• Title, Summary, Keyword: Laying Hens

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Analysis of excreta bacterial community after forced molting in aged laying hens

  • Han, Gi Ppeum;Lee, Kyu-Chan;Kang, Hwan Ku;Oh, Han Na;Sul, Woo Jun;Kil, Dong Yong
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.11
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    • pp.1715-1724
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    • 2019
  • Objective: As laying hens become aged, laying performance and egg quality are generally impaired. One of the practical methods to rejuvenate production and egg quality of aged laying hens with decreasing productivity is a forced molting. However, the changes in intestinal microbiota after forced molting of aged hens are not clearly known. The aim of the present study was to analyze the changes in excreta bacterial communities after forced molting of aged laying hens. Methods: A total of one hundred 66-wk-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were induced to molt by a 2-d water removal and an 11-d fasting until egg production completely ceased. The excreta samples of 16 hens with similar body weight were collected before and immediately after molting. Excreta bacterial communities were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. Results: Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria were the three major bacterial phyla in pre-molting and immediate post-molting hens, accounting for more than 98.0%. Lactobacillus genus had relatively high abundance in both group, but decreased by molting (62.3% in premolting and 24.9% in post-molting hens). Moreover, pathogenic bacteria such as Enterococcus cecorum and Escherichia coli were more abundant in immediate post-molting hens than in pre-molting hens. Forced molting influenced the alpha diversity, with higher Chao1 (p = 0.012), phylogenetic diversity whole tree (p = 0.014), observed operational taxonomic unit indices (p = 0.006), and Simpson indices (p<0.001), which indicated that forced molting increased excreta bacterial richness of aged laying hens. Conclusion: This study improves the current knowledge of bacterial community alterations in the excreta by forced molting in aged laying hens, which can provide increasing opportunity to develop novel dietary and management skills for improving the gastrointestinal health of aged laying hens after molting.

Comparison of energy and nutrient utilization in the aged laying hens with different eggshell strengths or different intensities of brown eggshell color

  • Kim, Jong Hyuk;Han, Gi Ppeum;Kang, Hwan Ku;Kil, Dong Yong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.569-577
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    • 2019
  • The current experiment was conducted to compare nutrient utilization in the aged laying hens with different eggshell strengths or different intensities of brown eggshell color. Two metabolic trials with 96-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were conducted. Twelve hens with a strong eggshell strength (SES) and 12 hens with a weak eggshell strength (WES) were selected and used in the first experiment, whereas 12 hens with dark brown eggshells (DBE) and 12 hens with light brown eggshells (LBE) were selected and used in the second experiment. All hens were fed a common commercial layer diet. Diets included chromic oxide as an indigestible marker to determine the apparent total tract retention (ATTR) of the gross energy (GE), dry matter, acid-hydrolyzed ether extract, nitrogen, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, ash, and minerals. The results indicate that the ATTR of Ca in the aged laying hens with SES (59.7%) was greater (p < 0.05) than in the aged laying hens with WES (48.6%). However, the ATTR of the GE and other nutrients was not different between the hens with SES or WES. There were no differences in the ATTR of GE and nutrients between the hens with DBE or LBE. In conclusion, aged laying hens with SES have a greater ability to utilize dietary Ca than those with WES, indicating that the extent of dietary Ca utilization determines the eggshell strength of aged laying hens. However, nutrient utilization in diets may have little impact on eggshell brown coloration in aged laying hens.

Effects of Octacosanol Extracted from Rice Bran on the Laying Performance, Egg Quality and Blood Metabolites of Laying Hens

  • Peng, Kai;Long, Lei;Wang, Yuxi;Wang, Shunxi
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.10
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    • pp.1458-1463
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    • 2016
  • A 42-d study with 384 Hy-line brown laying hens was conducted to assess the effects of dietary octacosanol supplementation on laying performance, egg quality and blood metabolites of laying hens. Hens were randomly allocated into 4 dietary groups of 8 cages each, which were fed basal diet supplemented with 0 (Control), 9 (OCT9), 18 (OCT18), and 27 (OCT27) mg/kg diet of octacosanol isolated from rice bran, respectively. The experiment was conducted in an environmental controlled house and hens were fed twice daily for ad libitum intake. Laying performance was determined over the 42-d period, and egg quality as well as blood metabolites were estimated on d 21 and d 42. Diets in OCT18 and OCT27 increased (p<0.05) laying rate, egg weight, egg mass, egg albumen height, Haugh unit and eggshell strength on d 42, but decreased (p<0.05) feed conversion rate and levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in the serum as compared to those of Control. Feed intake, yolk color, yolk diameter, eggshell thickness and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Results demonstrate that supplementing 18 to 27 mg/kg diet of rice bran octacosanol can improve laying rate and egg quality and reduce blood lipid of laying hens.

Effects of Dietary Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Antibody Production and Lymphocyte Proliferation of Laying Hens

  • Xia, Z.G.;Guo, Y.M.;Chen, S.Y.;Yuan, J.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.9
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    • pp.1320-1325
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of present study was to assess the effect of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) on the immune responses of laying hens. Three hundred and sixty hens at the age of 60 weeks were randomly assigned to ten diets, which contained no oil (CK), 1%, 3%, 5% fish oil (FO); 2%, 4%, 6% linseed oil (LO) and 2%, 4%, 6% corn oil (CO). After 5 weeks of feeding experimental diets, humoral and cellular immune responses were assayed. Laying hens were injected with Sheep Red Blood Cell (SRBC) and Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and antibody titers, which were measured on d6, d10, d14 after primary challenge and on d5, d9, d13 after secondary challenge. Concanavalin (ConA) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) -stimulated proliferation of peripheral blood and spleen lymphocytes were assessed by [$^3$H] thymidine incorporation at the week age of 5 and 10, respectively. The results showed that antibody titers in FO-fed and LO-fed laying hens were higher than that in laying hens fed CO. The proliferation response to ConA was lower in laying hens that fed oils rich in n-3 fatty acids than that in laying hens fed CO. Higher level n-3 fatty acids can improve immune functions of laying hens. In conclusion, dietary fat source and level had a significant impact on immune responses of laying hens.

Effect of Dietary Phytase Transgenic Corn on Physiological Characteristics and the Fate of Recombinant Plant DNA in Laying Hens

  • Gao, Chunqi;Ma, Qiugang;Zhao, Lihong;Zhang, Jianyun;Ji, Cheng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2014
  • The study aimed to evaluate the potential effects of feeding with phytase transgenic corn (PTC) on organ weight, serum biochemical parameters and nutrient digestibility, and to determine the fate of the transgenic DNA in laying hens. A total of 144 50-week-old laying hens were grouped randomly into 2 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 9 hens per replicate. Each treatment group of hens was fed with diets containing 62.4% non-transgenic conventional corn (CC) or PTC for 16 weeks. The phytase activity for CC was 37 FTU/kg of DM, whereas the phytase activity for PTC was 8,980 FTU/kg of DM. We observed that feeding PTC to laying hens had no adverse effect on organ weight or serum biochemical parameters (p>0.05). A fragment of a poultry-specific ovalbumin gene (ov) was amplified from all tissues of hens showing that the DNA preparations were amenable to PCR amplification. Neither the corn-specific invertase gene (ivr) nor the transgenic phyA2 gene was detected in the breast muscle, leg muscle, ovary, oviduct and eggs. The digestibility data revealed no significant differences between the hens that received the CC- and PTC-based diets in the digestibility of DM, energy, nitrogen and calcium (p>0.05). Phosphorus digestibility of hens fed the PTC-based diet was greater than that of hens fed the CC-based diet (58.03% vs 47.42%, p<0.01). Based on these results, it was concluded that the PTC had no deleterious effects on the organ weight or serum biochemical parameters of the laying hens. No recombinant phyA2 gene was detected in muscle tissues and reproductive organs of laying hens. The novel plant phytase was efficacious in improving the phosphorus digestibility of laying hens.

Effects of Sound Stimulation on Growth Performance, Feeding Behaviour and Egg Production in Egg-type Chickens (산란계에 있어서 육성기의 소리자극이 육성성적, 섭취행동 및 산란율에 미치는 영향)

  • 이용준;송영한
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.91-96
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to determine the effect of sound stimulation on growth performance, feeding behaviour and egg production of laying hens. A total of 180 laying hens(4 weeks old) were alloted to 18 cages with 10hens per cage and 6 cages per treatment. Laying hens were exposed to three sounds: control, Leq 50dB and Leq 75dB. The growth performance was measured fro m4 weeks to 17 weeks of age, feeding behaviour was observed at 5weeks, 7weeks, 10weeks and 50 weeks of age using data from real-time videotapes, while eg production was recorded from 20 weeks to 50 weeks of age. Growth performance was improved in the sound stimulated laying hens from 12 weeks to 17 weeks of age. In the 50dB simulated laying hens spent more longer time for feeding than others during the experimental period. Egg production of 50dB stimulated laying hens from 20 weeks to 50 weeks was higher than others, however 75dB stimulated laying hens were significantly lower than 50dB stimulated hens(P<0.05). The results indicated that the growth and egg production of egg type chicken can be influenced by sound stimulation through physiological rhythm.

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A Review of Laying Hens' Behavior (산란계의 행동에 대한 고찰)

  • Cheon, Si-Nae;Lee, Jun-Yeob;Choi, Hee-Chul;Jeon, Jung-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.169-180
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    • 2015
  • Domestic fowl still tend to exhibit very similar behavior such as perching, nesting and dust-bathing to their ancestor, Red Jungle Fowl (Gallus gallus), even though they have been domesticated for 8,000 years. If given the opportunity, they choose high place for staying at night, a dark place for laying eggs and do dust bath in litter area. Therefore, these behaviors are considered for very important role in improving the welfare of laying hens. In EU and some countries, farmers must provide perches, nests and litter for the housing of laying hens. An understanding of behavior can lead to enhance physical health, emotional condition and welfare of laying hens. Unfortunately, there is little information on behavior of laying hens in Korea. Therefore, we researched the literature on certain behavior of laying hens.

Effects of Phytase Supplementation on Nutrient Balance and Production of Laying Hens (Phytase 첨가가 산란계의 체내 영양소 균형 및 생산성에 미치는 효과)

  • 홍종옥;김인호;김은주;권오석;이상환
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of adding phytase on nutrient availability and serum Ca and P level and to determine the effects of phytase on laying performance and egg quality in laying hens. In Exp. 1, twenty four laying hens(1.9kg average body weight and 78.4% egg production) were allotted to four treatments. Treatments included 1) corn-soybean meal based-control diet and 2), 3) and 4) control diet with phytase 200, 400 and 600 unit/kg, respectively. There were no significant effects of treatments on dry matter and nitrogen digestibility(P〉0.05). Ash, Ca and P digestibility in layer fed diet with phytase were greater than those in layer fed control diet(P〈0.05). Laying hens fed diets with phytase 200 and 400 unit retained more Ca than those fed other treatments (P〈0.05). No statistical difference was found for Ca exsretion(P〉0.05). P retention was greater for laying hens fed diet phytase 600 unit than other treaments(P〈0.05). P level in serum was higher for laying hens fed diets with phytase 400 and 600 unit than for laying hens fed other treatments. In Exp. 2, three hundred, IAS Brown layer, 40-week-old, divided into two treatment groups(control vs phytase supplementation without inorganic phosphate in the diets) with five replications per treatment and 30 layers per replication were fed the diets for 6 weeks. Egg production, egg weight and eggshell breaking strength and thickness were not different significantly(P〉0.05). In conclusion, phytase supplementation can be used to increase P utilization and retention in laying hens. Also, phytase supplementation was effective to spare inorganic phosphate in laying hen diets without any adverse effects on production performances.

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General Behaviors and Perching Behaviors of Laying Hens in Cages with Different Colored Perches

  • Chen, D.H.;Bao, J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.717-724
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    • 2012
  • Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was shown by the caged laying hens in the different group sizes tested in this study.

Effect and Mechanism of Glutamine on Productive Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens

  • Dong, Xiao-Ying;Yang, Chu-Fen;Tang, Sheng-Qiu;Jiang, Qing-Yan;Zou, Xiao-Ting
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.8
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    • pp.1049-1056
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary glutamine (Gln) on the productive performance and egg quality of laying hens. A total of four hundred Lingnan Yellow laying hens aged 34 weeks were randomly assigned into four groups (100 laying hens/group), and fed, respectively, with diets supplemented with 0% (control group), 0.2%, 0.4%, and 0.8% Gln during the 6-week feeding period. The results were as follows. First, the productivity of laying hens fed with 0.8% Gln in diet was significantly increased (p<0.05); however, the egg quality (egg weight, yolk weight, shell weight, egg shape index, shell thickness, shell density, shell breaking strength, yolk color, yolk index, and Haugh unit) was not affected compared with that of the control group (p>0.05). Second, luteinizing hormone (LH) (p<0.01), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) (p<0.01), triiodothyronine ($T_3$), and tetraiodothyronine ($T_4$) contents (p<0.05) in blood of laying hens fed with 0.8% Gln in diets were also significantly improved, and greater improvement in the duodenum and oviduct structure was observed in that treatment group. This study indicated for the first time that diets with 0.8% Gln were able to increase the productive performance of laying hens through stimulating hormone secretion and better development of both the duodenum and oviduct structure in laying hens.