• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lime

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Strength properties of lime-clay mixtures (석회 혼입 점토의 강도 특성)

  • Yur, Jae Ho;Kwon, Moo Nam;Goo, Jung Min;Kim, Hyun Ki
    • Current Research on Agriculture and Life Sciences
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    • v.18
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2000
  • This study was conducted to investigate most effective the optimum lime content for lime-clay modification. To achieve the aim, characteristics of compaction and compressive strength were tested by adding of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% lime (Hydrated lime) of dry weight of the clay. Distilled water was added 10, 15, 20 and 25% of dry weight of lime-clay mixture. In this test, the compressive strength of the specimens was measured according to the following curing period : 7, 21, 28, 35 and 49 days. The results are as follows. (1) As lime additive increased, the optimum moisture content of lime-clay mixture was increased and the maximum dry density was decreased. (2) The soil mixture of 20% of the moisture content and 10% of lime additive was shown the maximum compressive strength. (3) As curing period longer, the compressive strength was increased but after 21 curing days, the increasing rate of compressive strength was low as compared with earlier its value. (4) In the range of 20% of the moisture content, compressive strength of mixture of 10% lime additive increased twice compared with that of mixture of 0% lime additive. (5) All of the lime-clay are possible to use for an sub-base material and 20% of moisture content of lime-clay mixture is possible to use for a base material.

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Reaction Products and Properties of Clay Mixed with Lime (점토와 석회의 혼합에 의한 반응생성물과 물성변화)

  • 김병규;황진연
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.505-512
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    • 1999
  • Soft marine clay deposits pose several foundation problems. Generally, lime stabilization is used worldwide for solidifying of soft marine clay deposits. In this paper, a series of laboratory tests were conducted to verify clay-lime reaction. A clay was collected from Pusan, which was mixed with various quantities of quick lime and slaked lime. Various compounds produced by clay-lime reaction were identified by X-ray diffraction analysis. The physico-chemical properties of the clay were also investigated. Compounds such as calcium silicate hydrate (CSH), calcium aluminate hydrate (CAH), calcium aluminate (CA), hillebrandite, and gehlenite were identified. It is likely that such compounds were mainly produced by pozzolanic reaction. Based on the change of physico-chemical properties obtained by the reaction, the water content was considerably decreased when lime was added to the clay. In addition, unconfined strength was increased. In the other hand, quick lime was more effective than slaked lime in decreasing and increasing of the water content and unconfined strength, respectively. Fewer cracks were produced when the clay was mixed with quick lime. It is suggested that these beneficial changes produced by the mixing of the clay and lime depend on the properties of compounds obtained by chemical reaction.

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Depositional Environment of the Cambrian Machari Formation in the Yeongweol Area, Gangweon Province, Korea

  • Chung, Gong-Soo;Lee, Eun-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean earth science society
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.72-86
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    • 2002
  • The Middle to Late Cambrian Machari Formation in the Machari area, Yeongweol, Korea consists of 7 lithofacies and 3 facies associations, which are thought to be deposits of carbonate ramp (mid to outer ramp) to basin environment. These lithofacies are bedded lime mudstone, laminated lime mudstone, bioclastic/peloidal packstone to grainstone, poloidal/bioclastic wackestone, conglomerate, mottled lime mudstone, and shale. Bedded lime mudstone facies, a few cm thick lime mudstone alternating with shale layer, is believed to have been deposited by intermittent dilute turbidity currents. Laminated lime mudstone facies, alternating lime mudstone with laminated shale, is interpreted to have been formed by fine-grained turbidity currents. Bioclastic/peloidal packstone to grainstone facies was deposited by turbidity current and peloidal/bioclastic wackestone faceis was deposited by debris flow. Conglomerate facies is thought to be deposits of storm activities. Mottled lime mudstone facies is interpreted to have been formed by bioturbation. Shale facies is interpreted to have been formed by suspension settling. Seven lithofacies of the Machari Formation are divided into three facies associations. Facies association I consisted of bedded lime mudstone facies, mottled lime mudstone facies, conglomerate facies, and bioclastic/peloidal packstone to grainstone facies, is interpreted to have been deposited on the mid ramp. Facies assocaition II consisted of bedded lime mudstone facies, laminated lime mudstone facies, bioclastic/peloidal packstone to grainstone facies, and peloidal/bioclastic wackestone facies is thought to be deposits of the outer ramp. Facies association III consisted of laminated lime mudstone facies and shale facies is interpreted to have been formed on the basin environment.

A Study on the Strength Characteristics of Lime-Soil Mixtures. (석회혼합토의 강도특성에 관한 연구)

  • 조성정
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.46-59
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    • 1980
  • This study was conducted to obtain the most effective distribution of grain size and the optimum lime content for lime-soil stabilization. To achieve the aim, the change of consistency, the characteristics of compaction and unconfined compressive strength were tested by adding of 0, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 percent lime by weight for all soils adjusted by given ratios of sand to clay. The results obtained were as follows; 1. There was a tendency that the plasticity index of lime-soil mixture was decreased by increasing the amount of lime, whereas the liquid limit was varied irregularly and the plastic limit was increased. 2. With the addition of more lime, the optimum moisture content of lime-soil mixture was increased, and the maximum dry density was decreased. 3. The optimum lime content of lime-soil mixture was varied from soil to soil, and the less amount of small grain size, the less value of optimum lime content. 4. The optimum distribution of grain size for lime-soil mixture was in the soil, having the ratio of about 60 percent of cohesive clay and about 40 percent of sand by weight. 5. In the soil having fine grain size, the effect of curing appeared for long periods of time, whereas the increasing rate of unconfined compressive strength was great on the soil of coarse grain size in the earlier stage of curing period.

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Studies on the Compressive Strength in Lime-Soil Mixtures -Influence of Lime-Content and Curing on Compressive Strength- (석회혼합토의 압축강도에 관한 연구 (제1보) -석회함량 및 갱생이 강도에 미치는 영향-)

  • 김성완
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.2761-2769
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    • 1972
  • The following results were obtained by the compression test of 3, 7, 14 and 28 days cured lime soil mixtures. The soil used in this test was clayey soil(sand : 20% silt : 45%, clay : 35%) and the rates of hydrated lime mixture for the dry weight of soil were 4, 8, 12, 19 and 20 percents. 1. The optimum moisture content increases and the maximum dry density decreases with the increase of the lime content. 2. The compacted moisture for the maximum strength in lime soil mixture increases with the increase of the lime content and the increase of curing periods. 3. The compressive strength increase of curing periods and its increasing ratio is largest at the 8 percent lime content. 4. The line content for the maximum strength decreases with increase of curing period and the largest strength shows at the 8 percent lime content when the curing period is over two weeks. 5. It seems to depend on the temperature effect that the compressive strength of lime soil mixtures cured in soil shows the lowest value. Accordingly, the effect of curing moisture does not influence to the strength of lime soil mixtures as much as the variation of curing temperature.

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Engineering properties of expansive clayey soil stabilized with lime and perlite

  • Calik, Umit;Sadoglu, Erol
    • Geomechanics and Engineering
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.403-418
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    • 2014
  • There are around 6700 millions tons of perlite reserves in the world. Although perlite possesses pozzolanic properties, it has not been so far used in soil stabilization. In this study, stabilization with perlite and lime of an expansive clayey soil containing smectite group clay minerals such as montmorillonite and nontronite was investigated experimentally. For this purpose, test mixtures were prepared with 8% of lime (optimum lime ratio of the soil) and without lime by adding 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of perlite. Geotechnical properties such as compaction, Atterberg limits, swelling, unconfined compressive strength of the mixtures and changes of these properties depending on perlite ratio and time were determined. The test results show that stabilization of the soil with combination of perlite and lime improves the geotechnical properties better than those of perlite or lime alone. This experimental study unveils that the mixture containing 30% perlite and 8% lime is the optimum solution in stabilization of the soil with respect to strength.

A Study on the Lime of Government Constructions Based on the Analysis of Construction Reports in the Late of Joseon Dynasty(17~19c) - Emphasized on the production, provision, and application of lime - (산릉(山陵).영건의궤(營建儀軌) 분석을 통한 조선후기 관영 건축공사의 석회에 관한 연구 - 석회의 생산.조달.적용을 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Kweon-Yeong
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.23-46
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    • 2009
  • The history to have used lime in building construction was much long without distinction of the East or the West. The ancient nations of korean peninsula had used lime as construction material. The witness was discovered in the kings' tombs of fifth century. In the Joseon dynasty(15~19c), what applied several developed lime compounds to the kings' tombs have been recorded in 'Sanleong-Uigwe(山陵儀軌)' & 'Yeonggeon-Uigwe(營建儀軌)' of those days documents. Therefore, this paper is to examine the whole procedures from the product and provision of lime to its application through those days documents. Following conclusions have been reached through the study. Three lime compounds to be developed for the kings' tombs was extendedly applied to residential government buildings step by step within the current of time. These compounds to be used in the kings' tombs of the Joseon dynasty had been correlated to those of the ancient nations, which were nations of korean peninsula in narrow range, chinese and orient nations in broad range. These compounds have possibilities of development as the environmental-friendly building material. And these compounds should provide a standard specification for conservation & restoration of the traditional and cultural properties. I could confirm that the whole procedures had not been developed within limited space-time of the specified nation & period, but within interactions of the nations & periods. In the periods which disturb its interaction, the expansion of productivity in building construction was interfered.

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The study of chemical treatment of pulp mill bleaching waste liquor using lime (석회를 이용한 펄프공장 폐액의 화학적 처리에 관한 연구)

  • 정병곤;이헌모;윤종호
    • Journal of environmental and Sanitary engineering
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.23-28
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    • 1997
  • This study was conducted to know the possibility of reducing lime dosage by recycling sludge from bleaching wastewater lime coagulation settlement treatment at pulp mill process. In case of bleaching wastewater at the pulp mill process, when the lime dosage was increased, the removal efficiency of TSS(Total Suspended Solids) was increased, proportionally, but the organic removal efficiency was increased very slowly. It was concluded that sludge recycling at the lime coagulation settlement process was effective method to reduce the requirement of lime dosage. At the lime coagulation settlement process with sludge recycling, when the recycling number was increased, the organic removal efficiency was decreased, sharply. It was evaluated that the pH could be the basic standard for lime supplement by sludge recycling.

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Effects of Lime Applications on Chemical Properties of Soil and Rice Yields in Long-term Fertilization Experiment

  • Kim, Myung-Sook;Park, Seong-Jin;Lee, Chang-Hoon;Yun, Sun-Gang;Ko, Byong-Gu;Kim, Yoo-Hak
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.233-239
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    • 2015
  • Monitoring of soil fertility and crop productivity in long-term application of fertilizers is necessary to use fertilizers efficiently. This study was conducted to investigate effects of continuous application of lime for rice cultivation from 1969 to 2014. The treatments were no lime treatments (N, NPK, NPKC, and NPKS) and lime treatments (N+L, NPK+L, NPKC+L, and NPKS+L). The application of lime in addition to N, NPK, and NPKC tended to increase pH, exchangeable Ca, and available $SiO_2$. The input of mean annual $1,170Mg\;ha^{-1}yr^{-1}$ of lime increased pH $0.0042yr^{-1}$, $0.0062yr^{-1}$, $0.0127yr^{-1}$, and $0.0041yr^{-1}$ in lime treatments (N+L, NPK+L, NPKS+L, and NPKC+L) compared with no treatments (N, NPK, NPKS, and NPKC), respectively. The mean annual Ca field balance varied from 169 to $561kg\;ha^{-1}yr^{-1}$in no treatments, from 871 to $1,263kg\;ha^{-1}yr^{-1}$ in lime treatments, indicating that Ca was accumulated in the soils. The mean annual Ca field balance in silicate fertilizer treatments (NPKS, NPKS+L) were higher than that of other treatments because silicate fertilizer included Ca component. Grain yield of rice had no significant differences between no lime treatments and lime treatments. Thus the application of lime led to changes in soil chemical properties but had no impact on the production of rice.

Effects of Grain Size Distribution in Soil on the Strength Characteristics of Lime-Soil Mixtures (흙의 粒度分捕가 石灰混合土의 强度特性에 미치는 影響)

  • Cho, Seong-Jeong;Kang, Yea-Mook
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.57-71
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    • 1985
  • The characteristics of compaction and unconfined compressive strength were investigated by mixing with lime to all soils adjusted by given percentages of two kinds of clays to sand to obtain the most effective distribution of grain size and the optimum lime content for soil stabilization. In addition, unconfined compressive strength and durability tested by adding of sodium metasilicate, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate, sodium gydroxide and magnesium oxide to lime-soil mixture mixed with 8 percent lime to adjusted soil having the mixing percentage of 60 percent of cohesive black clay and 40 percent of sand by weight to get the effect and the optimum content of chemicals. The results obtained were as follows; 1.With the addition of more lime, the optimum moisture content was increased, and the maximum dry density was decreased, whereas the more the amount of clay and the less was the maximum drt density. 2. In the soil having more fine grain size the unconfined compressive strength was larger in the earlier stage of curing period, in accordance with the longer period, the mixing percentages of sand to clay showing the maximum unconfined compressive strength, on the basis of 28-day strength, were 60% : 40% (black clay) and 40% : 60% (brown clay) respectively. 3. The reason why the soil adjusted with black clay was remarkably bigger in the unconfined compressive strength than ones adjusted with brown clay for all specimen of lime-soil mixture was the difference in the kind of clay, the amount of chemical compositions the value of pH. Black clay was mainly composed of halloysite that reacted with lime satisfactorily, whereas the main composition of brown clay was kaolinite that was less effect in the enhance of unconfined compressive strength. Also the difference of unconfined compressive strength was because black clay was larger in the amount of composition of calcium oxide and magnesium oxide in the value of pH affecting directly on the unconfined compressive strength of lime-soil mixture than brown clay. 4. In the lime-soil mixture mixed with 8 percent of lime to soil that mixing percentage of sand to black clay was 60% : 40%, on the standard of 7-day strength, the effect of chemical was arranged in the order of magnesium oxide, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, sodium hydroxide and sodium metasilicate. 5. The optimum amount of chemical being applicable to the maximum unconfined compressive strength of lime-chemical-soil mixture was 1 percent by weight for air dry soil in the case of adding sodium carbonated and 0.75 percent on sodium hydroxide, the unconfined compressive strength was increased continuously with increase of the amount of chemical up to 2 percent of chemical content is the lime-chemical-soil mixture added sodium metasilicate, sodium sulfate and magnesium oxide. 6. It was considered that the chemical played and accelerant role of early revelation of strength because the rate of increase of unconfined compressive strength of all of lime-chemical-soil mixtures was largest on the 7-day cured specimen. 7. The effect of test on freezing and thawing after adding suitable amount of chemical on the lime-soil mixture mixed with 8 percent of lime to soil that mixing percentage of sand to black clay was 60% : 40% was arranged in the order of magnesium oxide, sodium carbonate, sodium sulfate, sodium metasilicate and sodium hydroxide.

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