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Effect of Supplementary Herbs and Plant Extracts on the Performance of Laying Hens (허브 및 식물 추출물의 급여가 산란계의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, C.H.;Paik, I.K.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of herbs and plant extracts (PE) on the performance, small intestinal microflora and immune response in laying hens. A total of 1,440 Hy-Line Brown laying hens of 67 wks old were assigned to one of the following 9 dietary treatments : T1 : Control (C), T2 : C + Avilamycine 6 ppm, T3 : C + Herb $Mix^{(R)}$ 0.2%, T4 : C + Biostrong $510^{(R)}$ 0.02%, T5 : C + $APEX^{(R)}$ 0.02%, T6 : C + $Digestarom^{(R)}$ 0.02%, T7 : C + $Phellozyme^{(R)}$ 0.1%, T8 : C + $Galicin^{(R)}$ 0.05%, T9 : C + CRINA $Poultry^{(R)}$ 0.05%. Each treatment was replicated 8 times with twenty birds housed in 2 bird cages. Twenty bird units were arranged according to completely randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 6 wks under 16 hours lighting regimen. Hen-day egg production was not significantly different among the treatments, but that of supplemented groups tended to be higher than the control. There were significant differences among treatments in feed intake and feed conversion ratio. Feed intake was higher in the supplemented groups than the control. Feed conversion ratio was higher in T8 than other treatments. Egg shell color index and egg yolk color index were significantly different among treatments. Egg shell color was affected by supplements and egg yolk color index of T9 (PE-CRINA) was significantly higher than the control. Haugh unit was not significantly different among treatments. There were significant differences in leukocytes and erythrocytes parameters. The level of serum WBC and stress index (heterophil/lymphocyte) were higher in supplemented groups than the control. The level of RBC tended to be lower in the herb or PE groups than the control. The concentration of serum IgG was not significantly different among the treatments, but all those of the supplemented groups were higher than the control. The number of Lactobacilli spp. tended to increase and that of Cl. perfrigens decrease in the supplemented groups. The number of E. coli significantly decreased in the supplemented groups. The results of this experiment showed that feeding herbs and plant extracts to laying hens tended to improve the egg production and affect positively on the level of blood parameters and small intestinal microflora.

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Cu-methionine Chelate and Cu-soy Proteinate on the Performance, Small Intestinal Microflora and Immune Response in Laying Hens (사료내 Cu-methionine Chelate와 Cu-soy Proteinate가 산란계의 생산성, 소장내 미생물 균총 및 면역체계에 미치는 영향)

  • Paik, I.K.;Kim, C.H.;Park, K.W.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.303-311
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    • 2008
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of Cu-methionine chelate(Cu-Met) and Cu-soy proteinate(Cu-SP) on the performance, small intestinal microflora and immune response in laying hens. A total of 960 Hy-line $Brown^{(R)}$ laying hens of 39 wks old were assigned to one of the following 6 dietary treatment: control(C), antibiotic(Avilamycine 6 ppm), Cu-Met 50 and Cu-Met 100(50 and 100 ppm Cu as Cu-methionine chelate), Cu-SP 50 and Cu-SP 100(50 and 100ppm Cu as Cu-soy proteinate). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with forty birds per replication, housed in 2 birds per cages. Forty birds units were arranged according to randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 6 wks under 16 hours lighting regimen. Hen-day and hen-house egg production of groups treated with Antibiotic and Cu supplements tended to be higher than the control with significant difference (P<0.05) shown between Cu-Me 100 and control. Egg weight was significantly (P<0.05) heavier in antibiotic and Cu-SP treatments than Cu-Met treatments but they were not significantly different from the control. Eggshell strength, egg shell thickness, egg yolk color and Haugh unit were not significantly different among treatments. There were no significant differences in leukocytes and erythrocytes in the chicken blood. But mean corpuscular hemoglobin value(MCH) was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu-SP 100 than antibiotic treatment. The concentrations of serum IgG and IgA were not significantly different among treatments. Copper concentration in the liver tended to increase as the level of copper supplementation increased, that of Cu-SP 100 being significantly (P<0.05) higher than those of the control and antibiotic treatment. Concentrations of iron and zinc of the liver were not significantly influenced by treatments. Populations of Cl. perfringens and Lactobacilli in the small intestinal content were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by treatments. Population of Cl. perfringens decreased and that of Lactobacilli increased in the copper supplemented groups. The result of this experiment showed that Cu-Met and Cu-SP are comparable to antibiotic in improving egg production in laying hens. Birds fed diets supplemented with Cu-SP produced heavier eggs than those fed diets with Cu-Met. There were no significant differences in the performances between 50 ppm and 100 ppm copper supplementation as organic forms.

New Approaches for Overcoming Current Issues of Plasma Sputtering Process During Organic-electronics Device Fabrication: Plasma Damage Free and Room Temperature Process for High Quality Metal Oxide Thin Film

  • Hong, Mun-Pyo
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.100-101
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    • 2012
  • The plasma damage free and room temperature processedthin film deposition technology is essential for realization of various next generation organic microelectronic devices such as flexible AMOLED display, flexible OLED lighting, and organic photovoltaic cells because characteristics of fragile organic materials in the plasma process and low glass transition temperatures (Tg) of polymer substrate. In case of directly deposition of metal oxide thin films (including transparent conductive oxide (TCO) and amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS)) on the organic layers, plasma damages against to the organic materials is fatal. This damage is believed to be originated mainly from high energy energetic particles during the sputtering process such as negative oxygen ions, reflected neutrals by reflection of plasma background gas at the target surface, sputtered atoms, bulk plasma ions, and secondary electrons. To solve this problem, we developed the NBAS (Neutral Beam Assisted Sputtering) process as a plasma damage free and room temperature processed sputtering technology. As a result, electro-optical properties of NBAS processed ITO thin film showed resistivity of $4.0{\times}10^{-4}{\Omega}{\cdot}m$ and high transmittance (>90% at 550 nm) with nano- crystalline structure at room temperature process. Furthermore, in the experiment result of directly deposition of TCO top anode on the inverted structure OLED cell, it is verified that NBAS TCO deposition process does not damages to the underlying organic layers. In case of deposition of transparent conductive oxide (TCO) thin film on the plastic polymer substrate, the room temperature processed sputtering coating of high quality TCO thin film is required. During the sputtering process with higher density plasma, the energetic particles contribute self supplying of activation & crystallization energy without any additional heating and post-annealing and forminga high quality TCO thin film. However, negative oxygen ions which generated from sputteringtarget surface by electron attachment are accelerated to high energy by induced cathode self-bias. Thus the high energy negative oxygen ions can lead to critical physical bombardment damages to forming oxide thin film and this effect does not recover in room temperature process without post thermal annealing. To salve the inherent limitation of plasma sputtering, we have been developed the Magnetic Field Shielded Sputtering (MFSS) process as the high quality oxide thin film deposition process at room temperature. The MFSS process is effectively eliminate or suppress the negative oxygen ions bombardment damage by the plasma limiter which composed permanent magnet array. As a result, electro-optical properties of MFSS processed ITO thin film (resistivity $3.9{\times}10^{-4}{\Omega}{\cdot}cm$, transmittance 95% at 550 nm) have approachedthose of a high temperature DC magnetron sputtering (DMS) ITO thin film were. Also, AOS (a-IGZO) TFTs fabricated by MFSS process without higher temperature post annealing showed very comparable electrical performance with those by DMS process with $400^{\circ}C$ post annealing. They are important to note that the bombardment of a negative oxygen ion which is accelerated by dc self-bias during rf sputtering could degrade the electrical performance of ITO electrodes and a-IGZO TFTs. Finally, we found that reduction of damage from the high energy negative oxygen ions bombardment drives improvement of crystalline structure in the ITO thin film and suppression of the sub-gab states in a-IGZO semiconductor thin film. For realization of organic flexible electronic devices based on plastic substrates, gas barrier coatings are required to prevent the permeation of water and oxygen because organic materials are highly susceptible to water and oxygen. In particular, high efficiency flexible AMOLEDs needs an extremely low water vapor transition rate (WVTR) of $1{\times}10^{-6}gm^{-2}day^{-1}$. The key factor in high quality inorganic gas barrier formation for achieving the very low WVTR required (under ${\sim}10^{-6}gm^{-2}day^{-1}$) is the suppression of nano-sized defect sites and gas diffusion pathways among the grain boundaries. For formation of high quality single inorganic gas barrier layer, we developed high density nano-structured Al2O3 single gas barrier layer usinga NBAS process. The NBAS process can continuously change crystalline structures from an amorphous phase to a nano- crystalline phase with various grain sizes in a single inorganic thin film. As a result, the water vapor transmission rates (WVTR) of the NBAS processed $Al_2O_3$ gas barrier film have improved order of magnitude compared with that of conventional $Al_2O_3$ layers made by the RF magnetron sputteringprocess under the same sputtering conditions; the WVTR of the NBAS processed $Al_2O_3$ gas barrier film was about $5{\times}10^{-6}g/m^2/day$ by just single layer.

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Effect of LED Light Wavelength on Chrysanthemum Growth (LED광 파장이 국화생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Im, Jae Un;Yoon, Yong Cheol;Seo, Kwang Wook;Kim, Kyu Hyeong;Moon, Ae Kyung;Kim, Hyeon Tae
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.49-54
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    • 2013
  • In this study, I was focusing on LED (Light Emitting Diode) light effect in growth of chrysanthemum. For this reason, I formed six monochromatic lights (red 650 nm, 647 nm, 622 nm, blue 463 nm, 450 nm, white), six mixed lights sources red : blue (9 : 1, 8 : 2, 7 : 3, 6 : 4, 5 : 5) and 3 control beds in light sources ratio between rad : blue (8 : 2) including sun light. It was totally 15 control beds. Depending on light investigation time in growth, 6/6 (on/off) was highest in the length of plant, the number of leaves, the fresh dry and leaf area. But statistical significance wasn't accepted in general. In case of monochromatic lights, length of plant and leaf area is biggest in the Blue 450 mm and the length of root is highest in RED 650 mm. Except for this 3 measuring points (length of plant, the number of leaves and fresh weight), sun light and white was highest. Besides there are monochromatic light effect but various wavelength range in light sources are needed to crop growth. In terms of mixed light resources, except for sun light, It turned out the length of plant is highest in the highest red light rate red : blue (9 : 1), and Red : white (7 : 3) is highest in fresh weight and dry weight. The sun light is the highest one in the leaf area. The results from LED light effect in growth of chrysanthemum are obviously effect on growth and building up the shape. We need to choose suitable light sources in the monochromatic lights and mixed lights for growing high quality of chrysanthemum or Supplemental Lighting.

A Comparative Study on Quantity of Phoria between New Phoria Measurement with 3D Display and Existing Methods (개발된 3D Display 장치를 이용한 사위검사법과 기존 사위검사법으로 측정한 사위량 비교에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Seok Hyon;Hong, Hyungki
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.313-320
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: This study compared the quantity of phoria for distance by new method with that by existing methods. Methods: For this study, it was selected to two existing phoria measurements, von Graefe and Maddox rod. And new method named "3D polarizing phoria measurement" was designed to measure the quantity of phoria using polarizing glasses and 3D display. Unlike existing measurement using polarized lens, newly considered method measured the quantity of phoria in condition removed perfect binocular fusion using field stop on apparatus and polarized lens. For using new method for distance, it was developed a phoria test chart. It supports three kinds of phoria measurements. Subjects were 12 (male 6, female 6). They had three phoria tests (1 sets) including new method. It was considered the effect of experimental order, so we tested all cases about experimental order. The number of cases was 6 sets, and the sample size in this experiment was 72 sets. For removing binocular fusion, lighting of the laboratory that was below 10 lx and the background color of phoria test chart was dark, RGB=(20, 20, 20). Results: Subjects were sorted into three groups. Samples with exophoria and orthophoria were 30 sets each, and those with esophoria were 12 sets. The quantity of phoria measured three tests differ from each other like "newmethod < von Graefe < Maddox rod", and there were statistically significant difference each other. Conclusions: This study has great significance in the sense that new method was the measurement with naturally removing binocular fusion without dizziness during the tests.

Recent Progress in Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Research : A Review of Papers Published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering in 2012 (설비공학 분야의 최근 연구 동향 : 2012년 학회지 논문에 대한 종합적 고찰)

  • Han, Hwataik;Lee, Dae-Young;Kim, Sa Ryang;Kim, Hyun-Jung;Choi, Jong Min;Park, Jun-Seok;Kim, Sumin
    • Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.346-361
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    • 2013
  • This article reviews the papers published in the Korean Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Engineering during 2012. It is intended to understand the status of current research in the areas of heating, cooling, ventilation, sanitation, and indoor environments of buildings and plant facilities. The conclusions are as follows : (1) The research works on thermal and fluid engineering have been reviewed as groups of fluid machinery, pipes and valves, fuel cells and power plants, ground-coupled heat pumps, and general heat and mass transfer systems. Research issues are mainly focused on new and renewable energy systems, such as fuel cells, ocean thermal energy conversion power plants, and ground-coupled heat pump systems. (2) Research works on the heat transfer area have been reviewed in the categories of heat transfer characteristics, pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, and industrial heat exchangers. Researches on heat transfer characteristics included the results for natural convection in a square enclosure with two hot circular cylinders, non-uniform grooved tube considering tube expansion, single-tube annular baffle system, broadcasting LED light with ion wind generator, mechanical property and microstructure of SA213 P92 boiler pipe steel, and flat plate using multiple tripping wires. In the area of pool boiling and condensing heat transfer, researches on the design of a micro-channel heat exchanger for a heat pump, numerical simulation of a heat pump evaporator considering the pressure drop in the distributor and capillary tubes, critical heat flux on a thermoexcel-E enhanced surface, and the performance of a fin-and-tube condenser with non-uniform air distribution and different tube types were actively carried out. In the area of industrial heat exchangers, researches on a plate heat exchanger type dehumidifier, fin-tube heat exchanger, an electric circuit transient analogy model in a vertical closed loop ground heat exchanger, heat transfer characteristics of a double skin window for plant factory, a regenerative heat exchanger depending on its porous structure, and various types of plate heat exchangers were performed. (3) In the field of refrigeration, various studies were executed to improve refrigeration system performance, and to evaluate the applicability of alternative refrigerants and new components. Various topics were presented in the area of refrigeration cycle. Research issues mainly focused on the enhancement of the system performance. In the alternative refrigerant area, studies on CO2, R32/R152a mixture, and R1234yf were performed. Studies on the design and performance analysis of various compressors and evaporator were executed. (4) In building mechanical system research fields, twenty-nine studies were conducted to achieve effective design of mechanical systems, and also to maximize the energy efficiency of buildings. The topics of the studies included heating and cooling, HVAC system, ventilation, renewable energy systems, and lighting systems in buildings. New designs and performance tests using numerical methods and experiments provide useful information and key data, which can improve the energy efficiency of buildings. (5) In the fields of the architectural environment, studies for various purposes, such as indoor environment, building energy, and renewable energy were performed. In particular, building energy-related researches and renewable energy systems have been mainly studied, reflecting interests in global climate change, and efforts to reduce building energy consumption by government and architectural specialists. In addition, many researches have been conducted regarding indoor environments.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Copper-Sulfate and Copper-Soy Proteinate on the Performance and Small Intestinal Microflora in Laying Hens (Copper-Sulfate와 Copper-Soy Proteinate 첨가가 산란계의 생산성과 장내 미생물 균총에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chan Ho;Kang, Hwan Ku;Bang, Han Tae;Kim, Ji Hyuk;Hwangbo, Jong;Choi, Hee Cheol;Paik, In Kee;Moon, Hong Kil
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.241-247
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this experimental was to investigate the effect of dietary Cu-sulfate and Cu-soy proteinate on productive performance and small intestinal microflora. A total 1,000 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (35 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 5 dietary treatments: Control, Cu-sulfate 50, 100 (50, 100 ppm Cu supplementation as Cu-sulfate) and Cu-SP 50, 100 (50, 100 ppm Cu supplementation as Cu-soy proteinate). Each treatment was replicated 4 times with fifty birds per replication, housed in 2 birds cages. Fifty birds units were arranged according to randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 5 weeks under 16L : 8D lighting regimen. Hen day egg production was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu treated groups than control. Feed intake, broken and shell-less egg production was not significantly influenced by treatment. Eggshell color, eggyolk color, haugh unit, and eggshell thickness were not significantly influenced by treatment. However, eggshell strength was significantly (P<0.05) greater in Cu treated groups than control. Concentration of copper of liver was significantly (P<0.05) greater in Cu treated groups than control. Concentration of zinc and iron of liver were not influenced by treatments. Population of Cl. perfrigens and Lactobacilli in the small intestinal content were significantly (P<0.05) influenced by treatments. Population of Cl. perfrigens decreased and that of Lactobacilli increased in the Cu supplement groups. In conclusion, dietary Cu sulfate and Cu-soy proteinate similarly improves egg production, eggshell strength, and favors intestinal microbial population of laying hens.

Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Copper Soy Proteinate (Cu-SP) and Herbal Mixture (HBM) on the Performance, Blood Parameter and Immune Response in Laying Hens (Copper Soy Proteinate(Cu-SP)와 Herbal Mixture(HBM)의 급여가 산란계의 생산성, 혈액성상 및 면역체계에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Chan Ho;Kang, Hwan Ku;Bang, Han Tae;Kim, Ji Hyuk;Hwangbo, Jong;Choi, Hee Cheol;Paik, In Kee;Moon, Hong Kil
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2014
  • The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation of copper-soy proteinate (Cu-SP) and herbal mixture (HBM) on growth performance, blood parameter, and immune response in laying hens. A total 800 Hy-Line Brown laying hens (60 weeks old) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments : (1) Control : control diet, (2) Cu-SP : control diet + 100 mg/kg Cu-soy proteinate, (3) HBM : control diet + 0.15% herbal mixture, and (4) Cu-SP + HBM : control diet + 100 mg/kg Cu-soy proteinate + 0.15% herbal mixture. Each treatment was replicated 5 times with forty birds units were arranged according to randomized block design. Feeding trial lasted 5 weeks under 16L : 8D lighting regimen. The diet and water were available ad libitum. Result indicated that during feeding trial of the experiment, hen-day egg production was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu-SP and HBM treated groups than control. However, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg weight, broken and shell less egg production were not significantly influenced by treatments. Eggshell strength was significantly (P<0.05) higher in Cu-SP than control. Eggshell thickness, eggshell color, egg yolk color, Haugh unit were not significantly influenced by treatments. The level of WBC and stress index (heterophil : lymphocyte) were higher in supplemented groups than the control. The concentration of plasma IgG was higher in supplemented groups than the control. The result of this experiment showed that dietary copper-soy proteinate or herbal mixture tended to improve egg production and affect positively on immune response of laying hens.

Effect of LED Light Wavelength on Lettuce Growth, Vitamin C and Anthocyanin Contents (LED광 파장이 상추생육과 비타민 C 및 안토시아닌 함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, Man Kwon;Baek, Gyeong Yun;Kwon, Soon Joo;Yoon, Yong Cheol;Kim, Hyeon Tae
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.19-25
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we analyzed the growth characteristics of red lettuce under Light-emitting diode (LED) light environment as well as the change of vitamin C and anthocyanins of lettuce. We made five monochromatic light treatments (red 647 nm, 622 nm, blue 463 nm, 450 nm, White), six mixed red (R) and blue (B) light treatments (R : B = 9 : 1, 8 : 2, 7 : 3, 6 : 4, 5 : 5) and red + white, and three light treatments made according to photoperiod of LED with lighting sources ratio of red : blue (R : B = 8 : 2(18/06 h, 15/09 h, 12/12 h)). It was composed of totally 14 control beds. As a result, the red lettuce the most developed leaf height, leaf numbers and fresh weight under red single light, root length and leaf developed when grown under blue single light. Therefore, red light were related to above part of the lettuce, blue light were related to the growth of the underground part of lettuce. Case of the mixed light, leaf height, leaf numbers, fresh/dry weight of above and underground part were highest red + white light and root length and chlorophyll content were highest under red 7 : 3 blue light. Result of growing investigation by photoperiod, the red lettuce were considered to be most effective in 15/09 h (on/off). The content of anthocyanins; the single light source, mixed light and light irradiation period were highest under blue light (463 nm), red 7 : 3 blue and 18/06 h (on/off) light irradiation, respectively. The vitamin C showed the lowest content of $1.26mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ under the white light, but showed the greatest content of $3.02mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ for the control group.

Present Condition of Fortress of Silla Capital and Research Direction on Landscape Architecture (신라왕경 성곽의 현황과 조경학적 차원의 연구방향)

  • Kim, Hyung-Suk;Sim, Woo-Kyung;Lee, Won-Ho;Ahn, Gye-Bog
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2015
  • Gyeongju, Silla capital, hasn't paid much attention to a value of fortress as advanced frame of landscape all the while. All have done until now were maintaining lots of fortress including Gyeongju and setting night landscape lighting for them or building a trail in mountain fortress. Hereupon, this study tried to take a look at historical and scenic value of fortress, landscape frame of Gyeongju-Silla capital, based on Wolseong and Myeonghwalseong and find the way to contribute to it on landscape architectural level. As Wolseong(月城) and Myeonghwalseong(明活城) functioned as royal palace in Silla Dynasty, they need some research and study on fortress inside in detail rather than restoring them by simply maintaining the shapes. While Wolseong has overall excavation investigation going on, Myeonghwalseong representing mountain fortress area is losing its value due to unbefitting management to a title of world heritage. If conducting close research and study on these remains, it seems like it could contribute a lot to landscape architectural research of Silla royal palace through tracks, which will be used as royal palace. Here I suggest research direction on landscape architectural level about fortress remains in Gyeongju area as followings. Firstly, away from all research focusing on fortress shape, consecration way, etc, we need to conduct a research comprisable of inner space of fortress. As Wolseong and Myeonghwalseong functioned as royal palace in Silla Dynasty, it'll be possible to research about ponds, Nu-Jeong(樓亭), drainage facilities, oddly shaped stones, moundings, pavements, circulation systems, planting traces, etc. For this, we need to research and study through comparison with cases of China, Japan and Goguryeo of the same age. Secondly, applying garden archaeological way is possible to translate objectively regarding research of ancient garden with low literature record. But attainable achievement and information will be limited if implementing excavation based on archaeology as excavations so far regarding excavation investigation of Wolseong. The alternative to such problem is participation plan of landscaping field through the foundation of garden archaeology. We might be able to attain many results on landscape architectural level from research, if conducting research and study about Silla capital including Wolseong by applying garden archaeology such as collection of environmental sample and discovery and analysis of remains through aerial photograph, archaeological research, analysis of historical building, surface exploration, excavation technique, analysis of soil and flowerpot, etc. For this, many people majored in landscape architecture need to try and acquire archaeological knowledge. Also, we need to call attention to internal garden archaeology through international academic symposium by inviting global experts in garden archaeology field. I've suggested the study of location of Wolseong and Silla fortress in Gyeongju area, plan research on using and treating trees about the space in and out of fortress and landscape architectural research direction of Wolseong fortress.