• Title, Summary, Keyword: Laying Hen

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The Effects of Dietary Turkish Propolis and Vitamin C on Performance, Digestibility, Egg Production and Egg Quality in Laying Hens under Different Environmental Temperatures

  • Seven, Pinar Tatli
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.1164-1170
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    • 2008
  • In this study, the effects of propolis and vitamin C (L-ascorbic acid) supplementation in diets were investigated on feed intake (FI), body weight (BW), body weight gain (BWG), feed conversion rate (FCR) and digestibility and on egg production and qualities (weight, mortality, shell thickness) in laying hens exposed to heat stress. A total of 150 Hyline White Leghorn, aged 42 weeks, hens was divided into five groups of 30 hens. Chicks were randomly divided into 1 positive control, 1 control and 3 treatment groups. The chicks were kept in cages in temperature-controlled rooms at $22^{\circ}C$ for 24 h/d (positive control, Thermoneutral, TN group) or $34^{\circ}C$ for 9 h/d from 08.00-17.00 h followed by $22^{\circ}C$ for 15 h (control, heat stress, HS group) and fed a basal diet or basal diet supplemented with vitamin C (250 mg/kg of L- ascorbic acid/kg of diet) or two levels of propolis (2 and 5 g of ethanol extracted propolis/kg of diet). Increased FI (p<0.05) and improvement in FCR (p<0.05), hen day egg (p<0.05) and egg weight (p<0.05) were found in Vitamin C and propolis-supplemented laying hens reared under heat stress conditions. Mortality rate was higher in the control group than TN, vitamin C and propolis groups (p<0.05). Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein and ether extract improved with increasing of both dietary vitamin C and propolis (p<0.05). Vitamin C or propolis supplementation did not affect either the percentage shape index, yolk index or haugh unit and albumen index (p>0.05). However, the egg shell thickness and egg shell weight appeared to be increased in Vitamin C and propolis groups in comparison to HS group birds (p<0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of laying hens with anti-oxidants (vitamin C and propolis) can attenuate heat stress-induced oxidative damage. These positive effects were evidenced by increased growth performance and digestibility, improvement of egg shell thickness and egg weight in comparison to non-supplemented birds. Moreover, supplementation with propolis (5 g/kg diet) was the most efficient treatment.

Efficacy of Supplemental Microbial Phytase on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization I. Effect of Microbial Phytase at Different Phosphorus Levels on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization (산란 생산성과 인 이용성에 대한 Microbial Phytase의 첨가 효과 I. 무기태인 수준이 다른 사료에 Microbial Phytase 첨가가 산란상 및 인 이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김상호;유동조;나재천;최철환;상병돈;이상진;이원준;류경선
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.19-23
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    • 2000
  • The effects of microbial phutase on laying performance and phosphorus utilization were examined at different levels of dietary nonphosphorus(NPP) in 320 23-week-old Hy-line brown hens for 12weeks. Diets were formulated 0.275%(T1), 0.220%(T2), 0.165%(T3) of NPP levels, and supplemental microbial phytase was 300DPU/kg diet constantly. Conventional diet(C) was formulated 0.275% NPP level without microbial phytase. Egg production and egg mass were higher in T2 than the others (p<0.05), and average egg weight was higher in T1 than the other (p<0.05). Egg productivity was tended to increase with supplemental phytase compared to conventional diet. Daily feed intake a hen also increased in T2 (p<0.05). Feed conversion ratio was improved slightly without significant difference. Eggshell breaking strength and thickness were not different significantly among the treatments. Haugh unit and yolk color were also not different. Calcium and phosphorus retention in body increased in T2 (p<0.05), but dry matter and nitrogen retention were not different significantly. Differences in nitrogen and calcium excretions were not found among the treatments. But phosphorus excretion decreased in order of dietary phosphorus levels with supplement phytase compared to C (p<0.05). Tibial ash, calcium and phosphorus were similar among the treatments. In conclusion, supplemental microbial phytase in laying diet may help to utilize phytase phosphorus, and could decrease NPP intake.

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Effects of conjugated linoleic acid on the performance of laying hens, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor, and serum components

  • Liu, Xuelan;Zhang, Yan;Yan, Peipei;Shi, Tianhong;Wei, Xiangfa
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.417-423
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    • 2017
  • Objective: This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the serum components, laying hen productivity, lipid composition of egg yolk, egg flavor and egg quality. Methods: Healthy 28-week-old Hy-Line white laying hens (n = 480) were divided randomly into 4 groups, 6 replicates/group, 20 birds/replicate. The 30-day experimental diets included 0% (control), 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA. Some serum indices of the birds, and egg production, quality, fatty acid composition, egg quality were measured. Results: The dietary supplementation with 0.4%, 0.8%, and 1.6% CLA did not significantly affect the laying rate and feed intake, as well as calcium ion and phosphorus ion concentration in serum (p>0.05). However, the CLA had significantly increased the strength of eggshell, decreased the odor, flavor, and taste of egg yolk, deepened the color of egg yolk, increased saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and reduced the monounsaturated fatty acids (p<0.05). On the other hand, the dietary supplementation with 1.6% CLA had significant effects on feed/gain, and improved serum hormones. Dietary supplementation with 0.4% and 0.8% CLA can significantly enhance the activity of alkaline phosphates. Conclusion: CLA has no effect on production performance, but does enhance the lipid content of the egg yolk and the strength of the eggshell.

Analyses on the Status of Eggshell Breakage in the Step of Egg Conveyer System of the Laying Hen House (산란계사의 계란 이송단계에 따른 파란발생 실태분석)

  • Oh, K.Y.;Ruy, B.G.;Noh, J.S.;Choi, D.S.;Choe, K.J.
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 2008
  • Broken eggs not only cause the economic loss in the egg producing industry, but also may not be good for the consumer's health. In order to identify the causes of eggshell breakage in laying hen houses, analyses on the status of eggshell breakage in the step of egg conveyer system of the laying hen house were conducted. The survey of eggshell breakage rate was implemented by four different stages egg conveying system. In the results, the breakage rate showed 4.7% in the egg collection belt, 2.5% in the egg elevator, 1.7% in the egg grading system and 0.9% in the egg conveyor belt. In particular, to Hy-line Brown variety, as the hens' raising week old increased, the breakage rate of eggshell increased while the strength of eggshell decreased. In the regression analysis between the breakage rate of eggshell and the strength of eggshell, the coefficient of determination ($R^2$) by the test of significance was computed as 0.7, therefore the changes of the strength of eggshell affects the breakage rate of eggshell. However, between the strength of eggshell and thickness of egg shell, and between the strength of eggshell and strain of eggshell, there was no significant difference detected in the regression analysis.

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Effects of Rearing Systems on Performance, Egg Characteristics and Immune Response in Two Layer Hen Genotype

  • Kucukyilmaz, Kamil;Bozkurt, Mehmet;Herken, Emine Nur;Cinar, Mustafa;Catli, Abdullah Ugur;Bintas, Erol;Coven, Fethiye
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.559-568
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    • 2012
  • White (Lohmann LSL) and Brown (ATAK-S) laying hens, were reared under organic and conventional cage rearing systems, and the effects of the rearing system on performance parameters, egg production, egg characteristics, and immune response were investigated. For this purpose, a total of 832 laying hens of two commercial hybrids, i.e., 416 white (Lohmann LSL) and 416 Brown (ATAK-S) layers, were used. The experiment lasted between 23 and 70 wk of age. In this study, the white layers yielded more eggs as compared to the brown layers in both organic and conventional production systems. Egg weight exhibited a similar pattern to that of laying performance. However, the total hen-housed egg number for the white birds in the organic system was fewer than that of white birds in the conventional cage facility; conversely, a contradictory tendency was observed for the brown birds. Livability of the white layers in the organic system was remarkably lower (14%) than that of the brown line, whereas the white line survived better (3.42%) than their brown counterparts in conventional cages. The feed conversion ratio of the white hens was markedly inferior in the organic system as compared to that of the white hens in the conventional system, whereas relatively lower deterioration was reported in brown layers when reared in an organic system. The organic production system increased egg albumen height and the Haugh unit in eggs of the brown layers. The yolk color score of organic eggs was lower than that of conventional eggs for both brown and white hens. The egg yolk ratio of eggs from white layers was found to be higher in organic eggs as compared to those obtained in the conventional system. All organic eggs had heavier shells than those produced in the conventional system. Eggs from brown layers had more protein content than eggs from white layers. Neither housing systems nor genotype influenced egg yolk cholesterol concentration. When compared to conventional eggs, n-3 fatty acid content was lower in organic eggs, and the n-6:n-3 ratio was higher in organic eggs. In conclusion, two hen genotypes showed different responses in terms of performance and egg quality to two different rearing systems. A commercial white strain produced more eggs with higher egg quality as compared to a native brown strain. The brown strain was found to have adapted well to organic production conditions when survival and total egg number was taken into consideration.

산란계에 대한 오전사료와 오후사료의 영양수준 및 급여방법이 산란능력과 난각질에 미치는 영향

  • 오용석;이규호
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.58-60
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    • 2001
  • Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of nutrient level and feeding method of split diets for a.m. and p.m. on laying hen performance. In both studies, ISA Brown layers were kept in laying hen cages and treatments were represented by three or four replicates each containing 25 or 34 birds. In Experiment 1, the control group(C) was fed a conventional single diet throughout the day and split diet groups(T1, T2 and T3) were offered high energy/protein - low Ca diet and low energy/protein - high Ca diets in a.m. and p.m., respectively. In split diet groups, ME and CP consumption, and feed cost required per day and per kg egg mass were significantly reduced(P<0.05) compared to C group, while the hen-day egg production, average egg weight and daily feed intake were not different among treatments. In the second study, C and T1 groups were fed the diets same to the C and T2 groups in Experiment 1, respectively. And T2 group was fed the diet mixed with the split diets for a.m. in mash and p.m. in pellet used in T1 group. In T1 and T2 groups, daily feed intake and average egg weight were significantly reduced(P<0.05), while the hen-day egg production was not influenced by the feeding system. Daily ME and CP consumption, and feed cost were reduced(P<0.05) in T1 and T2, while the ME, CP and feed cost required per kg egg mass were not different to the C group. In both study, eggshell qualities were improved(P<0.05) by split diet feeding. It was concluded the feed and nutrients consumption, feed cost per day or per kg egg mass could be spared by introducing split diets for a.m. and p.m., and the feeding method of mixed diet of split diets was also convenient and effective for sparing feed cost and improvement of eggshell quality.

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Efficacy of Supplemental Microbial Phytase on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization II. Effect of Microbial Phytase at Different Phosphorus Levels and High Calcium Content on Laying Performance and Phosphorus Utilization (산란생산성과 인 이용성에 대한 Microbial Phytase의 첨가 효과 II. 무기태인 수주닝 다르고 칼슘수준이 높은 사료에 Microbial Phytase 첨가가 산란성 및 인 이용성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김상호;유동조;이상진;강보석;서옥석;최철환;이원준;류경선
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 2000
  • Present study was conducted to investigate effects of microbial phytase in laying hen diets on utilization of non-phytate phosphorus(NPP) whose levels were adjusted to be adequate or lower than that of NRC requirements. Birds of control roup were fed a diet containing 0.275% NPP and 3.4% Ca, satisfying the NRC(1994) feeding standard. bird on T1, T2 and T3 were allowed to eat diets containing NPP at 100, 80 and 60%, respectively, of Control group, and 4.0% Ca level along with a microbial phytase added at a level of 300 DPU. Three hundred and sixty, ISA Brown layers, 23-week-old, divided into four treatment groups with three replications per treatment and 30 layers per replication were fed the diets for 12 weeks. Levels of feed intake were not different among the groups, The egg mass/feed intake ratio appeared better in T2 group by about 8%, though without a statistical significance, compared to that of control. Egg production fate tended to be improved over the control group by feeding the 100%(T1) and 80%(T2) NPP diets added with phytase, with a significant difference for T2(p<0.05). Mean egg weight and egg shell quality, measured by breaking strength and thickness of the egg shell, of the T2 group tended to show numerically better, without a significance than those of control. Furthermore, birds of the T2 group showed higher calcium and phosphorus contents in tibia by about 9%(p<0.05) than the control. Overall performances of birds in T1 appeared better than those of control, but tended to be lower than those of the T2. The birds in T3 performed similar to the those of the other dietary groups except the relatively low tibia calcium level. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that supplementation of microbial phytase at a level of 300 DPU was effective to spare about 20% of NPP in laying hen diets without any adverse effects on production performances and bone quality.

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Effect of Persimmon Peel as an Additional Feeding (사료에 첨가된 감껍질의 효과)

  • Shin, Sangsu;Yi, Junkoo;Kong, Changsu;Kwon, Woosung;Ryoo, Zaeyoung;Kim, Eungyung;Kim, Hyeonjin;Ha, Jaejung;Hong, Doyoung;Yoon, Duhak;Kim, Sunghyun;Kim, Myoung Ok
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2019
  • Huge amount of persimmon peels, which are byproducts usually arising after making dried persimmons from fresh persimmons, are generated in fall, every year. As the dry matter of persimmon peel contains carbohydrates over 80%, it could be a good candidate for feed. In this study, we evaluated the persimmon peel as a feed resource for a hen laying eggs. Persimmon peel has lower ratio of crude protein and fat composition while higher ratio of crude fiber composition compared to a basal laying hen feed. Feeding the persimmon peel by adding to the feed at the level of 2% or 5% did not affect the egg-laying rate from beginning to the peak of laying. In addition, feeding the persimmon peel did not affect the egg quality either, as the pH, Haugh unit, yolk color and shell thickness of the egg were not different from each other. The composition of amino acids and fatty acids were also almost same for each other, except for the linolenic acid which was slightly higher in the persimmon peel feeding groups. In conclusion, addition of persimmon peel to the feed up to 5% might be helpful to increase the income and reduce the waste produced from the agricultural byproduct.

Calorimetric Studies on Energy Metabolism by the Laying White Leghorn Hen (호흡대사장치를 이용한 산란계의 기초대사, 유특 및 생산시 에너지대사 측정시험)

  • 이영철
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 1986
  • The Calorimetric experiment was made firstly to measure the difference in energy metabolisms of laying hens among their three different laying periods, secondly to estimate the energy requirements of the layers on their respective laying periods. The laying period was divided into three chronological periods of 25-40, 41-55, and 56-69 weeks old of laying hens, which are refered to as period I, II, and III respectively. 1) The fasting heat production (FHP) of laying hen on the three laying periods were 81.5 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ for period I, 72.3 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ for perod II, and 97.5 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ for perod III. The marked increase in FHP was found in period m, while there was a small difference in FHP between period I and II. The present study have observed among the birds in period in the high degree of plumage defectiveness, and this condition of bird might have accounted for the increase in FHP. 2) The regression equation between ME intake and energy retention (ER) were calculated, and the equations indicated that, for the period I, II, and III, the ME requirements for maintenance (MEm) were 123, 111, and 131 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ respectively, and that the Net Availabilities of Metabolizable energy (NAME) were 76, 79, and 74 percent respectively. For the whole laying period measured, MEm was 119 Kcal/kg$\^$0.75/ and NAME was 79 percent. There was a tendancy of higher MEm, and lower NAME during Period III, comparing with period I and II.

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The Performance of Layer Breeds and It′s Advance in the Future (채난계의 개량현황과 전망)

  • 한성욱
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.77-95
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    • 1992
  • This study was conducted to provide a guideline for laying hens breeding through comparing performance test results and domestic and foreign breeding processing for the purpose of succeeding in laying hen industry. The annual average egg numbers were 120 at 1930, 135 at 1940 and 175 at 1950 which was 146% increase during a decade. Heterosis was firstly introduced at 1924 and was applied to produce commercial stock since 1950. The theory of selection for quantitative traits was established by Lerner in 1951. In Europe and America, the annual average egg numbers in performance test were 175, 213, 219 and 277 in 1950, 1960, 1970 and 1985, respectively, and in Korea, those were 196, 226 and 265 in 1960, 1970 and 1980, respectively Laying hen breeding through simultaneous selection of numerous traits may provoke elevation of viability, improvement of feed efficiency, alongation of laying period and increase of disease resistance.

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