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The Analysis and Study of First Visit Outpatients in Oral Medicine (구강내과에 내원한 신환에 관한 분석 연구)

  • Ko, Myung-Yun;Heo, Jun-Young;Ok, Su-Min;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Jeong, Sung-Hee;Ahn, Yong-Woo
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.137-142
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    • 2013
  • Oral Medicine includes temporomandibular disorder, orofacial pains such as neuropathic pain, soft tissue diseases, halitosis, laser treatment, snoring, sleep apnea and identification through forensic dentistry etc. Such diseases are relatively common and cause great inconvenience and pain to the patients, as well as incur fatal health scare at times. In terms of oral medicine, the number of orofacial patients is growing due to a change in the life style and an increased stress as time goes in contemporary society and the demand of areas requiring oral medical professionalism, such as soft tissue lesions, snoring and sleep apnea, forensic dentistry evaluation and others are rapidly ascending. Consequently, among the areas in dental science, the calls for the expertism in oral medicine and its role are mounting. Analyzing the distribution according to disease entity, symptoms, duration of disease, and the prehistory courses of new patients visiting the department of oral medicine in a year provides information of the role and the relative importance of oral medicine in prospect and enables effective diagnosis and treatments for the patients. Therefore, in the present study, by analyzing new patients visiting the oral medicine clinic in our dental hospital for a year and by evaluating the role and the professionalism in future oral medicine, the authors concluded the followings: 1. It was founded that new patients to oral medicine mainly had temporomandibular disorders, soft tissue diseases, and neuropathic pains. 2. The number of patients with temporomandibular disorder appeared to be the highest percentage and the order within this was the patients with combined disorders, muscle disorder, and internal derangement of joint disc. 3. The number of patients with xerostomia appeared to be the highest percentage within soft tissue disease, followed by lichen planus and recurrent apthous ulcers. 4. The number of patients with burning mouth syndrome appeared to be the highest percentage within neuropathic pain.

A Study on History and Archetype Technology of Goli-su in Korea (한국 고리수의 역사와 원형기술의 복원 연구)

  • Kim, Young-ran
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.4-25
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    • 2013
  • Goli-su is the innovative special kind of the embroidery technique, which combines twining and interlacing skill with metal technology and makes the loops woven to each other with a strand. The loops floating on the space of the ground look like floating veins of sculpture and give people the feeling of the openwork. This kind of characteristic has some similarities with the lacework craft of Western Europe in texture and technique style, but it has its own features different from that of Western Europe. It mainly represents the splendid gloss with metallic materials in the Embroidered cloth, such as gold foil or wire. In the 10th century, early days of Goryo, we can see the basic Goli-su structure form of its initial period in the boy motif embroidery purse unearthed from the first level of Octagonal Nine-storied Pagoda of Woljeong-sa. In the Middle period of Joseon, there are several pieces of Goli-su embroidered relic called "Battle Flag of Goryo", which was taken by the Japanese in 1592 and is now in the Japanese temple. This piece is now converted into altar-table covers. In 18~19th century, two pairs of embroidered pillows in Joseon palace were kept intact, whose time and source are very accurate. The frame of the pillows was embroidered with Goli-su veins, and some gold foil papers were inserted into the inside. The triangle motif with silk was embroidered on the pillow. The stitch in the Needle-Looped embroidery is divided into three kinds according to comprehensive classification: 1. Goli-su ; 2. Goli-Kamgi-su ; 3. Goli-Saegim-su. From the 10th century newly establishing stage to the 13th century, Goli-su has appeared variational stitches and employed 2~3 dimensional color schemes gradually. According to the research of this thesis, we can still see this stitch in the embroidery pillow, which proves that Goli-suwas still kept in Korea in the 19th century. And in terms of the research achievement of this thesis, Archetype technology of Goli-su was restored. Han Sang-soo, Important Intangible Cultural Heritage No. 80 and Master of Embroidery already recreated the Korean relics of Goli-su in Joseon Dynasty. The Needle-Looped embriodery is the overall technological result of ancestral outstanding Metal craft, Twining and Interlacing craft, and Embroidery art. We should inherit, create, and seek the new direction in modern multi-dimensional and international industry societyon the basis of these research results. We can inherit the long history of embroidering, weaving, fiber processing, and expand the applications of other craft industries, and develop new advanced additional values of new dress material, fashion technology, ornament craft and artistic design. Thus, other crafts assist each other and broaden the expressive field to pursue more diversified formative beauty and beautify our life abundantly together.

A study on the Change of Perspectives on the Past in Heritage Conservation - Focusing on the 19th Century Restoration of Religious Buildings in England - (문화재 보존에 나타난 과거인식에 대한 고찰 - 19세기 영국의 교회 건축복원의 사상적 배경과 보존사례를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, Su-jeong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.188-207
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    • 2014
  • Taking the concept of 'Invention of Tradition' by Hobsbawm, this paper examines the change of perspectives on the past and the attitudes toward connecting the past and the contemporary in the 19th century restoration of religious buildings in England. The Anglican society in the early 19th century argued that the catholic theology and rituals should be revived in their practice, which has formed the Oxford Movement. Such aspiration has stimulated to the society to execute its religious practice in a proper space, which has resulted in the Cambridge Camden Society in the middle of the century. Their publications on church buildings and arrangement had much affected to the restoration of many churches to rip off the previous Georgian furnitures and features of the fabric into Gothic, the style of middle age. The perspective on the past for anti-restoration movement in the late 19th century has moved into the one to respect all historical layers of previous spirit imprinted in the church buildings. Inspired by Ruskin and formulated by Morris, SPAB's Manifesto has reflected that the spirit of the first builder can not be reproduced or copied by the contemporaries, and therefore a daily maintenance is the best practice to extend the life of spirit rather than restoration. In addition the material remains is no longer belong to the religious entity but should be regarded as national heritage. By examining the change of perspectives on the past between the early and middle of 19th century and the late 19th century, this paper has argued that the various factors such as social, economic, political, art and commercial factors should be examined together in the understanding of conservation history.

A Comparative Study of the House Spirit Belief between the Tungus and Korea (한민족과 퉁구스민족의 가신신앙 비교 연구)

  • Kim, In
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.243-266
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    • 2004
  • This paper is based on fieldwork conducted from July 6, 2003 to July 24 of 2003 among the Tungusgroups Hezhe, Daur, Oloqun, Owenke, and Mongolian in the areas of Heilongjiang and Inner Mongolia Provinces. Recognizing the need for more in-depth study among these groups, the present research shows that the Tungus people are archeologically, historically, and linguistically different from Korean Han ethnic group and challenges the link between Korean and Tungus groups since the Bronze Age. The comparison between the "House Spirit" belief of the Tungus people and Koreans reveals certain commonalities in the "Maru," "Kitchen," and "Samshin Spirit" practices. There are two possible reasons for such commonalities. Historically, the Korean Han ethnic group and the Tungus people were geographically intimate, and contact or transmission between the two groups occurred naturally. Also, immigration of refugees from the fallen Koguryo and Puyo to the Tungus region added another dimension of cultural contact. In contrast to the common features shared between the two groups, there also exists differences between the two groups House Spirit blief. The Korean Han group's "House Spirit" belief is based on the agricultural practices that separates the inside sacred and outside secular world of the houses, whereas the Tungus ethnic group's "House Spirit" belief is based on mobile herding life style with a less distinction between in and outside of house. Additionally, each Korean "House Spirit" has its own distinctive personality, and each spirit is placed and worshipped according to its function. In the Tungus group, all the "House Spirits" are located and worshipped in "malu," and some of the spirits are non-conventional house spirits. Moreover, Korean "House Spirits" form a kinship structure, placing Songju, the highest spirit, at the center. In the Tungus practice, such structure is not found. The tight cohesive family formation among the house spirits in the Korean "House Spirit" belief is also the most distinctive feature in its comparison with Chinese belief. In China, the highest spirit is Jiang Taigong or Qiwu, and the house spirits do not have kinship relations. Korean's Outhouse Spirit and Chowangshin are related to the Han Chinese's counterpart on certain levels? however, their basic structures are different. It is clear that the correlation of "Malu" "Chowangshin" and "Samshin" between Korea and Tungus indicate important role of Tungus cultural elements within Korea's "House Spirit" belief.

The Change of the Knowledge Field in a Transition Period based on the Transition of the Status of Chinese Novels - Focusing Liang Qichao's Assertion, the Revolution of the Novel World (중국소설의 위상 변천으로 본 과도기 지식 장(場)의 변화 - 양계초(梁啓超)의 소설계혁명(小說界革命)을 중심으로 -)

  • Jung, Sun Kyung
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.55
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    • pp.115-145
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, the transition of the status of Chinese novels and the change of the knowledge field in the modern times from the end of 19th century to the early 20th century, the transition period between the tradition and the modern times, have been investigated based on Liang Qichao's assertion of the Revolution of the Novel World. How the traditional novels have been evaluated, how modern novels enlightened a people and changed the political society, and what role novels acted in the change of the knowledge field are investigated. Especially I looked into the accumulations of knowledge and changes inside China which were overlooked in the previous researches which focused on the inflow of the Western culture and its impact on Chinese culture. Firstly the evaluation and classification of the traditional novels are considered. Because the transition of the status of novels and the classification method of the catalog of books are tightly coupled with the change of academic ideologies. Later I tried to understand novels as a way of thinking the modern times with a discussion on the changes of modern knowledge society and the consideration of Liang Qichao's Revolution of the Novel World in the two viewpoints, i.e. the relationship between novels and political society, and novels and the style of writing. Liang Qichao raised novels to the topmost position of literature. He pushed the traditional poetry off the top position and replaced it with popular novels. As the outside impact of Western culture made Chinese novels a tool for enlightening the ignorant people and the medium of propagating the knowledge, the status of novels was elevated to the highest level which novels had never reached in the past. With the limitation that the valuation was not based on the aesthetic appreciation of art but based on the value for politics and society, novel was a discourse of life and death to save the country and a container of knowledge to rebuild the people's mind and convert the crisis of the national ruin.

Rational Spirit for Painting Theory of the Song Dynasty (宋代画论中的理性精神)

  • Chen, Gu Xiang
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.59
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    • pp.405-428
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    • 2015
  • Painting theorists in Song dynasty often spoke 'Li' when they talked about paintings. But 'Li' of the song dynasty is not limited to the 'ethics'. First, it includes visible 'natural's truth', such as the differences of 'geography' and 'physics' between the depicted objects. Second, it also includes 'common sense' which was based on both the observation and the thinking. The theorists thought if the 'common sense' was improper in the painting, the whole work was invalid. Thirdly, it also includes 'the reasonable sense in special situation', which requires great imagination ability and elaborative faculty. For example, when playing wind instruments and stringed instruments in the same time at the same concert, the painter should accurately draw the different gestures of musicians according to that the wind instrument is 'sound when the finger lift' and the stringed instrument is 'sound after the finger have left' in that moment. Fourthly, it includes 'art reason', theorists call it as 'ShenLi' or 'MiaoLi'. 'ShenLi' or 'MiaoLi' require the creator to join the spiritual concept besides his observation and thinking. For example, 'banana in snow' is neither observed available nor thought of available, but is the result of spiritual concept of creators for seeking everlasting. And at last, it certainly includes 'the principle of ethics'. Painters often highlighted the ethical relations of the feudal nation and the value of individual gentleman through the allegory story of figure painting and even the sudden composition in the landscape painting. 'Geography', 'physical', and 'common sense' are required the meticulous observation and the rational thinking for the painted object. And 'the reasonable sense in special situation', 'the art reason', 'the principle of ethics' are required enhancing painting style in the painting artistic conception and realm of life based on the nuanced observation, making 'technology' into the 'Tao'. This is the six reasonable increasing requirements for the painting work. Therefore, 'seeking the final reason' is the fundamental spirit of painting theory of Song Dynasty.

The Empirical Exploration of the Conception on Nursing (간호개념에 대한 기초조사)

  • 백혜자
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.65-87
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    • 1981
  • The study is aimed at exploring concept held by clinical nurses of nursing. The data were collected from 225 nurses conviniently selected from the population of nurses working in Kang Won province. Findings include. 1) Nurse's Qualification. The respondents view that specialized knowledge is more important qualification of the nurse. Than warm personality. Specifically, 92.9% of the respondents indicated specialized knowledge as the most important qualification while only 43.1% indicated warm personality. 2) On Nursing Profession. The respondents view that nursing profession as health service oriented rather than independent profession specifically. This suggests that nursing profession is not consistentic present health care delivery system nor support nurses working independently. 3) On Clients of Nursing Care The respondents include patients, family and the community residents in the category of nursing care. Specifically, 92.0% of the respondents view that patient is the client, while only 67.1% of nursing student and 74.7% of herself. This indicates the lack of the nurse's recognition toward their clients. 4) On the Priority of Nursing care. Most of the respondents view the clients physical psychological respects as important component of nursing care but not the spiritual ones. Specially, 96.0% of the respondents indicated the physical respects, 93% psychological ones, while 64.1% indicated the spiritual ones. This means the lack of comprehensive conception on nursing aimension. 5) On Nursing Care. 91.6% of the respondents indicated that nursing care is the activity decreasing pain or helping to recover illness, while only 66.2% indicated earring out the physicians medical orders. 6) On Purpose of Nursing Care. 89.8% of the respondents indicated preventing illness and than 76.6% of them decreasing 1;ai of clients. On the other hand, maintaining health has the lowest selection at the degree of 13.8%. This means the lack of nurses' recognition for maintaining health as the most important point. 7) On Knowledge Needed in Nursing Care. Most of the respondents view that the knowledge faced with the spot of nursing care is needed. Specially, 81.3% of the respondents indicated simple curing method and 75.1%, 73.3%, 71.6% each indicated child nursing, maternal nursing and controlling for the communicable disease. On the other hand, knowledge w hick has been neglected in the specialized courses of nursing education, that is, thinking line among com-w unity members, overcoming style against between stress and personal relation in each home, and administration, management have a low selection at the depree of 48.9%,41.875 and 41.3%. 8) On Nursing Idea. The highest degree of selection is that they know themselves rightly, (The mean score measuring distribution was 4.205/5) In the lowest degree,3.016/5 is that devotion is the essential element of nursing, 2.860/5 the religious problems that human beings can not settle, such as a fatal ones, 2,810/5 the nursing profession is worth trying in one's life. This means that the peculiarly essential ideas on the professional sense of value. 9) On Nursing Services. The mean score measuring distribution for the nursing services showed that the inserting of machine air way is 2.132/5, the technique and knowledge for surviving heart-lung resuscitating is 2.892/s, and the preventing air pollution 3.021/5. Specially, 41.1% of the respondents indicated the lack of the replied ratio. 10) On Nurses' Qualifications. The respondents were selected five items as the most important qualifications. Specially, 17.4% of the respondents indicated specialized knowledge, 15.3% the nurses' health, 10.6% satisfaction for nursing profession, 9.8% the experience need, 9.2% comprehension and cooperation, while warm personality as nursing qualifications have a tendency of being lighted. 11) On the Priority of Nursing Care The respondents were selected three items as the most important component. Most of the respondents view the client's physical, spiritual: economic points as important components of nursing care. They showed each 36.8%, 27.6%, 13.8% while educational ones showed 1.8%. 12) On Purpose of Nursing Care. The respondents were selected four items as the most important purpose. Specially,29.3% of the respondents indicated curing illness for clients, 21.3% preventing illness for client 17.4% decreasing pain, 15.3% surviving. 13) On the Analysis of Important Nursing Care Ranging from 5 point to 25 point, the nurses' qualification are concentrated at the degree of 95.1%. Ranging from 3 point to 25, the priorities of nursing care are concentrated at the degree of 96.4%. Ranging from 4 point to 16, the purpose of nursing care is concentrated at the degree of 84.0%. 14) The Analysis, of General Characteristics and Facts of Nursing Concept. The correlation between the educational high level and nursing care showed significance. (P < 0.0262). The correction between the educational low level and purpose of nursing care showed significance. (P < 0.002) The correlation between nurses' working yeras and the degree of importance for the purpose of nursing care showed significance (P < 0.0155) Specially, the most affirmative answers were showed from two years to four ones. 15) On Nunes' qualification and its Degree of Importance The correlation between nurses' qualification and its degree of importance showed significance. (r = 0.2172, p< 0.001) 0.005) B. General characteristics of the subjects The mean age of the subject was 39 ; with 38.6% with in the age range of 20-29 ; 52.6% were male; 57.9% were Schizophrenia; 35.1% were graduated from high school or high school dropouts; 56.l% were not have any religion; 52.6% were unmarried; 47.4% were first admission; 91.2% were involuntary admission patients. C. Measurement of anxiety variables. 1. Measurement tools of affective anxiety in this study demonstrated high reliability (.854). 2. Measurement tools of somatic anxiety in this study demonstrated high reliability (.920). D. Relationship between the anxiety variables and the general characteristics. 1. Relationship between affective anxiety and general characteristics. 1) The level of female patients were higher than that of the male patient (t = 5.41, p < 0.05). 2) Frequencies of admission were related to affective anxiety, so in the first admission the anxiety level was the highest. (F = 5.50, p < 0.005). 2, Relationship between somatic anxiety and general characteristics. 1) The age range of 30-39 was found to have the highest level of the somatic anxiety. (F = 3.95, p < 0.005). 2) Frequencies of admission were related to the somatic anxiety, so .in first admission the anxiety level was the highest. (F = 9.12, p < 0.005) 0. Analysis of significant anxiety symptoms for nursing intervention. 1. Seven items such as dizziness, mental integration, sweating, restlessness, anxiousness, urinary frequency and insomnia, init. accounted for 96% of the variation within the first 24 hours after admission. 2. Seven items such as fear, paresthesias, restlessness, sweating insomnia, init., tremors and body aches and pains accounted for 84% of the variation on the 10th day after admission.

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Effect of Mulberry Leaf Extract Supplement on Blood Glucose, Glycated Hemoglobin and Serum Lipids in Type II Diabetic Patients (상엽추출물이 제2형 당뇨병 환자의 혈당, 당화혈색소 및 혈청지질에 미치는 영향)

  • Yang, Jung-Hwa;Han, Ji-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.549-556
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    • 2006
  • The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of mulberry leaf extract supplement on blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin ($HbA_{1C}$) and serum lipids in type II diabetic patients, and also to assess safety in liver function after mulberry leaf extract supplement. The study was a randomized placebo-controlled trial and total 23 type II diabetic patients were divided into a MLE group taking 1,000 mg mulberry leaf extract supplement per day as experimental group and a placebo group taking 1,000 mg cellulose Powder supplement per day for 12 weeks. After 2 weeks of wash-out period, fasting blood glucose, $HbA_{1C}$, serum lipid levels and liver function test were analyzed before and after treatment of 12 weeks. The general baseline characteristics, nutrient intake and life style factors of study subjects were similar between two groups during intervention. The concentrations of fasting blood glucose and $HbA_{1C}$ (p<0.05) decreased significantly after mulberry leaf extract supplement in MLE group, while there were no changes found in placebo group. We also found it showed that mulberry leaf extract supplement for 12 weeks decreased significantly (p<0.05) the fasting blood glucose in poor fasting blood glucose group and $HbA_{1C}$ concentration in poor $HbA_{1C}$ group. The concentrations of LDL-cholesterol (p<0.05) and triglyceride (p<0.01) decreased significantly in MLE group after 12 weeks of taking the supplement, while there were no changes found in placebo group. The mulberry leaf extract supplement for 12 weeks didn't show hepatotoxicity. These results suggested that mulberry leaf extract supplement could be effective in improving fasting blood glucose and $HbA_{1C}$ levels in the diabetic patients, specially having high concentrations of fasting blood glucose and $HbA_{1C}$ among type II diabetic patients.

Nutritional Status and Health Risks of Low Income Elderly Women in Gwangju Area (광주지역 저소득층 여자노인의 영양상태와 건강위험요인에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Eun-Ju;Bang, Hee-Myung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.65-76
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    • 2008
  • This study was performed to identify association between nutritional status and health risks of the elderly. This was a cross-sectional study involving low income elderly women in Gwangju, Korea (${\geq}$65y, n = 92). Socio-demographics, life style characteristics, health conditions, dietary intakes based on 24h-recall method, anthropometric measures, and clinical biochemistry parameters were examined. Anthropometric and clinical parameters included wt, ht, waist, hip, body protein, body fat, abdominal fat, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, albumin, hemoglobin, hematocrit, fasting blood glucose, ferritin, IL-2, IL-6, TNF-${\alpha}$, CRP, TAS, TBARS, systolic blood pressure, and diastolic blood pressure. The subjects were divided into three groups based on age (65-74y, 75-84y, 85y${\leq}$) and were divided into two groups according to the sum of the Nutrition Screening Initiative (NSI) checklist score (adequate nutritional status, NSI score ${\leq}$3; at risk of malnutrition, NSI score >3). Mean and frequency of variables were estimated. Analysis of Variance, Tukey test, Chi-square test, and Multiple linear regression analyses were performed. Mean BMI and body fat were 25.1 $kg/m^2$ and 40.0%, respectively. However, for over 80% of subjects, the intakes of energy, fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, Ca, K, and Zn were less than the Korean DRI (EAR or AI). The subjects who had lower NSI score tended to have better health status, eat meals frequently, have less depression, and exercise regularly. The subjects who had higher NSI score tended to have tooth problems, to eat alone most of time, and to be physically unable to cook or feed. Serum IL-6 and TNF-${\alpha}$ were significantly related with nutritional status which suggested higher tendency of inflammatory response. Serum IL-2, TAS, and glucose were significantly correlated with body fat (%) or abdominal fat (%). These results suggest that improving the nutritional status, increasing regular exercise, maintaining normal weight are beneficial to health care of low income elderly women.

The Health Behavior Patterns of Some Rural Residents in Korea and Their Association with Health Status and Health Management Practice (일부 농촌주민의 건강행위유형과 건강상태 및 건강관련실태와의 관련성)

  • Kim, Young-Gab;Kang, Myung-Guen;Ryu, So-Yeon;Kim, Ki-Soon;Kang, Sung-Deuk
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.43-63
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to classify the patterns of health behaviors of some rural residents in Korea by sub-grouping them into populations with similar patterns of diet quality, physical activity, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, and then to investigate the relationship between these health behavior patterns and health status or health management of them. Methods: The study subjects were 722 rural residents above 20 years old on a typical rural district in Korea, and the data used in this study was from the survey data for health planning of a health center. Study questionnaire for this survey was developed from modifying the questionnaire for 'National Nutrition and Health Study' conducted in 1998. To classify health behavior patterns, cluster analysis was conducted. And to test the association of health behavior patterns with health status or health management, multiple logistic regression analysis were conducted. Results: The results and their implications of this study were as follows: 1. We identified six health behavior typologies : 67.8% of the sample had a good diet quality but showed sedentary activity level(good diet lifestyle) and 10.9% had heavy smoking behavior(smoking lifestyle). Individuals included in fitness lifestyle cluster(6.2%) had high physical activity level and those in drinking life style(2.6%) had had mainly large amount of alcohol. Zero point six percent of sample were included in hedonic lifestyle cluster, who showed poor health behaviors in all. Those included in passive lifestyle(11.9%) had no active health promoting activities but tended to avoid risk taking health behavior such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. 2. As a result of logistic regression analysis, to compare with the individuals in good diet lifestyle, the prevalence of chronic diseases of those in fitness lifestyle showed higher and that of those in smoking lifestyle, drinking lifestyle, hedonic lifestyle, passive lifestyle showed lower than them, retrospectively. 3. Adjusting with general characteristics and health status, to compare with the individuals in good diet lifestyle, the proportion of those who had good health management practices in fitness lifestyle was higher, and the proportion of those who had health check in past 2 years was lower than them, retrospectively. Conclusions: There were some differences in health behavior patterns between rural population and national population, which influenced significantly on health status and health management practice of them. We suggested that the health promotion program for them be developed with considering these points.

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