Study' System for Clinical Radiation Oncology in Korea: Development, Launching, and Characteristics (우리나라 임상방사선종양을 위한 웹 기반 PCS 시스템의 개발과 특성)

  • Kim, Il Han;Chie, Eui Kyu;Oh, Do Hoon;Suh Chang-Ok;Kim, Jong Hoon;Ahn, Yong Chan;Hur, Won-Joo;Chung, Woong Ki;Choi, Doo Ho;Lee, Jae Won
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: We report upon a web-based system for Patterns of Care Study (PCS) devised for Korean radiation oncology. This PCS was designed to establish standard tools for clinical quality assurance, to determine basic parameters for radiation oncology processes, to offer a solid system for cooperative clinical studies and a useful standard database for comparisons with other national databases. Materials and Methods: The system consisted of a main server with two back-ups in other locations. The program uses a Linux operating system and a MySQL database. Cancers with high frequencies in radiotherapy departments in Korea from 1998 to 1999 were chosen to have a developmental priority. Results: The web-based clinical PCS .system for radiotherapy in www.pcs.re.kr was developed in early 2003 for cancers of the breast, rectum, esophagus, larynx and lung, and for brain metastasis. The total number of PCS study items exceeded one thousand. Our PCS system features user-friendliness, double entry checking, data security, encryption, hard disc mirroring, double back-up, and statistical analysis. Alphanumeric data can be input as well as image data. In addition, programs were constructed for IRB submission, random sampling of data, and departmental structure. Conclusion: For the first time in the field of PCS, we have developed a web-based system and associated working programs. With this system, we can gather sample data in a short period and thus save, cost, effort and time. Data audits should be peformed to validate input data. We propose that this system should be considered as a standard method for PCS or similar types of data collection systems.