• Title, Summary, Keyword: Leptalina unicolor

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Behavioral Characteristics of Leptalina unicolor (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae) and Conservation Methods for their Habitat (은줄팔랑나비(나비목: 팔랑나비과) 성충의 행동특성과 서식지 보전방안)

  • Hong, Sung-Jin;Kim, Hyoung-Gon;Yoon, Chun-Sik;Cheong, Seon-Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.809-818
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    • 2020
  • To conserve the population of a hesperiid butterfly, Leptalina unicolor, inhabiting the protected areas of Jaeyaksan, we provide ecological information on their behavior and propose habitat conservation measures, such as the creation of alternative habitats based on comprehensive information. The behavioral study used a method of re-capture after releasing the butterfly with enamel marks on the wings. Adult behaviors were shown in four patterns: flying, settling on a plant, nectar absorption, and water absorption. Both males and females had the highest proportion of flight movement overall; however, males had a slightly higher proportion of flight movement. As for duration, females spent more time settling on plants to select spawning sites, and males seemed to take a longer time for water absorption activities, to absorb minerals needed to form the spermatophore. The average travel distance of butterflies was 27.5 m for females and 46.7 m for males, with daily activity ranges from 11.2 m to 43.8 m, and 21.4 to 57.6 m, respectively. The most important condition to preserve the habitat of Leptalina unicolor is to maintain the community of Miscanthus sinensis, a food plant. Additionally, because this butterfly has a high rate of water absorption activities, wetlands should be maintained.

Distribution Characteristics in the Habitat of Leptalina unicolor Population (은줄팔랑나비 개체군의 서식지 내 분포특성)

  • Hong, Sung-Jin;Yoon, Chun-Sik;Cheong, Seon-Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.28 no.12
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    • pp.1123-1131
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    • 2019
  • In this study, we investigated the spatial range, distribution pattern, temporal appearance, sex ratio, seasonal pattern, and size of the population of Leptalina unicolor locally inhabiting the wetland protection area in the Jaeyaksan Mountain. We found that the butterfly was distributed across four areas at 750 m above sea level and in an area of 96,000 ㎡. in the southeastern slope of the mountain. The discontinuous distribution of the butterflies in the meadow. According to our survey conducted from 2012 to 2014, L. unicolor occurred in May (spring) and July (summer) each year, with the male population more than three times higher than that of the female population. The population size estimated using the mark and recapture method on the back of the hind wing in the two years was as follows: 877±502 and 1243±800 individuals in the spring and summer of 2012, respectively, and 783±429 and 506±365 individuals in the spring and summer of 2014, respectively, suggesting no specific seasonal pattern. The findings of this study are expected to be useful for the conservation of the populations and habitats of L. unicolor, which are currently distributed locally due to a decrease in population size.

Life Cycle and Breeding Information of Leptalina unicolor from Korea (Lepidoptera : Hesperiidae) (한국산 은줄팔랑나비(Leptalina unicolor : Hesperiidae)의 생활환과 사육정보)

  • Hong, Sung-Jin;Yoon, Chun-Sik;Kim, Hyoung-Gon;Cheong, Seon-Woo
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.25 no.12
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    • pp.1633-1641
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    • 2016
  • Leptalina unicolor is a hesperiid butterfly with a restricted distribution in Korea, Japan, China, and Russia. Recently, the number of individuals is rapidly decreased in their natural habitat. This skipper has been classified as an endangered species in the 'Red Data Book', and according to an IUCN report, is under threat of extinction. Therefore, the conservation and restoration of this species both locally and globally are urgently needed. A population of L. unicolor was found in an unknown habitat in Jaeyaksan, Miryang, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea in 2011, and these individuals were used in the present study. Here, the life cycle, characteristics of each instar larva and breeding information were determined by breeding L. unicolor in the laboratory from 2012 to 2015. The results indicated that L. unicolor occurs twice a year and over-winter as a fifth instar larva. A spring-form female individual laid $17.25{\pm}5.52eggs$, and summer form laid $29.00{\pm}5.86eggs$; it takes $53.79{\pm}0.73days$ for L. unicolor to develop from eggs to adults. After spawning, the eggs developed in $6.16{\pm}0.18days$, and larvae developed in $33.71{\pm}0.58days$; the pre-pupal stage to emergence required $14.22{\pm}0.31days$. Based on these results, we presented effective breeding information for the restoration and proliferation of the species. Several candidate plants species have been reported in the literature as a food source for L. unicolor, but we found that the preferred diet this butterfly was Miscanthus sinensis. The larvae could move easily when their preferred diet was planted in ${\geq}80%$ the cage floor area Year-round breeding was achieved by placing overwintering individuals in low temperatures in autumn. To our knowledge, this is the first study to the biology of L. unicolor in Korea, and the results of this study could be used as preliminary information for the conservation and restoration of this species in its natural habitat.

Influence of plant on distribution of an endangered butterfly, Leptalina unicolor (Bremer & Grey, 1853), in restored riverside areas along the Geum River

  • Choi, Jong-Yun;Kim, Seong-Ki;Back, You-Hyune;Jeon, Ju-A;Kim, Jeong-Cheol;Yun, Jong-Hak
    • Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.314-319
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    • 2019
  • Background: The dramatic worldwide decline in the butterfly species Leptalina unicolor (Bremer & Grey) is largely the result of continuous habitat decline and disturbance by humans. The discovery of a narrow habitat in riverside wetlands utilized by L. unicolor raises the hope that such restricted key areas could be rather easily protected. Results: Here, we explain the environmental variables and habitat characteristics that primarily influence the distribution of L. unicolor discovered at the riverside areas along the Geum River. L. unicolor larvae were found at 9 of 13 study sites, and their abundance was strongly positively correlated with plant biomass. Our investigation showed that among four plant species (Miscanthus sinensis, Spodiopogon cotulifer, Setaria viridis, and Imperata cylindrica), L. unicolor larvae were the most abundant on the leaves of M. sinensis. They were not abundant on the leaves of S. cotulifer, S. viridis, or I. cylindrica. Interestingly, the number of L. unicolor larvae was positively correlated with the coverage area ($m^2$) of M. sinensis (F = 41.7, $r^2=0.74$, P < 0.0001). Conclusions: It appears that water (e.g., wetlands, ponds, and watersides) located along the riverside areas along the Geum River is important for the constant maintenance and conservation of L. unicolor. This is based on the habitat characteristics (water preference) of M. sinensis, which is used as a habitat by L. unicolor larvae. However, the waterside is dry and terrestrialization is in progress owing to the decreased water levels and water supply caused by an opened weir. Hereafter, this area will likely require management to secure a stable habitat for L. unicolor.

Efficient Conservation and Management of Waterside Parks by Promoting Ecology Awareness of Visitors (이용객 생태 인식 증진을 통한 수변공원의 효율적인 보전 및 관리)

  • Choi, Jong Yun;Kim, Seong-Ki;Kim, Jeong-Cheol;Yun, Hak Jong
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.237-251
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    • 2019
  • This study evaluated the ecological value of waterside parks by investigating the animal distribution and ecological feature in 92 waterside parks and analyzed the change of ecological awareness by users and non-users of waterside parks through ecological education and promotion based on the investigation results. The result confirmed inhabitation of various animals including 9 endangered species (Pernis ptilorhynchus orientalis, Accipiter soloensis, Falco subbuteo, Charadrius placidus, Felis bengalensis euptilura, Lutra lutra, Kaloula borealis, Polyphylla laticollis manchurica, and Leptalina unicolor) in waterside parks. Although waterside parks were constructed to be hydrophilic areas for human use, some of them with high natural characteristics are valued as biological habitat. We investigated user status in 5 areas (Daejeon, Sejong, Cheongju, Kongju, and Buyeo) located at Guem river basin to evaluate people's perception of waterside parks and carried out the ecological education and promotion based on the investigation result. The survey of 200 people showed that there were more users of waterside parks than non-users and that people in their 40's showed the highest use rate. The use frequency of waterside parks located in Daejeon and Cheongju was lower than in other areas (Sejong, Kongju, and Buyeo). We considered it was because Daejeon and Cheongju were urban areas and had relatively more leisure areas such as sports facilities and cafe than other areas, and thus the residents had a lower reliance on waterside parks. Moreover, users used waterside parks more frequently when they were nearer to users' residence. It is because most users perceived waterside parks as the leisure sports facility and thus preferred them to be within walking distance. The users' perception of waterside parks as the ecological space "to be preserved" increased after the ecological education and promotion. The change of the perception was higher among users (80%) than non-users (38%). Therefore, ecological education and promotion were potentially more effective to people who user waterside parks and thus had a higher understanding of the characteristics and specification. In conclusion, 1) although waterside parks were constructed for human use, some parts had high ecological value for the distribution of endangered species and outstanding natural beauty, and 2) it is necessary to change the perception of waterside parks from the hydrophilic attribute to the conservation attribute. Such change of perception would contribute to establishing waterside parks that feature both hydrophilic and conservation attributes in the management or upgrading plan of waterside parks in the future.