• Title, Summary, Keyword: Link-Depth

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Estimation of Depth Effect on the Bending Strength of Domestic Japanese Larch Structural Lumber using Weibull Weakest Link Theory

  • Oh, Sei Chang
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.112-118
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    • 2014
  • The depth effect on bending strength of Japanese larch structural lumber was investigated by using the published data of two different depth lumbers with the same length. Depth effect parameters were derived from Weibull's weakest link theory and compared to the results from other researches. Depth effect on bending strength was significant for No.1 and No.3 lumber, but not insignificant for No.2 lumber. Calculated value of the depth effect adjustment factors was 0.21, 0.11 and 0.22 by lumber grade, respectively. These results were similar to those results from previous researches and supported depth effect on bending strength of lumber. An apparent depth adjustment factor has been proposed to 0.2 in the literatures. Based on this study, depth adjustment factor was considered to 0.2 as a conservative optimum design value that should be incorporated in domestic building code (KBC) for structural lumber.

Change Acceptable In-Depth Searching in LOD Cloud for Efficient Knowledge Expansion (효과적인 지식확장을 위한 LOD 클라우드에서의 변화수용적 심층검색)

  • Kim, Kwangmin;Sohn, Yonglak
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.171-193
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    • 2018
  • LOD(Linked Open Data) cloud is a practical implementation of semantic web. We suggested a new method that provides identity links conveniently in LOD cloud. It also allows changes in LOD to be reflected to searching results without any omissions. LOD provides detail descriptions of entities to public in RDF triple form. RDF triple is composed of subject, predicates, and objects and presents detail description for an entity. Links in LOD cloud, named identity links, are realized by asserting entities of different RDF triples to be identical. Currently, the identity link is provided with creating a link triple explicitly in which associates its subject and object with source and target entities. Link triples are appended to LOD. With identity links, a knowledge achieves from an LOD can be expanded with different knowledge from different LODs. The goal of LOD cloud is providing opportunity of knowledge expansion to users. Appending link triples to LOD, however, has serious difficulties in discovering identity links between entities one by one notwithstanding the enormous scale of LOD. Newly added entities cannot be reflected to searching results until identity links heading for them are serialized and published to LOD cloud. Instead of creating enormous identity links, we propose LOD to prepare its own link policy. The link policy specifies a set of target LODs to link and constraints necessary to discover identity links to entities on target LODs. On searching, it becomes possible to access newly added entities and reflect them to searching results without any omissions by referencing the link policies. Link policy specifies a set of predicate pairs for discovering identity between associated entities in source and target LODs. For the link policy specification, we have suggested a set of vocabularies that conform to RDFS and OWL. Identity between entities is evaluated in accordance with a similarity of the source and the target entities' objects which have been associated with the predicates' pair in the link policy. We implemented a system "Change Acceptable In-Depth Searching System(CAIDS)". With CAIDS, user's searching request starts from depth_0 LOD, i.e. surface searching. Referencing the link policies of LODs, CAIDS proceeds in-depth searching, next LODs of next depths. To supplement identity links derived from the link policies, CAIDS uses explicit link triples as well. Following the identity links, CAIDS's in-depth searching progresses. Content of an entity obtained from depth_0 LOD expands with the contents of entities of other LODs which have been discovered to be identical to depth_0 LOD entity. Expanding content of depth_0 LOD entity without user's cognition of such other LODs is the implementation of knowledge expansion. It is the goal of LOD cloud. The more identity links in LOD cloud, the wider content expansions in LOD cloud. We have suggested a new way to create identity links abundantly and supply them to LOD cloud. Experiments on CAIDS performed against DBpedia LODs of Korea, France, Italy, Spain, and Portugal. They present that CAIDS provides appropriate expansion ratio and inclusion ratio as long as degree of similarity between source and target objects is 0.8 ~ 0.9. Expansion ratio, for each depth, depicts the ratio of the entities discovered at the depth to the entities of depth_0 LOD. For each depth, inclusion ratio illustrates the ratio of the entities discovered only with explicit links to the entities discovered only with link policies. In cases of similarity degrees with under 0.8, expansion becomes excessive and thus contents become distorted. Similarity degree of 0.8 ~ 0.9 provides appropriate amount of RDF triples searched as well. Experiments have evaluated confidence degree of contents which have been expanded in accordance with in-depth searching. Confidence degree of content is directly coupled with identity ratio of an entity, which means the degree of identity to the entity of depth_0 LOD. Identity ratio of an entity is obtained by multiplying source LOD's confidence and source entity's identity ratio. By tracing the identity links in advance, LOD's confidence is evaluated in accordance with the amount of identity links incoming to the entities in the LOD. While evaluating the identity ratio, concept of identity agreement, which means that multiple identity links head to a common entity, has been considered. With the identity agreement concept, experimental results present that identity ratio decreases as depth deepens, but rebounds as the depth deepens more. For each entity, as the number of identity links increases, identity ratio rebounds early and reaches at 1 finally. We found out that more than 8 identity links for each entity would lead users to give their confidence to the contents expanded. Link policy based in-depth searching method, we proposed, is expected to contribute to abundant identity links provisions to LOD cloud.

Information Structure of Online Video Platform Focused on Web-Drama Case (온라인 동영상 시청 플랫폼의 정보구조 탐색 - 웹드라마 사례를 중심으로)

  • Cha, Dong-Min;Sung, Junghwan
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.135-143
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    • 2019
  • Purpose of this study is enhancing usability of online video platform by analyze link-depth and advertisement frequency. In this study, researcher checked market share of video platform which publishing web-drama, and compare their link-depth and advertisement frequency. As a result, access to the latest content has two to three link-depth. So it does not worsen usability. but, if contents doesn't show on main page or search result, it requires more than five to six steps. Image advertisement show up more than twice on every platform. 'Youtube' and 'Naver TV' show up pre-roll video advertisement in video player before offering contents. In this video platform information structure, directory searching needs high link-depth level and advertisement frequency. It will increase user's bounce rate and decrease return visit rate. So researcher suggests prototype using drop-down menu to reduce link-depth and enhance information structure.

Linkage Expansion in Linked Open Data Cloud using Link Policy (연결정책을 이용한 개방형 연결 데이터 클라우드에서의 연결성 확충)

  • Kim, Kwangmin;Sohn, Yonglak
    • Journal of KIISE
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    • v.44 no.10
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    • pp.1045-1061
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    • 2017
  • This paper suggests a method to expand linkages in a Linked Open Data(LOD) cloud that is a practical consequence of a semantic web. LOD cloud, contrary to the first expectation, has not been used actively because of the lack of linkages. Current method for establishing links by applying to explicit links and attaching the links to LODs have restrictions on reflecting target LODs' changes in a timely manner and maintaining them periodically. Instead of attaching them, this paper suggests that each LOD should prepare a link policy and publish it together with the LOD. The link policy specifies target LODs, predicate pairs, and similarity degrees to decide on the establishment of links. We have implemented a system that performs in-depth searching through LODs using their link policies. We have published APIs of the system to Github. Results of the experiment on the in-depth searching system with similarity degrees of 1.0 ~ 0.8 and depth level of 4 provides searching results that include 91% ~ 98% of the trustworthy links and about 170% of triples expanded.

Implementation of Policy based In-depth Searching for Identical Entities and Cleansing System in LOD Cloud (LOD 클라우드에서의 연결정책 기반 동일개체 심층검색 및 정제 시스템 구현)

  • Kim, Kwangmin;Sohn, Yonglak
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 2018
  • This paper suggests that LOD establishes its own link policy and publishes it to LOD cloud to provide identity among entities in different LODs. For specifying the link policy, we proposed vocabulary set founded on RDF model as well. We implemented Policy based In-depth Searching and Cleansing(PISC for short) system that proceeds in-depth searching across LODs by referencing the link policies. PISC has been published on Github. LODs have participated voluntarily to LOD cloud so that degree of the entity identity needs to be evaluated. PISC, therefore, evaluates the identities and cleanses the searched entities to confine them to that exceed user's criterion of entity identity level. As for searching results, PISC provides entity's detailed contents which have been collected from diverse LODs and ontology customized to the content. Simulation of PISC has been performed on DBpedia's 5 LODs. We found that similarity of 0.9 of source and target RDF triples' objects provided appropriate expansion ratio and inclusion ratio of searching result. For sufficient identity of searched entities, 3 or more target LODs are required to be specified in link policy.

Development of a Pick-up Device for Plug-Seedlings (플러그묘 취출장치 개발)

  • 최원철;김대철;김경욱
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.415-422
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    • 2001
  • A seedling pick-up device for vegetable transplanters was developed and its work performance was evaluated at the laboratory. The pick-up device extracts seedlings from a 200-cell tray of seedlings and transfers them to the place where they are to be transplanted into the soil. The device consists of a path generator, pick-up pins and a pin driver. The path generator is a five-bar mechanism comprised of a fixed link, a driving link, a driven link, a connecting link and a slider. The slider is constrained to move along the driven link and a fixed slot of combined straight-line and circular paths. The connecting link joins the driving link and the slider. When the slider moves along the straight-line path of the slot it takes seedlings out from the cell and transfers them to the transplanting hopper when moving along the circular path. A proto-type of the pick-up device was built and tested under the various operational conditions such as age of seedling, approach direction and penetration depth of pins to the cell, holding method of seedling and extracting velocity. The device extracted 30 seedlings per minute with the maximum success ratio of 97% using the seedlings of 23 days old. Some design details were also discussed and suggested to enhance the performance of the device.

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3D Visualization of Link Information Using Depth Data (깊이 정보를 이용한 링크 정보의 3차원 시각화)

  • Park, Myeong-Chul
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Computer Information Conference
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    • pp.81-82
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    • 2012
  • 본 논문에서는 수준별 깊이 정보를 이용하여 노드의 링크 정보를 시각화 도구를 구현하였다. 제한된 공간에서 다수의 노드 정보를 효과적으로 시각화하는 많은 연구가 있지만 기본 방법들은 2차원적인 도구가 대부분이고 각 노드의 링크를 표현하기 위하여 일정한 영역을 동일하게 할당하여 시각화한다. 이는 시각화 대상이 적을 경우에는 문제가 발생하지 않지만 대량의 데이터를 시각화하는 경우에는 연결 식별성이 저하되는 경향이 있다, 본 논문에서는 각 노드를 시각화할 때 수준별 깊이 정보를 이용하여 하위 노드의 수에 따른 가중치 기반으로 3차원 공간상에 시각화하여 보다 공간적 효율성과 식별성이 높은 시각화 방법을 제안 한다. 본 논문의 결과물은 연결성 정보를 시각화하는 영역에 활용될 수 있을 것이다.

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Development of a Depth and Working Load Control System for Tractor Using a Proportional Valve (비례밸브를 이용한 트랙터 경심 및 부하제어시스템 개발)

  • Lee, S.S.;Lee, J.Y.;Mun, J.H.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.16-23
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    • 2006
  • Depth and working load control is one of the most important technique in control system for tractor rotary implement automation. Keeping the depth consistent is critical to bring along crops and to improve the efficiency and quality of the following operations. Keeping the load of engine consistent is an essential factor for the efficiency of operation and engine protection of tractor. In this study we investigated the possibility of application of depth and working load control system for tractor using a proportional valve through field tests. Depth control was implemented by the ascent and descent of 3 point linkage for the change of setting depth. There were 4 mm and 5.2 mm control deviations for setting depths of 50mm and 100mm, respectively. Load control was operated appropriately by the ascent and of descent of 3 point link for the change of setting working load. The standard deviations between setting load and engine load were 171 rpm at 1.3 km/h and 164 rpm at 2.3 km/h tractor travel velocity. The results of experiment showed that the characteristics of response was sufficient to be used as the implement depth and working load control system for tractor using proportional valve.

Some Factors Affecting Germination and Growth of Echinochloa colona (Echinochloa colona의 발아(發芽) 및 생장(生長)에 미치는 제요인(諸要因))

  • Chun, J.C.;Moody, K.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.103-108
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    • 1985
  • A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of pH, salinity, seeding depth, and moisture stress on the germination and growth of Echinochloa colons (L.) Link. Germination significantly decreased at pH 10, but shoot lengths were not affected by the pH tested. Germination was not affected by salt concentrations of up to 0.1%, but was significantly reduced at 0.5%. A 1.0% salt concentration did not significantly reduce shoot length. Increase in seeding depth significantly reduced emergence. Irrespective of seeding depth, the coleoptilar node was always just below the soil surface. Delayed and decreased germination was obtained at -4.6 bars of simulated water potential, while no germination occurred at -9.8 bars. Soil moisture stress significantly reduced plant height, delayed panicle initiation, and reduced seed production.

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Finite element analysis of shear critical prestressed SFRC beams

  • Thomas, Job;Ramaswamy, Ananth
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.65-77
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    • 2006
  • This study reports the details of the finite element analysis of eleven shear critical partially prestressed concrete T-beams having steel fibers over partial or full depth. Prestressed concrete T-beams having a shear span to depth ratio of 2.65 and 1.59 and failing in the shear have been analyzed using 'ANSYS'. The 'ANSYS' model accounts for the nonlinear phenomenon, such as, bond-slip of longitudinal reinforcements, post-cracking tensile stiffness of the concrete, stress transfer across the cracked blocks of the concrete and load sustenance through the bridging of steel fibers at crack interface. The concrete is modeled using 'SOLID65'-eight-node brick element, which is capable of simulating the cracking and crushing behavior of brittle materials. The reinforcements such as deformed bars, prestressing wires and steel fibers have been modeled discretely using 'LINK8' - 3D spar element. The slip between the reinforcement (rebar, fibers) and the concrete has been modeled using a 'COMBIN39'-non-linear spring element connecting the nodes of the 'LINK8' element representing the reinforcement and nodes of the 'SOLID65' elements representing the concrete. The 'ANSYS' model correctly predicted the diagonal tension failure and shear compression failure of prestressed concrete beams observed in the experiment. The capability of the model to capture the critical crack regions, loads and deflections for various types of shear failures in prestressed concrete beam has been illustrated.