• Title, Summary, Keyword: Limousin Calves

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Genetic Variation in Growth and Body Dimensions of Jersey and Limousin Cross Cattle. 1. Pre- Weaning Performance

  • Afolayan, R.A.;Pitchford, W.S.;Weatherly, A.W.;Bottema, C.D.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.1371-1377
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    • 2002
  • During a 5-yr period, 1994-1998, pre-weaning and weaning data were collected on 591 calves produced by mating either straightbred Jersey, straightbred Limousin or $F_1$ (Limousin${\times}$Jersey) bulls to mature purebred Jersey or Limousin cows. Traits recorded included birth and weaning weight, height, length, girth, fat depth and a measure of muscle (ratio of stifle to hip width expressed as a percentage). All traits were analyzed assuming a model with sire and dam random effects that included effects of year and date of birth, sex, breed and year${\times}$sex interaction. Main effects were generally significant with few exceptions. Direct genetic effects were large for weight, height, girth and muscle with a breed trend from purebred Jersey (small) to purebred Limousin (large). At weaning, the maternal effect of the Jersey dam was positive for weight (10.9${\pm}$4.9 kg), girth (3.7${\pm}$1.0 cm) and muscle (6.0${\pm}$0.9%). Heterosis was highly significant and positive only for fat depth (1.5${\pm}$0.2 mm) with the $F_1$ progeny being the fattest, followed by the backcrosses, then purebred Jersey and purebred Limousin. Also, significant (p<0.001) but negative heterosis was observed for weight, girth and muscle. The change in ranking for fat depth relative to other traits is a reflection of the large heterotic effects relative to direct effects on fat depth. Epistatic effects were not significant on any trait at birth or weaning. This study has indicated the possibility of exploiting the positive heterotic and maternal effects for fat depth and muscularity to meet specific meat quality and quantity demand by consumers.

Effects of Bedding Material Composition in Deep Litter Systems on Bedding Characteristics and Growth Performance of Limousin Calves

  • Meng, J.;Shi, F.H.;Meng, Qingxiang;Ren, L.P.;Zhou, Z.M.;Wu, H.;Zhao, L.P.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.143-150
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different litter mixture compositions on bedding system temperature, pH and volatile fatty acid and ammonia-N ($NH_3$-N) content, and the serum physico-chemical parameters and growth indices of calves. Thirty-two Limousin calves ($280{\pm}20kg$) were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 8 for each group) according to the bedding system used: i) control with soil only (CTR); ii) mixture with 50% paddy hulls (PH), 30% saw dusts (SD), 10% peat moss (PM) and 10% corn cobs (CC) (TRT1); iii) mixture with 15% PH, 15% SD, 10% PM, 40% CC, and 20% corn stover (CS) (TRT2); iv) mixture with 30% PH, 10% PM, 40% CC, and 20% CS (TRT3). The litter material combinations of different treatments were based on the cost of bedding system materials in China. The cost of four treatments from low to high: Control$NH_3$-N level (271.83 to 894.72 mg/kg) was lowest for TRT1 (p<0.0001) and highest for TRT2 (p<0.0001). The acetate, propionate and butyrate levels were highest for the control group (p<0.0001). In all the groups, the pH value (6.90 to 9.09) increased at the beginning and later remained stable at below 9.09. The temperature of deep litter increased at the first week and reached the maximum ($42.1^{\circ}C$) on day 38. 3,5,3'-Triiodothyronine ($T_3$) levels in the TRT1 group animals (p<0.0001) were lower than those in the control and TRT2 animals. 3,5,3',5'-Tetraiodothyronine ($T_4$) in the TRT1 group (p = 0.006) was lower than that in the other treatment groups. Cortisol (COR) in the control and TRT1 group was lower (p<0.0001) than that in the TRT2 and TRT3 groups. Corticosterone (CORt) in the control group was higher (p<0.0001) than that in the treatment groups. The findings indicate that the deep litter bedding systems provided better conditions for animal health and growth performance compared with the control system. Furthermore, the litter composition of TRT1 was found to be optimal among the three treatment groups.

Production of Chimera by Embryos Aggregation Techniques in Bovine - Review-

  • Suzuki, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.8
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    • pp.1188-1195
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    • 2001
  • A tetraparental chimeric bull was successfully produced by aggregating bovine IVF embryos of F1 (female Holstein${\times}$male Japanese Black) and F1(female Japanese Brown${\times}$male Limousin) and culturing in vitro without the zona pellucida at Yamaguchi Research Station in Japan. In the microsatellite genotyping, 12% (28/228) microsatellite primer sets ware potentially useful for this parentage analysis in the chimeric bull, 78.6% (22/28) of microsatellite present in the chimeric bull were uniquely contributed from the Japanese Black and 21.4% (6/28) from Limousin. This chimeric bull semen was used in producing IVF embryos. The chromosome preparations were made from peripheral lymphocytes. Based on chromosome analysis the Chimera had apparently normal chromosomes (29 acrocentric pairs, one large sub metacentric X chromosome and one small sub metacentric Y chromosome). The proportion of acrosome reacted spermatozoa after 1 h of incubation was higher (p<0.01) with the Chimera than with the Holstein and in Japanese Brown bulls. But did not differ from Japanese Black and Limousin bull sperm. Fertilization rates observed after 5 h of sperm-oocyte incubation with Chimera sperm were higher (p<0.05) than with Japanese Brown and (p<0.01) than with Holstein sperm, but did not differ from Japanese Black and Limousin sperm. The cleavage rates of IVF oocytes inseminated with Chimera sperm were also higher (p<0.001) compared with Holstein, (p<0.01) Japanese Brown and (p<0.05) Limousin, but did not differ from Japanese Black sperm. The blastocyst rates of IVM oocytes inseminated with sperm were higher (p<0.05) than in Limousin, Japanese Brown and Holstein, but did not differ from Japanese Black. Chimeric cattles were produced by aggregation of parthenogenetic (Japanese Brown) and in vitro fertilized (Holstein) bovine embryos at the Yamaguchi Research Station in Japan and by aggregation of parthenogenetic (Red Angus) and in vitro fertilized (Holstein) embryos at the St. Gabriel Research Station in Louisiana. The aggregation rate of the reconstructed demi-embryos cultured in vitro without agar embedding was significantly lower than with agar embedding. The aggregation was also lower when the aggregation resulted from a whole parthenogenetic and IVF-derieved embryos cultured without agar than when cultured with agar. The development rate to blastocysts, however, was not different among the treatment. To verify parthenogenetic and the cells derieved from the male IVF embryos in blastocyst formation, 51 embryos were karyotyped, resulting in 27 embryos having both XX and XY chromosome plates in the same sample, 14 embryos with XY and 10 embryos with XX. The viability and the percentage of zonafree chimeric embryos at 24 h following cryopreservation in EG plus T with 10% PVP were significantly greater than those cryopreserved without PVP. Pregnancies were diagnosed in both stations after the transfer of chimeric blastocysts. Twin male and single chimeric calves were delivered at the Yamaguchi station, with each having both XX and XY chromosomes detected. Three pregnancies resulted from the transfer of 40 chimeric embryos at the Louisiana station. Two pregnancies were Jost prior to 4 months and one phenotypically chimeric viable male born.