The effects of microbial phutase on laying performance and phosphorus utilization were examined at different levels of dietary nonphosphorus(NPP) in 320 23-week-old Hy-line brown hens for 12weeks. Diets were formulated 0.275%(T1), 0.220%(T2), 0.165%(T3) of NPP levels, and supplemental microbial phytase was 300DPU/kg diet constantly. Conventional diet(C) was formulated 0.275% NPP level without microbial phytase. Egg production and egg mass were higher in T2 than the others (p<0.05), and average egg weight was higher in T1 than the other (p<0.05). Egg productivity was tended to increase with supplemental phytase compared to conventional diet. Daily feed intake a hen also increased in T2 (p<0.05). Feed conversion ratio was improved slightly without significant difference. Eggshell breaking strength and thickness were not different significantly among the treatments. Haugh unit and yolk color were also not different. Calcium and phosphorus retention in body increased in T2 (p<0.05), but dry matter and nitrogen retention were not different significantly. Differences in nitrogen and calcium excretions were not found among the treatments. But phosphorus excretion decreased in order of dietary phosphorus levels with supplement phytase compared to C (p<0.05). Tibial ash, calcium and phosphorus were similar among the treatments. In conclusion, supplemental microbial phytase in laying diet may help to utilize phytase phosphorus, and could decrease NPP intake.
Objective: This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the serum components, laying hen productivity, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor and egg quality. Methods: Healthy 28-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens (n = 480) were divided randomly into 4 groups, 6 replicates/group, 20 birds/replicate. The 30-day experimental diets included 0% (control), 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA. Some serum indices of the birds, and egg production, quality, fatty acid composition, egg quality were measured. Results: The dietary supplementation with 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA did not significantly affect the laying rate and feed intake, as well as calcium ion and phosphorus ion concentration in serum (p>0.05). However, the CLA had significantly increased the strength of eggshell, decreased the odor, flavor, and taste of egg yolk, deepened the color of egg yolk, increased saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduced the monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05). On the other hand, the dietary supplementation with 1.6% CLA had significant effects on feed/gain, and improved serum hormones. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% and 0.8% CLA can significantly enhance the activity of alkaline phosphates. Conclusion: CLA has no effect on production performance, but does enhance the lipid content of the egg yolk and the strength of the eggshell.
Kucukyilmaz, Kamil;Bozkurt, Mehmet;Herken, Emine Nur;Cinar, Mustafa;Catli, Abdullah Ugur;Bintas, Erol;Coven, Fethiye
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty acid content was lower in organic eggs, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher in organic eggs. In conclusion, two hen genotypes showed different responses in terms of performance and egg quality to two different rearing systems. A commercial white strain produced more eggs with higher egg quality as compared to a native brown strain. The brown strain was found to have adapted well to organic production conditions when survival and total egg number was taken into consideration.
Broken eggs not only cause the economic loss in the egg producing industry, but also may not be good for the consumer's health. In order to identify the causes of eggshell breakage in laying hen houses, analyses on the status of eggshell breakage in the step of egg conveyer system of the laying hen house were conducted. The survey of eggshell breakage rate was implemented by four different stages egg conveying system. In the results, the breakage rate showed 4.7% in the egg collection belt, 2.5% in the egg elevator, 1.7% in the egg grading system and 0.9% in the egg conveyor belt. In particular, to Hy-line Brown variety, as the hens' raising week old increased, the breakage rate of eggshell increased while the strength of eggshell decreased. In the regression analysis between the breakage rate of eggshell and the strength of eggshell, the coefficient of determination ($R^2$) by the test of significance was computed as 0.7, therefore the changes of the strength of eggshell affects the breakage rate of eggshell. However, between the strength of eggshell and thickness of egg shell, and between the strength of eggshell and strain of eggshell, there was no significant difference detected in the regression analysis.
Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of nutrient level and feeding method of split diets for a.m. and p.m. on laying hen performance. In both studies, ISA Brown layers were kept in laying hen cages and treatments were represented by three or four replicates each containing 25 or 34 birds. In Experiment 1, the control group(C) was fed a conventional single diet throughout the day and split diet groups(T1, T2 and T3) were offered high energy/protein - low Ca diet and low energy/protein - high Ca diets in a.m. and p.m., respectively. In split diet groups, ME and CP consumption, and feed cost required per day and per kg egg mass were significantly reduced(P＜0.05) compared to C group, while the hen-day egg production, average egg weight and daily feed intake were not different among treatments. In the second study, C and T1 groups were fed the diets same to the C and T2 groups in Experiment 1, respectively. And T2 group was fed the diet mixed with the split diets for a.m. in mash and p.m. in pellet used in T1 group. In T1 and T2 groups, daily feed intake and average egg weight were significantly reduced(P＜0.05), while the hen-day egg production was not influenced by the feeding system. Daily ME and CP consumption, and feed cost were reduced(P＜0.05) in T1 and T2, while the ME, CP and feed cost required per kg egg mass were not different to the C group. In both study, eggshell qualities were improved(P＜0.05) by split diet feeding. It was concluded the feed and nutrients consumption, feed cost per day or per kg egg mass could be spared by introducing split diets for a.m. and p.m., and the feeding method of mixed diet of split diets was also convenient and effective for sparing feed cost and improvement of eggshell quality.
Present study was conducted to investigate effects of microbial phytase in laying hen diets on utilization of non-phytate phosphorus(NPP) whose levels were adjusted to be adequate or lower than that of NRC requirements. Birds of control roup were fed a diet containing 0.275% NPP and 3.4% Ca, satisfying the NRC(1994) feeding standard. bird on T1, T2 and T3 were allowed to eat diets containing NPP at 100, 80 and 60%, respectively, of Control group, and 4.0% Ca level along with a microbial phytase added at a level of 300 DPU. Three hundred and sixty, ISA Brown layers, 23-week-old, divided into four treatment groups with three replications per treatment and 30 layers per replication were fed the diets for 12 weeks. Levels of feed intake were not different among the groups, The egg mass/feed intake ratio appeared better in T2 group by about 8%, though without a statistical significance, compared to that of control. Egg production fate tended to be improved over the control group by feeding the 100%(T1) and 80%(T2) NPP diets added with phytase, with a significant difference for T2(p<0.05). Mean egg weight and egg shell quality, measured by breaking strength and thickness of the egg shell, of the T2 group tended to show numerically better, without a significance than those of control. Furthermore, birds of the T2 group showed higher calcium and phosphorus contents in tibia by about 9%(p<0.05) than the control. Overall performances of birds in T1 appeared better than those of control, but tended to be lower than those of the T2. The birds in T3 performed similar to the those of the other dietary groups except the relatively low tibia calcium level. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that supplementation of microbial phytase at a level of 300 DPU was effective to spare about 20% of NPP in laying hen diets without any adverse effects on production performances and bone quality.
Huge amount of persimmon peels, which are byproducts usually arising after making dried persimmons from fresh persimmons, are generated in fall, every year. As the dry matter of persimmon peel contains carbohydrates over 80%, it could be a good candidate for feed. In this study, we evaluated the persimmon peel as a feed resource for a hen laying eggs. Persimmon peel has lower ratio of crude protein and fat composition while higher ratio of crude fiber composition compared to a basal laying hen feed. Feeding the persimmon peel by adding to the feed at the level of 2% or 5% did not affect the egg-laying rate from beginning to the peak of laying. In addition, feeding the persimmon peel did not affect the egg quality either, as the pH, Haugh unit, yolk color and shell thickness of the egg were not different from each other. The composition of amino acids and fatty acids were also almost same for each other, except for the linolenic acid which was slightly higher in the persimmon peel feeding groups. In conclusion, addition of persimmon peel to the feed up to 5% might be helpful to increase the income and reduce the waste produced from the agricultural byproduct.
The Calorimetric experiment was made firstly to measure the difference in energy metabolisms of laying hens among their three different laying periods, secondly to estimate the energy requirements of the layers on their respective laying periods. The laying period was divided into three chronological periods of 25-40, 41-55, and 56-69 weeks old of laying hens, which are refered to as period I, II, and III respectively. 1) The fasting heat production (FHP) of laying hen on the three laying periods were 81.5 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ for period I, 72.3 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ for perod II, and 97.5 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ for perod III. The marked increase in FHP was found in period m, while there was a small difference in FHP between period I and II. The present study have observed among the birds in period in the high degree of plumage defectiveness, and this condition of bird might have accounted for the increase in FHP. 2) The regression equation between ME intake and energy retention (ER) were calculated, and the equations indicated that, for the period I, II, and III, the ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) were 123, 111, and 131 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ respectively, and that the Net Availabilities of Metabolizable energy (NAME) were 76, 79, and 74 percent respectively. For the whole laying period measured, MEm was 119 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ and NAME was 79 percent. There was a tendancy of higher MEm, and lower NAME during Period III, comparing with period I and II.
This study was conducted to investigate the laying performance of six strains of Korean domestic chickens (KDC 1A, 2A, 3A, 1B, 2B and 3B). A total of 288 20-week-old KDC hens were allocated in a completely randomized design to give 12 replicates per each strain (4 chickens per pen). The chickens were fed commercial diets (i.e., week 20 - 32, crude protein [CP] 18.0% and metabolizable energy [ME] 2,850 kcal/kg; week 32 - 40, CP 17.0% and ME 2,800 kcal/kg) ad libitum together with fresh water during the 20-week experiment. Body weight, age of sexual maturity, egg weight, hen-day egg production (HDP) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were measured during the experiment period (week 20 - 40). Our results show that strain 3B had an improved (p < 0.05) HDP and FCR compared with the other strains on week 24 - 28. However, strain 3A had an improved (p < 0.05) HDP and FCR compared to the other strains on week 28 - 40. Similarly, strain 3A had a higher egg weight (p < 0.05) compared to the other strains on week 28, 32 and 40. In conclusion, the higher laying performance of strain 3A indicates its potential in the development of a KDC strain with improved commercial laying performance.
A feeding trial was carried out effect of supplemental Lactobacillus on productivity, egg quality and intestinal microflora in 320 21 weeks - old laying hens for 12 week. Supplemented Lactobacillus strains were Lactobacillus amylovorus LLA7(LA), Lactobacillus crispatus LLA9(LC) and Lactobacillus vaginalis LLA11(LV). Three strains mixed to basal diet which containing 2,800㎉/kg ME, 16% CP with none, LA, LC, LV, LA+LC, LA+LV, LC+LV and LC+LC+LV. Supplemental level was 10(sup)7 cfu/g diet. Egg production was tended to increase with adding Lactobacilus, but not difference significantly. Average egg weight was heavier in adding Lactobacillrs compared to the none, and heaviest in LA+LV, LC+LV(P〈0.05). In periodic observation, the gap of egg weight with adding Lactobacillus or not was severe persisting laying periods. The diet containg MC or LV was better than LA, which means the difference by Lactobacillus strains for egg weight. Daily egg mass also increased in adding Lactobacillus about 1.1 to 2.3 g/hen, but not difference significantly. Feed intake and feed conversion were not difference regardless Lactobacillus strains and laying periods. Haugh unit improved with adding Lactobacillus. Cecal Lactobacillus spp. was increased with adding Lactobacillus(P〈0.05), didn't observed E. coli depression. In summary, supplemental Lactobacillus could improve for egg production, egg weight, egg mass and egg white. And those of effect expect much beneficial with mixing Lactobacillus which established well as single strain.
본 웹사이트에 게시된 이메일 주소가 전자우편 수집 프로그램이나
그 밖의 기술적 장치를 이용하여 무단으로 수집되는 것을 거부하며,
이를 위반시 정보통신망법에 의해 형사 처벌됨을 유념하시기 바랍니다.
[게시일 2004년 10월 1일]
제 1 장 총칙
제 1 조 (목적)
이 이용약관은 KoreaScience 홈페이지(이하 “당 사이트”)에서 제공하는 인터넷 서비스(이하 '서비스')의 가입조건 및 이용에 관한 제반 사항과 기타 필요한 사항을 구체적으로 규정함을 목적으로 합니다.
제 2 조 (용어의 정의)
① "이용자"라 함은 당 사이트에 접속하여 이 약관에 따라 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스를 받는 회원 및 비회원을
② "회원"이라 함은 서비스를 이용하기 위하여 당 사이트에 개인정보를 제공하여 아이디(ID)와 비밀번호를 부여
받은 자를 말합니다.
③ "회원 아이디(ID)"라 함은 회원의 식별 및 서비스 이용을 위하여 자신이 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을
④ "비밀번호(패스워드)"라 함은 회원이 자신의 비밀보호를 위하여 선정한 문자 및 숫자의 조합을 말합니다.
제 3 조 (이용약관의 효력 및 변경)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트에 게시하거나 기타의 방법으로 회원에게 공지함으로써 효력이 발생합니다.
② 당 사이트는 이 약관을 개정할 경우에 적용일자 및 개정사유를 명시하여 현행 약관과 함께 당 사이트의
초기화면에 그 적용일자 7일 이전부터 적용일자 전일까지 공지합니다. 다만, 회원에게 불리하게 약관내용을
변경하는 경우에는 최소한 30일 이상의 사전 유예기간을 두고 공지합니다. 이 경우 당 사이트는 개정 전
내용과 개정 후 내용을 명확하게 비교하여 이용자가 알기 쉽도록 표시합니다.
제 4 조(약관 외 준칙)
① 이 약관은 당 사이트가 제공하는 서비스에 관한 이용안내와 함께 적용됩니다.
② 이 약관에 명시되지 아니한 사항은 관계법령의 규정이 적용됩니다.
제 2 장 이용계약의 체결
제 5 조 (이용계약의 성립 등)
① 이용계약은 이용고객이 당 사이트가 정한 약관에 「동의합니다」를 선택하고, 당 사이트가 정한
온라인신청양식을 작성하여 서비스 이용을 신청한 후, 당 사이트가 이를 승낙함으로써 성립합니다.
② 제1항의 승낙은 당 사이트가 제공하는 과학기술정보검색, 맞춤정보, 서지정보 등 다른 서비스의 이용승낙을
제 6 조 (회원가입)
서비스를 이용하고자 하는 고객은 당 사이트에서 정한 회원가입양식에 개인정보를 기재하여 가입을 하여야 합니다.
제 7 조 (개인정보의 보호 및 사용)
당 사이트는 관계법령이 정하는 바에 따라 회원 등록정보를 포함한 회원의 개인정보를 보호하기 위해 노력합니다. 회원 개인정보의 보호 및 사용에 대해서는 관련법령 및 당 사이트의 개인정보 보호정책이 적용됩니다.
제 8 조 (이용 신청의 승낙과 제한)
① 당 사이트는 제6조의 규정에 의한 이용신청고객에 대하여 서비스 이용을 승낙합니다.
② 당 사이트는 아래사항에 해당하는 경우에 대해서 승낙하지 아니 합니다.
- 이용계약 신청서의 내용을 허위로 기재한 경우
- 기타 규정한 제반사항을 위반하며 신청하는 경우
제 9 조 (회원 ID 부여 및 변경 등)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객에 대하여 약관에 정하는 바에 따라 자신이 선정한 회원 ID를 부여합니다.
② 회원 ID는 원칙적으로 변경이 불가하며 부득이한 사유로 인하여 변경 하고자 하는 경우에는 해당 ID를
해지하고 재가입해야 합니다.
③ 기타 회원 개인정보 관리 및 변경 등에 관한 사항은 서비스별 안내에 정하는 바에 의합니다.
제 3 장 계약 당사자의 의무
제 10 조 (KISTI의 의무)
① 당 사이트는 이용고객이 희망한 서비스 제공 개시일에 특별한 사정이 없는 한 서비스를 이용할 수 있도록
② 당 사이트는 개인정보 보호를 위해 보안시스템을 구축하며 개인정보 보호정책을 공시하고 준수합니다.
③ 당 사이트는 회원으로부터 제기되는 의견이나 불만이 정당하다고 객관적으로 인정될 경우에는 적절한 절차를
거쳐 즉시 처리하여야 합니다. 다만, 즉시 처리가 곤란한 경우는 회원에게 그 사유와 처리일정을 통보하여야
제 11 조 (회원의 의무)
① 이용자는 회원가입 신청 또는 회원정보 변경 시 실명으로 모든 사항을 사실에 근거하여 작성하여야 하며,
허위 또는 타인의 정보를 등록할 경우 일체의 권리를 주장할 수 없습니다.
② 당 사이트가 관계법령 및 개인정보 보호정책에 의거하여 그 책임을 지는 경우를 제외하고 회원에게 부여된
ID의 비밀번호 관리소홀, 부정사용에 의하여 발생하는 모든 결과에 대한 책임은 회원에게 있습니다.
③ 회원은 당 사이트 및 제 3자의 지적 재산권을 침해해서는 안 됩니다.
제 4 장 서비스의 이용
제 12 조 (서비스 이용 시간)
① 서비스 이용은 당 사이트의 업무상 또는 기술상 특별한 지장이 없는 한 연중무휴, 1일 24시간 운영을
원칙으로 합니다. 단, 당 사이트는 시스템 정기점검, 증설 및 교체를 위해 당 사이트가 정한 날이나 시간에
서비스를 일시 중단할 수 있으며, 예정되어 있는 작업으로 인한 서비스 일시중단은 당 사이트 홈페이지를
통해 사전에 공지합니다.
② 당 사이트는 서비스를 특정범위로 분할하여 각 범위별로 이용가능시간을 별도로 지정할 수 있습니다. 다만
이 경우 그 내용을 공지합니다.
제 13 조 (홈페이지 저작권)
① NDSL에서 제공하는 모든 저작물의 저작권은 원저작자에게 있으며, KISTI는 복제/배포/전송권을 확보하고
② NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 상업적 및 기타 영리목적으로 복제/배포/전송할 경우 사전에 KISTI의 허락을
③ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 보도, 비평, 교육, 연구 등을 위하여 정당한 범위 안에서 공정한 관행에
합치되게 인용할 수 있습니다.
④ NDSL에서 제공하는 콘텐츠를 무단 복제, 전송, 배포 기타 저작권법에 위반되는 방법으로 이용할 경우
저작권법 제136조에 따라 5년 이하의 징역 또는 5천만 원 이하의 벌금에 처해질 수 있습니다.
제 14 조 (유료서비스)
① 당 사이트 및 협력기관이 정한 유료서비스(원문복사 등)는 별도로 정해진 바에 따르며, 변경사항은 시행 전에
당 사이트 홈페이지를 통하여 회원에게 공지합니다.
② 유료서비스를 이용하려는 회원은 정해진 요금체계에 따라 요금을 납부해야 합니다.
제 5 장 계약 해지 및 이용 제한
제 15 조 (계약 해지)
회원이 이용계약을 해지하고자 하는 때에는 [가입해지] 메뉴를 이용해 직접 해지해야 합니다.
제 16 조 (서비스 이용제한)
① 당 사이트는 회원이 서비스 이용내용에 있어서 본 약관 제 11조 내용을 위반하거나, 다음 각 호에 해당하는
경우 서비스 이용을 제한할 수 있습니다.
- 2년 이상 서비스를 이용한 적이 없는 경우
- 기타 정상적인 서비스 운영에 방해가 될 경우
② 상기 이용제한 규정에 따라 서비스를 이용하는 회원에게 서비스 이용에 대하여 별도 공지 없이 서비스 이용의
일시정지, 이용계약 해지 할 수 있습니다.
제 17 조 (전자우편주소 수집 금지)
회원은 전자우편주소 추출기 등을 이용하여 전자우편주소를 수집 또는 제3자에게 제공할 수 없습니다.
제 6 장 손해배상 및 기타사항
제 18 조 (손해배상)
당 사이트는 무료로 제공되는 서비스와 관련하여 회원에게 어떠한 손해가 발생하더라도 당 사이트가 고의 또는 과실로 인한 손해발생을 제외하고는 이에 대하여 책임을 부담하지 아니합니다.
제 19 조 (관할 법원)
서비스 이용으로 발생한 분쟁에 대해 소송이 제기되는 경우 민사 소송법상의 관할 법원에 제기합니다.
1. (시행일) 이 약관은 2016년 9월 5일부터 적용되며, 종전 약관은 본 약관으로 대체되며, 개정된 약관의 적용일 이전 가입자도 개정된 약관의 적용을 받습니다.