• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lettuce

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Analysis of the Microbiota on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Cultivated in South Korea to Identify Foodborne Pathogens

  • Yu, Yeon-Cheol;Yum, Su-Jin;Jeon, Da-Young;Jeong, Hee-Gon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.1318-1331
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    • 2018
  • Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is a major ingredient used in many food recipes in South Korea. Lettuce samples were collected during their maximum production period between April and July in order to investigate the microbiota of lettuce during different seasons. 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing was conducted using Illumina MiSeq, and real-time PCR was performed for quantification. The number of total bacterial was greater in lettuce collected in July than in that collected in April, albeit with reduced diversity. The bacterial compositions varied according to the site and season of sample collection. Potential pathogenic species such as Bacillus spp., Enterococcus casseliflavus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed season-specific differences. Results of the network co-occurrence analysis with core genera correlations showed characteristics of bacterial species in lettuce, and provided clues regarding the role of different microbes, including potential pathogens, in this microbiota. Although further studies are needed to determine the specific effects of regional and seasonal characteristics on the lettuce microbiota, our results imply that the 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing approach can be used to detect pathogenic bacteria in lettuce.

Evaluation of Environmental Toxicities for Priority Water Pollutants in a Small Watershed by Bioassays - Comparision between Lettuce Seed Germination Test and Microtox Bioassay - (생물학적 검정법을 이용한 소규모 수계내 수질 오염물질의 환경독성 평가 -상추씨 발아시험과 Microtox 시험 비교-)

  • 이지나;황인영
    • Environmental Analysis Health and Toxicology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.135-144
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    • 1999
  • Environmental toxicities of priority water pollutants were evaluated by two selected bioassays, Lettuce seed germination/elongation test and Microtox acute toxicity test. Toxic chemicals (heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and phenolic compounds) inhibited the germination rate and root elongation of Lettuce seed, as well as the bioluminescence of Microtox bacteria. When test biota were exposed to target chemicals, the sensitivity of Lettuce bioassay was relatively lower than that of Microtox bioassay. However, Lettuce bioassay may be a good candidate for prescreening the environmental toxicities of priority water pollutants, since the testing method with Lettuce seed was relatively easier and more economic than with Microtox bacteria. Toxicity tests were conducted to compare the validity and sensitivity of both bioassays for sediment from a small stream passed through urban area as well as leachate from a municipal solid waste landfill. From experimental results, we found that Lettuce test and Microtox test are compensated each other as a battery of bioassay for evaluating the environmental toxicities of field samples obtained from a small stream contaminated by pollutants.

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Development of Automatic Lettuce Harvesting System for Plant Factory (식물 공장용 자동 상추 수확 시스템 개발)

  • 조성인;류관희;신동준;장성주
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.629-634
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    • 1998
  • Factory-style plant production system aims to produce the standardized horticultural products with high quality and cleanness. In Korea, researches for year-round leaf vegetables production system are in progress and the most of them are focused on environment control. Automating technologies for harvesting, transporting and grading need to be developed. A lettuce harvesting system applicable to the plant factory was studied. It was composed of an articulated robot with a cutter and a gripper, lettuce feeding conveyor and air blower. Success rate of the developed system was 94.7 %. The system carried out harvesting a lettuce smoothly and the harvesting time was about 6 seconds per lettuce. The results showed a feasibility of robotic lettuce harvesting.

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Antioxidant Potential and Chlorogenic Acid Level of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) Cultivars

  • Chon Sang-Uk
    • Plant Resources
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.103-109
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    • 2005
  • Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is known to contain water-soluble substances that improve antioxidant status due to the richness in antioxidants. Greenhouse experiment was carried out under different shading conditions during spring lettuce growing season. Shade significantly reduced shoot weight, number of leaves and chlorophyll content, while it increased shoot length of lettuce plants. The antioxidant potential of the individual fraction was in order of n-butanol > ethyl acetate > water > n-hexane fraction, although was less than that of commonly used antioxidants, BHT and ascorbic acid. Fractions from lettuce plants dose-dependently increased DPPH free radical scavenging activity, in vitro test. By means of HPLC analysis, BuOH fraction of cultivar 'Hwahyang' (57.93 mg $100g^{-1}$) had the highest amount of antioxidant chi orogenic acid. Shading treatment increased average amount of chlorogenic acid of all cultivars in BuoH, EtOAc, hexane and water fractions by 33, 120, 144, and $58\%$, respectively. These results suggest that lettuce plants had potent antioxidant activity, and their activities were differently exhibited depending on cultivar and fraction.

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Phytoplasma-associated Shoot Proliferation and Leaf Yellowing in Lettuce

  • Chung, Bong-Nam;Kim, Jeong-Soo;Cheong, Seung-Ryong
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.151-154
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    • 2007
  • Phytoplasma was identified from leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa) cultivated in commercial green-house in Korea. Diseased leaf lettuce revealed proliferation of shoots, and yellowing and shrinking of leaves (lettuce proliferation-K). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal primer pair P1/P6, and aster yellows (AY) specific primer pair R16F1/R1 amplified 1.5kb and 1.1kb length of DNA fragments, respectively. Nucleotide sequences of 16S rRNA gene were determined (Gen Bank accession no EF489024). Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rDNA showed the closest relationship with AY phytoplasma (GenBank accession no. AY389822 and AY389826), indicating that lettuce proliferation-K is a member of AY. Phytoplasma bodies were detected in phloem sieve tubes of diseased lettuce by transmission electron microscopy. The structures had round or pleomorphic shapes with a diameter of 130-300nm. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene, microscopic observation of phytoplasma bodies and symptomatology indicated that lettuce proliferation-K is caused by phytoplasma in the AY group. This is the first report of phytoplasma disease in lettuce in Korea.

A Study on the Effect of Fertilization Conditions within the Contents of Several Essential Elements in Lettuce (상치의 시비조건에 따른 상치내 몇 가지 필수 무기원소들의 함량에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, O-Dal;Lee, Jin-Hi;Choi, Soon-Nam;Shin, Young-Mi;Chung, Keun-Hi
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.163-167
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    • 1999
  • To study the effects of chemical and organic fertilizer within the contents of essential elements in the lettuce, in the absence or presence of wood extraction, an experiment was conducted for a period of 10 weeks. The results obtained from the experiment are summarized as follows: 1. The iron contents in the lettuce grown in the chemical fertilized group, were different from those in the organic fertilized group, when the wood extraction was treated. The iron contents in the lettuce increased, due to the wood vinegar treatments, but the modes and degrees were not consistent the various kinds of lettuce. 2. Calcium contents in the lettuce were also increased by wood vinegar treatments, but the modes and degrees were not consistent with the various kinds of lettuce. On the other hand, the Calcium contents in the lettuce grown in the organic fertilized group were reduced by the wood vinegar treatments. 3. The mineral contents within other elements(Manganese, Copper, Zinc) in lettuce, is not variable according to the treatments, or the species of the lettuce.

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Elimination of Harmful Heavy Metals from Sea Lettuce Enteromorpha sp. with Acid Treatment (산 처리에 의한 파래(Enteromorpha sp.)의 유해 중금속 제거)

  • Mok, Jong Soo;Son, Kwang Tae;Lee, Tae Seek;Kwon, Ji Young;Park, Kunbawui;Kim, Ji Hoe
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2017
  • The elimination of harmful heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) from sea lettuce Enteromorpha sp. was evaluated in filtered seawater over a pH range of 2.0-4.0 using citric, hydrochloric, and nitric acids. We also evaluated the quality of sea lettuce samples after release of their internal constituents into seawater solutions containing acids. The heavy metals that accumulated in raw sea lettuce after incubation for 3 days in seawater containing Cd, Cr, and Pb were, in descending order, Pb ($120.45{\mu}g/g$), Cr ($86.04{\mu}g/g$), and Cd ($18.35{\mu}g/g$). The rate of elimination of heavy metals from sea lettuce was higher at lower pH for all of the acids used. However, the color of the sea lettuce changed adversely at below pH 2.5. The heavy metals in sea lettuce samples after 10 min in seawater at pH 3.0 containing the three acids were eliminated in the order Pb (42.2-78.0%), Cd (51.8-55.3%), and Cr (14.0-32.8%). The quality of the sea lettuce was not affected when it was incubated for 30 min at pH above 3.0. The maximum elimination of heavy metals from sea lettuce occurred when it was soaked for 10 min in seawater at pH 3.0 containing citric acid.

Shelf-Life Extension of Fresh-Cut Iceberg Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L) by Different Antimicrobial Films

  • Kang, Sun-Chul;Kim, Min-Jeong;Choi, Ung-Kyu
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.8
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    • pp.1284-1290
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to investigate the antibacterial activity and shelf-life extension effect of iceberg lettuce packed in BN/PE film. The BN/PE film has a strong microbial suppression effect on pathogenic bacteria such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteritidis, and S. typhimurium. The number of psychrophiles and mesophiles during 5 days of cold storage of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce at $10^{\circ}C$ packaged in BN/PE film was strictly suppressed in comparison with other tested films (OPP, PE, and PET film). When fresh processed iceberg lettuce was processed and stored under the current conditions, the shelf-life of the product was longer than 5 days in the BN/PE film package, whereas the shelf-life when using the other films tested, PE, OPP and PET, was no longer than 3-4 days. The decay rates of the iceberg lettuce packed in the BN/PE film was maintained at $29.8{\pm}2.1%$ on the 5th day of preservation. The samples packed in BN/PE film maintained an excellent visual quality during the 3 days of storage without significant differences in comparison with the initial visual quality. No browning was observed in the samples packed in BN/PE film for up to 3 days. The texture of shredded iceberg lettuce packaged in BN/PE film remained unchanged up to 3 days, and then a moderate decrease in texture was observed after 4 days of storage. In addition, the overall acceptability of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce packaged in BN/PE film did not change for up to 3 days, whereas the samples packaged in the other films were inedible by 3 days of storage. In conclusion, the shelf-life of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce packaged in the BN/PE film was extended to more than 5 days at $10^{\circ}C$, whereas that in the other films was 2 days at $10^{\circ}C$. Therefore, the shelf-life extension effect of the fresh-cut iceberg lettuce in BN/PE film packaging was very effective compared with the other films tested.

Effects of Storage Temperature and Packaging Treatment on the Quality of Leaf Lettuce (상추 저장에 미치는 온도, 포장재료 및 유공 필름 영향)

  • Lee Jung-Soo;Chung Dae-Sung;Choi Ji-Weon;Jo Mi-Ae;Lee Youn-Suk;Chun Chang-Hoo
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.8-12
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    • 2006
  • The effects of packaging treatments with either low density polyethylene (LDPE) or polypropylene (PP) films on the quality of leaf lettuce were evaluated. It was also stored within a plastic bag (LDPE and PP films) with 4 pelf orated holes (6mm diameter). Changes in weight loss, color difference, anthocyanin, chlorophyll, water content, and general appearance (shape of lettuce) ware investigated Total weight of leaf lettuce packaged within non-pelf orated films decreased slowly over the storage periods at 5 and $20^{\circ}C$. The weight loss of leaf lettuce showed no significant difference between non-pelf orated and perforated films at $20^{\circ}C$. General appearance in leaf lettuce stored at $20^{\circ}C$ was not significantly affected by packaging treatments with LDPE and PP films. The shelf life of non-packaged leaf lettuce at $5^{\circ}C$ was 8 days, whereas packaging treatments with LDPE and PP films showed freshness in leaf lettuce for 30 days of storage. Total chlorophyll and water contents of leaf lettuce packaged within pelf orated and non-pelf orated films decreased gradually during storage. However, no remarkable changes in color difference, levels of chlorophyll and anthocyanin, and water contents were observed in leaf lettuce packaged within perforated and non-pelf orated films. In this experiment, leaf lettuce packaged within LDPE or PP films without any punching holes at $5^{\circ}C$ was the most desirable for extending the quality. These results suggest that non-pelf orated packaging treatment in combination with low storage temperature could be effective in prolonging the shelf life of leaf lettuce

Strategies to Increase Domestic Lettuce Circulations through Improving Valuable End-User Traits (고부가가치 맞춤형 상추품종 개발을 통한 국내 상추유통 제고 전략)

  • Kim, Tae-Sung;Jang, Young-Hee;Hwang, Hee-Joong
    • Journal of Distribution Science
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2018
  • Purpose - Lettuce (Lactuca sativ L.) is one of the economically important vegetable crops, which worldwide market value is over 100 billion U.S. dollar. In Korea, about 89.7 kilo ton of lettuce was produced in 3400ha in 2016, recoded as No. 1 vegetable crop in domestic green house production. However, recently, domestic lettuce production and cultivation areas are all getting decreased. Thus, novel approaches are needed to be implemented to revive the production. Research design, data and methodology - In this review paper, we first prioritized the end-user traits which are imperative to positively stimulate the domestic lettuce market and discussed relevant genomics strategies. Especially, we assessed a possibility whether school meal program would be a potential niche market. Results - The genomics technologies, which become widely applied in the crop biotechnology since 2008 when next generation sequencing method was developed, may be a good solution in the crop improvement, efficiently gathering valuable information of agriculturally useful traits. Significantly, in lettuce, the high quality whole genome sequence, based on Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas, is publically available and this genomics platform, thus, would be implemented in lettuce breeding program to innovate relevant end-user traits both for the farmers and customers, including the disease resistance to the Fusarium wilt, productivity under hot weather conditions, various nutritional qualities and so forth. These improvements will boost domestic lettuce industries in the near future. Conclusions - Due to the nutritional distinctions comparing to the western style lettuces, domestic leaf lettuces could be one of the important vegetables in the school meal programs. To make it happen, we would better devise diverse recipes to make a salad with it, instead of only using as a wrap vegetable. Meanwhile, novel lettuce varieties need to be developed, which are favorable to the students and also easy to be handled with while processing. Overall, to achieve international competence in the lettuce industries, we need to create elite lettuce varieties that satisfies domestic farmers as well as customers, suitable to various niche markets, such as school meal program. Thus, efficient breeding programs using genomics approaches should be established in advance and careful monitoring on the preference of the related customers for a niche market be continued persistently.