• Title, Summary, Keyword: Light Water Reactor

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THE OPAL (OPEN POOL AUSTRALIAN LIGHT-WATER) REACTOR IN AUSTRALIA

  • Kim Sung-Joong
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.443-448
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    • 2006
  • The OPAL (Open Pool Australian Light-water) reactor is currently being constructed to replace HIFAR (HI-Flux Australian Reactor, commissioned in 1958) in mid-2006. HIFAR will be shutdown for decommissioning after several months of simultaneous operation with OPAL for smooth transition of operating systems and business. OPAL is a 20 MW multipurpose research reactor for radioisotope production, irradiation services and neutron beam research. The OPAL reactor uses low enriched uranium fuel in a compact core, cooled by light water and moderated by heavy water, yielding maximum thermal flux not less than $4{\times}10^{14}ncm^{-2}s^{-1}$. The reactor containment building is constructed of reinforced concrete and has been designed to protect the reactor from all external events such as seismic occurrences and impact from a hypothetical light aircraft crash. This paper describes the main elements of the reactor design and its applications.

CORE DESIGN CONCEPTS FOR HIGH PERFORMANCE LIGHT WATER REACTORS

  • Schulenberg, T.;Starflinger, J.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.249-256
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    • 2007
  • Light water reactors operated under supercritical pressure conditions have been selected as one of the promising future reactor concepts to be studied by the Generation IV International Forum. Whereas the steam cycle of such reactors can be derived from modem fossil fired power plants, the reactor itself, and in particular the reactor core, still need to be developed. Different core design concepts shall be described here to outline the strategy. A first option for near future applications is a pressurized water reactor with $380^{\circ}C$ core exit temperature, having a closed primary loop and achieving 2% pts. higher net efficiency and 24% higher specific turbine power than latest pressurized water reactors. More efficiency and turbine power can be gained from core exit temperatures around $500^{\circ}C$, which require a multi step heat up process in the core with intermediate coolant mixing, achieving up to 44% net efficiency. The paper summarizes different core and assembly design approaches which have been studied recently for such High Performance Light Water Reactors.

The Political Economy of Nuclear Reactors and Safety (원자로의 정치경제학과 안전)

  • Park, Jin-Hee
    • Journal of Engineering Education Research
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2012
  • The success history of Light Water Reactors (PWR and BWR) showed how a dominant technology could be shaped in a political and economical context. The american nuclear politics, the interest of american nuclear industry, and the accumulated technological know-hows made it possible that the not inherently safe reactor-Light Water Reactor- became a prominent reactor model. The path dependency of reactor technology on LWR kept the engineers from developing a new safer reactor, even if the severe reactor accidents occurred. In oder to increase safety of nuclear power system, we should understand the social shaping process of nuclear technology.

Development of Innovative Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuel Using 3D Printing Technology (3 차원 프린팅 기술을 이용한 신개념 경수로 핵연료 기술 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hyo Chan;Kim, Hyun Gil;Yang, Yong Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 2016
  • To enhance the safety of nuclear reactors after the Fukushima accident, researchers are developing various types of accident tolerant fuel (ATF) to increase the coping time and reduce the generation of hydrogen by oxidation. Coated cladding, an ATF concept, can be a promising technology in view of its commercialization. We applied 3D printing technology to the fabrication of coated cladding as well as of coated pellets. Direct metal tooling (DMT) in 3D printing technologies can create a coated layer on the tubular cladding surface, which maintains stability during corrosion, creep, and wear in the reactor. A 3D laser coating apparatus was built, and parameter studies were carried out. To coat pellets with erbium using this apparatus, we undertook preliminary experiments involving metal pellets. The adhesion test showed that the coated layer can be maintained at near fracture strength.

An Investigation of Thermal Margin for External Reactor Vessel Cooling(ERVC) in Large Advanced Light Water Reactors(ALWR)

  • Park, Jong-Woon;Jerng, Dong-Wook
    • Proceedings of the Korean Nuclear Society Conference
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    • pp.473-478
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    • 1997
  • A severe accident management strategy, in-vessel retention corium through external reactor vessel cooling(ERVC) is being studied worldwide as a means to prevent reactor vessel failure following a core melt accident. An evaluation of feasibility of this ERVC for a large Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is presented. To account for the coolability of corium and metal in the reactor vessel, a thermal analysis is performed using an existing method. Results show that the peak heat flux along the inner surface of the reactor vessel lower head has a relatively smaller margin than a small capacity reactor such as AP600 in regards with the critical heat flux attainable at the outer surface of the reactor vessel lower head.

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STATUS AND PROSPECTS OF RESOLUTION OF THE VAPOUR EXPLOSION ISSUE IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS

  • Magallon, Daniel
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.41 no.5
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    • pp.603-616
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    • 2009
  • The past two decades were mainly devoted to model validation and computer code verification against global corium experiments, code application to reactor situations, and investigation of the role of melt properties in steam explosion energetics. Corium data were essentially provided by JRC-Ispra in the FARO and KROTOS facilities and by KAERI in the TROI facility. Verification of code applicability to reactor situations was performed essentially in the frame of the international OECD/SERENA programme. The paper makes a synthesis of the findings made during the above-mentioned period and expresses a personal view of the author with respect to the progress made and expected for the resolution of the steam explosion issue for light water reactors.

A Study on Sterilization Characteristics of Elliptical Reactor by Using Xenon Flashlamp and Photocatalyst (Xenon flashlamp와 광촉매를 이용한 타원형 반응기의 살균 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Dong-Gil;Hong, Ji-Tae;Choi, Kyoung-Hwa;Cha, Jae-Ho;Kim, Hong-Ju;Kim, Hee-Je
    • The Transactions of The Korean Institute of Electrical Engineers
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.559-565
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we invented a new and unique technique for the sterilization of Escherichia coli(E. coli) in polluted water. We applied a rich ultra-violet(UV) light from pulsed xenon flashlamp and photocatalyst(TiO2) to sterilize E. coli in polluted water. This method based on the use of UV light and photocatalyst is eco-friendly and does not cause secondary pollution. The proposed elliptical reactor is able to concentrate on quartz sleeve coated TiO2 or general quartz sleeve. The primary objective of our research was to determine the important parameters such as pulse repetition rate and input voltage and to know on the sterilizing efficiency of quartz sleeve coated TiO2 and general quartz sleeve. We obtained to achieve 99.999% sterilization in as little as 6 pulses at 800V in case of quartz sleeve coated Ti02, and 10 pulses at 800V in case of general quartz sleeve for 5 minutes. Although transmitted light of quartz sleeve coated TiO2 is deceased, the sterilizing efficiency is increased by 40% than general quartz sleeve. The reason of high sterilizing efficiency is that generated hydroxyl radical(OH) by photocatalyst and is able to concentrate light at a focus by using elliptical reactor.

Removal of Bisphenol-A using Rotating Photocatalytic Oxidation Drum Reactor (RPODR)

  • Son, Hee-Jong;Jung, Chul-Woo;Kim, Seung-Hyun
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2008
  • This study evaluated the photocatalytic oxidation of BPA using the RPOD reactor under various conditions. This study found that the RPOD was effective for BPA degradation. It could reduce 1 mg/L of BPA by half within 5 min under the optimum conditions. According to the study results, $TiO_2$ coating was important for the BPA oxidation. As the coating thickness increased, the removal efficiency improved. The light source, the light intensity and the drum rotating speed were important for the oxidation. The UV light was more effective for the BPA degradation than the visible light. The removal efficiency improved with increasing intensity. As the drum speed increased, the removal efficiency improved. The maximum speed was 240 rpm in this study. Addition of air and nitrogen was not beneficial for the BPA degradation in this study probably due to enough oxygen in the water.

STATUS OF FACILITIES AND EXPERIENCE FOR IRRADIATION OF LWR AND V/HTR FUEL IN THE HFR PETTEN

  • Bakker Klaas;Klaassen Frodo;Schram Ronald;Futterer Michael
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.417-422
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    • 2006
  • The present paper describes the 45 MW High Flux Reactor (HFR) which is located in Petten, The Netherlands. This paper focuses on selected technical aspects of this reactor and on nuclear fuel irradiation experiments. These fuel experiments are mainly experiments on Light Water Reactor (LWR) and Very/High Temperature Reactor (V/HTR) fuels, but also on Fast Reactor (FR) fuels, transmutation fuels and Material Test Reactor (MTR) fuels.

A Study on Optimal Design of UV Contactor using an Optical Radiation Model (광학모델을 이용한 자외선 접촉조 최적 설계에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Younggyun;Kim, Dooil;Kim, Sunghong
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.547-552
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    • 2009
  • Because of refractory property of light, the travel path of UV light becomes longer than the straight line and shorter solely in water as UV light passes sequentially through air, quartz and water. Note that water significantly absorbs UV light. Hence, UV intensity shall be estimated to be lower when refraction is neglected than it is considered. Reflection is also critical for the design of UV radiation system. While the reflection at the interface of air and quartz is low enough to ignore, it is too high to be ignored at the interface of quartz and water. Assuming constant power, smaller length to width ratio of UV reactor is beneficial and single-lamp system is preferred to multi-lamps. Under the given cross section, optimal lamp positions could be decided. For example of an elliptical reactor with dual lamps, the optimal lamp locations shall be the 1/3 and 2/3 position of the longer axis.