• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lettuce germination

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Evaluation of Environmental Toxicities for Priority Water Pollutants in a Small Watershed by Bioassays - Comparision between Lettuce Seed Germination Test and Microtox Bioassay - (생물학적 검정법을 이용한 소규모 수계내 수질 오염물질의 환경독성 평가 -상추씨 발아시험과 Microtox 시험 비교-)

  • 이지나;황인영
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.135-144
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    • 1999
  • Environmental toxicities of priority water pollutants were evaluated by two selected bioassays, Lettuce seed germination/elongation test and Microtox acute toxicity test. Toxic chemicals (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolic compounds) inhibited the germination rate and root elongation of Lettuce seed, as well as the bioluminescence of Microtox bacteria. When test biota were exposed to target chemicals, the sensitivity of Lettuce bioassay was relatively lower than that of Microtox bioassay. However, Lettuce bioassay may be a good candidate for prescreening the environmental toxicities of priority water pollutants, since the testing method with Lettuce seed was relatively easier and more economic than with Microtox bacteria. Toxicity tests were conducted to compare the validity and sensitivity of both bioassays for sediment from a small stream passed through urban area as well as leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill. From experimental results, we found that Lettuce test and Microtox test are compensated each other as a battery of bioassay for evaluating the environmental toxicities of field samples obtained from a small stream contaminated by pollutants.

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Initiation of Germination Characters of Plant Seed by Light Quality (광에 의한 종자의 발아특성 발현과 그 분화 및 형성에 관하여)

  • 최관삼
    • Proceedings of the Botanical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.175-190
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    • 1987
  • Germination characters of the lettuce seed that received photoperiodic pretreatments of low or high temperature from the flowering to harvest. MSU-15 seed, one of the lettuce cultivars used, having high dark germination, was modified to low dark germination by the long-day treatments during the seed formation. Light-requiring MSU-16 seed was modified to the dark-germination seed by high temperature given at the seed formation period. Above results suggest that the environmental conditions given to an immature seed adhered to a mother plant bring about some modification to its native germination habit. I confirmed that the spectral quality of light could influence the phytochrome system which controlled germination characters of the progeny of lettuce seed ; plants grown in light rich in far-red energies produced light-requiring seed, but those grown in high deficient in far-red energies produced dark germination seed.

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The Interaction of Volatile Chemicals and Phytohormones on Seed Germination and Seedling Growth of Lettuce (상치의 발아와 유묘생장에 미치는 휘발성 화학물질과 식물호르몬의 상호작용)

  • 윤경원;길봉섭
    • The Korean Journal of Ecology
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.233-238
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    • 1997
  • To evaluate allelopathic effect of volatile chemicals and phytohormones, seed germination and seedling growth test of Lactuca sativa have performed in laboratory experiments. Among used chemicals terpienen-4-ol was the most inhibitory to seed germination of lettuce. ABA and GA inhibited seed germination at $5{\times}10^{-6}M$ concentration but promoted germination at $2.5{\times}10^{-5}M$ and $5{\times}10^{-5}M$. ABA and GA alleviated volatile chemical-induced inhibition of seed germination and seedling elongation of lettuce.

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Effects of Light Source, Plant Growth Regulators (GA, BA, ABA) and Sodium Hypochlorite on 'Grand Rapid' Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.) Seed Germination (광질(光質), 생장조절물질(生長調節物質) (GA, BA, ABA) 및 Sodium Hypochlorite의 처리가 상치 (Lactuca sativa L.) 종자의 발아(發芽)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, Young Bok;Kim, Young Rae
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.242-248
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    • 1983
  • The effects of light source, plant growth regulators (GA, BA, ABA), and sodium hypochlorite (4% Cl, SH) on germination of 'G rand Rapid' lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) seed were studied. Seed did not germinate under the conditions of dark and blue light. The treatment of GA or BA did not promote on germination under dark or blue light. The germination percentage under red light was very high, it was similar to the condition of white light. ABA inhibited lettuce seed germination. Although ABA was treated, BA 10ppm treatment was moderately effective under white light condition and BA 10ppm or 50ppm combined with GA 50ppm were also effective on seed germination under dark condition. Presoaking in sodium hypochlorite solution induced germination of lettuce seed in any condition of dark or white light. The optimum presoaking time in sodium hypochlorite solution was twenty min.

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Effects of Residues and Extracts of Leaf and Root Vegetables on the Germination and Growth of Cucumber and Tomato (채소류의 잔유물과 추출물이 오이와 토마토의 발아 및 초기생장에 미치는 영향)

  • Park Kuen Woo;Lee Jeong Hun;Kim Min-Jea;Won Jae Hee
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.200-208
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    • 2004
  • Effects of cucumber and tomato seed germination by previous leaf and root vegetables (cabbage, radish, welsh onion, lettuce) residue in soil were tested in pot condition. Overall, suppression effect of welsh onion residue was the greatest in 4 tested crop residue and followed by radish, cabbage and lettuce, but lettuce residue didn't have effect on cucumber seed germination. Suppression were maintained ca. 20 days but after the time point, growth of cucumber and tomato were enhanced. Enhancing effect of welsh onion residue was the greatest in 4 tested crops residues and followed by radish, cabbage and lettuce. As a conclusion, residue of welsh onion, radish and cabbage were suppressed the germination of cucumber and tomato seeds but enhanced growth after 20 days of treatment. To verify the effective concentration of residue on suppression of germination and growth of radicle of cucumber and tomato, plant extract of welsh onion, radish, cabbage and lettuce were diluted as 5, 10, 17, 23, 35, 50, and $65\%$, and then tested. In low concentration treatment, 5, 10, 17, and $23\%$, all 4 crop extracts didn't suppress cucumber seed germination. High concentration of lettuce extract, 35, 50, and $65\%$, cucumber seed didn't germinate at all. In case of welsh onion extract, only $65\%$ treatment suppressed cucumber seed germination. In low concentration treatment, 17, and $23\%$, only the welsh onion extract suppressed young radicle. In case of high concentration treatment, except $35\%$, all four crops extract suppressed cucumber radicle growth. In low concentration treatment, tomato seed germination was suppressed by lettuce extract only but in high concentration treatment, 35, 50, and $65\%$, all extracts suppressed germination. Especially higher than $50\%$ treatment, tomato seed didn't germinate at all. Radicle growth was highly suppressed in welsh onion and lettuce extract, higher than $23\%$ concentration. As conclusion, leaf and root vegetable extracts suppressed cucumber and tomato seed germination and in high concentration, also suppressed radicle growth.

Seed Germination in Lettuce Affected by Light Quality and Plant Growth Regulators (상추 종자의 발아에 있어 광질 및 생장조절물질의 영향)

  • Hwang, Hyeon-Jeong;Lee, Jung-Myung;Kim, Se-Young;Choi, Geun-Won
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2008
  • Lettuce, a typical light-induced seed germination type, exhibits different germination responses according to cultivars, light quality, and plant growth regulator (PGR) treatments. Germination rates in most tested cultivars were over 85% under both white and red light, and were slightly decreased by blue light. Although photo-inhibition in germination was observed from most cultivars by far-red light, 'Cheongguangcheongchima', 'Okdol', and 'Manchudaecheongchima' could be classified as photo-insensitive lettuce cultivars by exhibiting the germination rates as 78,63, and 48% under for-red light, respectively. 6-Benzylamino purine (BAP) and kinetin promoted seed germination and normal seedling production under far-red light, but ethephon did not show any positive effects. Cytokinins such as BAP, kinetin, thidiazuron (TDZ), and zeatin overcame photo-inhibition of seed germination even the concentration of below $50\;mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. However, auxins such as IBA, 2,4-D, and NAA failed to overcome the far-red light-induced photo-inhibition.

Identification of Pelleting Materials and Effect of Nutrient Addition on the Germination of Pelleted Lettuce Seeds (상추 펠렛종자의 피복물질 탐색과 영양물질 첨가가 발아력에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Jum-Soon
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2004
  • Seedling mechanization of lettuce is known to be difficult due to the small seed size and the irregular seed shape. The purpose of seed pelleting is to make seedling mechanization possible by enlarging the seed size. After that, it can reduce seedling and thinning labours and can also save seeds. According to the results, there were significant differences on the percent germination and day to 50% final germination in accordance with the pelleting polymer. Among the pelleting polymer, gemination of seeds using polynimyl alcohol (PVA) was generally smooth, and followed by polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC), methyl cellulose (MC), and wteen 80. The germination rate was also different according to the pelleting particulate matters. Generally, percent germination and speed of seed using the mixture of diatomaceous earth, talc and calcium carbonate were higher and faster than using other polleting materials, respectively. Thus, it should be suitable pelleting particulate matter for the pelleting of lettuce seeds. On the other hands germination of seeds using limestone, calcium oxide and benonite were low. The seed size of lettuce after pelleting was 33 times as large as the raw seed size. During the process of seed pelleting, netrient addition induced the decrement on the germination and the delay of germination speed. Also, there was differences in the germinability of pelleted seeds in accordance with the addition of nutrient sources. MS medium was generally lower than monosodium phosphate in inhibition of seed germination. Germination of pelleted seeds after priming was higher than the seeds without the treatment, and also showed the trend of early germination.

Evaluating germination of lettuce and soluble organic carbon leachability in upland sandy loam soil applied with rice husk and food waste biochar (왕겨 바이오차 및 음식물쓰레기 바이오차가 밭 사양토에서 상추발아 및 수용성 유기탄소 용출에 미치는 영향 평가)

  • Han, Kyung-Hwa;Zhang, Yong-Seon;Jung, Kang-Ho;Cho, Hee-Rae;Sonn, Yeon-Kyu
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.369-377
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    • 2014
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of rice husk (RHB) and food waste biochar (FWB) on upland soil with sandy loam texture, in terms of physico-chemical analysis, lettuce seed germination test, and orgainc carbon leaching experiment. RHB and FWB had different physico-chemical properties each other. Carbon to nitrogen ratio (C/N ratio) of RHB was 32, showing two times higher than that of FWB. FWB had high salt and heavy metal content, compared to RHB. This is probably due to different ingredients and production processing between two biochars each other. Results of germination test with Lettuce showed lower germination rate when FWB was applied because of higher salt concentration compared to control and RHB. Organic carbon leaching test using saturated soil column (${\Phi}75{\times}h75mm$) with $10MT\;ha^{-1}$ biochar application rate, showed higher saturated hydraulic conductivity in rice husk biochar treatment column, compared to control and food waste biochar treatment. The highest total organic carbon concentration in column effluent was lower than those in both of rice husk biochar and food waste biochar, whereas the differences was negligible after 9 pore volumes of effluent. Consequently, biochars from byproducts such as rice husk and food waste in sandy loam textured upland soil could enhance a buffer function such as reduction of leaching from soil, but the harmful ingredient to crops such as high salt and heavy metals could limit the agricultural use of biochars.

Modified Drum Priming and Exogenous Application of 24-Epibrassinolide (24-EBL) for Enhancing Germination under High Temperature Condition in Lettuce Seeds

  • Kang, Won Sik;Kim, Min Geun;Kim, Du Hyun
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.86-86
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    • 2018
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of modified drum priming and 24-Epibrassinolide (24-EBL) treatment to improve the seed quality for export. 40, 50 and 60% seed moisture content (SMC) of hydrated seeds were incubated for 16 and 24 h in a container with a relative humidity of 99% at 26 rpm for a modified drum priming treatment. The treated seeds were sown at $20^{\circ}C$ and $30^{\circ}C$ (12/12h, light/dark) with four replications of 25 seeds on pleated paper. The seeds were hydrated with water or 24-EBL solutions of $10^{-7}$, $10^{-8}$ and $10^{-9}M$, respectively. The germination of the modified drum primed seeds (24 h incubation after 60% SMC hydration) improved to 1.6 days mean germination time (MGT) and $46%{\cdot}day^{-1}$ germination rate (GR), while the untreated seeds showed 2.1 days MGT and $28%{\cdot}day^{-1}$ GR. The modified drum priming (60% SMC and 24 h incubation with $10^{-9}M$ 24-EBL) showed improved results in MGT (1.8 days) and GR (55%) at $20^{\circ}C$, whereas untreated seeds showed 2.3 days MGT and 44% GR. Under $30^{\circ}C$, germination of modified drum primed seeds was significantly improved in GP (80%), GR ($31%{\cdot}day^{-1}$), HS (55%) and MGT (3.3 days), however, untreated seeds showed decreased GP (27%), GR ($22%{\cdot}day^{-1}$), HS (55%) and MGT (4.8 days). This study showed that the germination of lettuce seeds is enhanced by 24 h drum incubation with 24-EBL and this method can be used effectively to achieve the benefits of early germination and uniform seedling development. In addition, these treatments circumvent thermo-dormancy of lettuce seed and have a possibility of high-quality and environment-friendly seed processing.

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Effect of Salt Accumulation on the Germination and Growth of Lettuce(Lactuca Sativa, L.) (염류집적(鹽類集積)이 상추의 발아(發芽) 및 생육(生育)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kang, Bo-Goo;Jeong, In-Myeong;Min, Kyeong-Beom;Kim, Jai-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.360-364
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    • 1996
  • Study on germination ratio and growth of lettuce affected by accumulated salt in vinyl house cultivation soils was investigated by pot test with EC 1.65. 3.50, 5.75. 7.15. 9.50 and 13.57 dS/m. (Germination rate of lettuce in different electric conductivity of 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 dS/m controlled with KCl were 96.7, 96.7, 87.8, 82.2, 52.2, and 27.8 % respectively. Standing ratio of lettuce in soil below 6 dS/m was more than 60% and in soils of 7.15, 9.50 and 13.57 dS/m they were 45, 32 and 31%, respectively. Growth and fresh weight of lettuces increased significantly in a low EC content soil. The fresh weight of lettuces in the soil of EC 3.50 dS/m was higher than that of the soil EC 1.65 dS/m by 22%, while another soils(EC: 5.75, 7.15, 9.50 and 13.57 dS/m) were decreased 3, 15, 60 and 62%, respectively. Relationship between soil EC and standing ratio of lettuce showed high correlation coefficient($r=-0.9057^{**}$). Therefore, in the field of vinyl houses concentrated salt, standing ratio of lettuce can be foreseen by soil EC [Y = -4.313x+ 82.95 (Y:standing ratio, x:soil EC)], also standing ratio and fresh weight of lettuce showed high correlation coefficient($r=0.8396^{**}$).

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