• Title, Summary, Keyword: Laser scanning

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Mineralogical, Micro-textural, and Geochemical Characteristics for the Carbonate Rocks of the Lower Makgol Formation in Seokgaejae Section (석개재 지역 하부 막골층 탄산염암의 광물조성, 미세구조 및 지화학적 특성)

  • Park, Chaewon;Kim, Ha;Song, Yungoo
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.323-343
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    • 2018
  • This study defines the mineralogical, micro-textural and geochemical characteristics for the carbonate rocks and discusses the fluids that have affected the depositional environment of the Lower Makgol Formation in Seokgaejae section. Based on analysis of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (SEM-EDS), Electron Probe Micro Analyzer-Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EPMA-WDS) and Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), carbonate miorofacies in the basal and the lower members of the Makgol Formation are distinguished and classified into four types. Type 1 dolomite (xenotopic interlocking texture) and Type 2 dolomite (idiotopic interlocking texture) have relatively high Mg/Ca ratio, flat REE pattern, low Fe and Mn. Extensively interlocking textures in these dolomites indicate constant supply of Mg ion from hypersaline brine. Type 3 and Type 4 dolomite (scattered and loosely-aggregated texture) have relatively moderate Mg/Ca ratio, MREE enriched pattern, low to high Fe and Mn. These partial dolomitization indicate limited supply of Mg ion under the influx of meteoric water with seawater. Also, the evidence of Fe-bearing minerals, recrystallization and relatively high Fe and Mn in Type 4 indicates the influence of secondary diagenetic fluids under suboxic conditions. Integrating geochemical data with mineralogical and micro-textural evidence, the discrepancy between the basal and the lower members of the Makgol Formation indicates different sedimentary environment. It suggest that hypersaline brine have an influence on the basal member, while mixing meteoric water with seawater have an effect on the lower member of the Makgol Formation.

Digital Documentation and Short-term Monitoring on Original Rampart Wall of the Gyejoksanseong Fortress in Daejeon, Korea (대전 계족산성 원형성벽의 디지털기록화 및 단기모니터링 연구)

  • Kim, Sung Han;Lee, Chan Hee;Jo, Young Hoon
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.169-188
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out unmanned aerial photography and terrestrial laser scanning to establish digital database on original wall of Gyejoksanseong fortress, and measured ground control points for continuity of the monitoring. It also performed precise examination with the naked eye, unmanned aerial photogrammetry, endoscopy, total station and handy measurement to examine the structural stability of the original walls. The ground control points were considered as a point where visual field can be secured, 3 points were selected around each of the south and north walls. For the right side of the south original wall, aerial photogrammetry was conducted using drones and a deviation analysis of 3-dimensional digital models was performed for short-term monitoring. As a result, the two original walls were almost matched in range within 5mm, and no difference indicating displacement of stones was found, except for partial deviation. Regular monitoring of the areas with structural deformation such as bulging, weak and fracture zone by precisely examining with the naked eye and using high-resolution photo data revealed no distinct change. The inner foundation observed through endoscopy found out that filling stones of the original walls were still remained, while most filling soil was lost. As a result of measuring the total station focusing around the points with structural deformation on the original walls, the maximum displacements of the north and south walls were somewhat high with 6.6mm and 3.8mm, respectively, while the final displacements were relatively stable at below 2.9mm and 1.4mm, respectively. Handy measurement also did not reveal clear structural deformation with displacements below 0.82mm at all points. Even though the results of displacement monitoring on the original walls are stable, it is hard to secure structural stability due to the characteristics of ramparts where sudden brittle fracture occurs. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct conservational scientific diagnosis, precise monitoring, and structural analysis based on the 3-dimensional figuration information obtained in this research.

Stellite bearings for liquid Zn-/Al-Systems with advanced chemical and physical properties by Mechanical Alloying and Standard-PM-Route

  • Zoz, H.;Benz, H.U.;Huettebraeucker, K.;Furken, L.;Ren, H.;Reichardt, R.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.9-10
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    • 2000
  • An important business-field of world-wide steel-industry is the coating of thin metal-sheets with zinc, zinc-aluminum and aluminum based materials. These products mostly go into automotive industry. in particular for the car-body. into building and construction industry as well as household appliances. Due to mass-production, the processing is done in large continuously operating plants where the mostly cold-rolled metal-strip as the substrate is handled in coils up to 40 tons unwind before and rolled up again after passing the processing plant which includes cleaning, annealing, hot-dip galvanizing / aluminizing and chemical treatment. In the liquid Zn, Zn-AI, AI-Zn and AI-Si bathes a combined action of corrosion and wear under high temperature and high stress onto the transfer components (rolls) accounts for major economic losses. Most critical here are the bearing systems of these rolls operating in the liquid system. Rolls in liquid system can not be avoided as they are needed to transfer the steel-strip into and out of the crucible. Since several years, ceramic roller bearings are tested here [1.2], however, in particular due to uncontrollable Slag-impurities within the hot bath [3], slide bearings are still expected to be of a higher potential [4]. The today's state of the art is the application of slide bearings based on Stellite\ulcorneragainst Stellite which is in general a 50-60 wt% Co-matrix with incorporated Cr- and W-carbides and other composites. Indeed Stellite is used as the bearing-material as of it's chemical properties (does not go into solution), the physical properties in particular with poor lubricating properties are not satisfying at all. To increase the Sliding behavior in the bearing system, about 0.15-0.2 wt% of lead has been added into the hot-bath in the past. Due to environmental regulations. this had to be reduced dramatically_ This together with the heavily increasing production rates expressed by increased velocity of the substrate-steel-band up to 200 m/min and increased tractate power up to 10 tons in modern plants. leads to life times of the bearings of a few up to several days only. To improve this situation. the Mechanical Alloying (MA) TeChnique [5.6.7.8] is used to prOduce advanced Stellite-based bearing materials. A lubricating phase is introduced into Stellite-powder-material by MA, the composite-powder-particles are coated by High Energy Milling (HEM) in order to produce bearing-bushes of approximately 12 kg by Sintering, Liquid Phase Sintering (LPS) and Hot Isostatic Pressing (HIP). The chemical and physical behavior of samples as well as the bearing systems in the hot galvanizing / aluminizing plant are discussed. DependenCies like lubricant material and composite, LPS-binder and composite, particle shape and PM-route with respect to achievable density. (temperature--) shock-reSistibility and corrosive-wear behavior will be described. The materials are characterized by particle size analysis (laser diffraction), scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. corrosive-wear behavior is determined using a special cylinder-in-bush apparatus (CIBA) as well as field-test in real production condition. Part I of this work describes the initial testing phase where different sample materials are produced, characterized, consolidated and tested in the CIBA under a common AI-Zn-system. The results are discussed and the material-system for the large components to be produced for the field test in real production condition is decided. Outlook: Part II of this work will describe the field test in a hot-dip-galvanizing/aluminizing plant of the mechanically alloyed bearing bushes under aluminum-rich liquid metal. Alter testing, the bushes will be characterized and obtained results with respect to wear. expected lifetime, surface roughness and infiltration will be discussed. Part III of this project will describe a second initial testing phase where the won results of part 1+11 will be transferred to the AI-Si system. Part IV of this project will describe the field test in a hot-dip-aluminizing plant of the mechanically alloyed bearing bushes under aluminum liquid metal. After testing. the bushes will be characterized and obtained results with respect to wear. expected lifetime, surface roughness and infiltration will be discussed.

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Emulsifying Properties of Gelatinized Octenyl Succinic Anhydride Modified starch from Barley (호화 옥테닐 호박산 전분의 유화 특성)

  • Kim, San-Seong;Kim, Sun-Hyung;Lee, Eui-Seok;Lee, Ki-Teak;Hong, Soon-Taek
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.174-188
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    • 2019
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the emulsifying properties of heat-treated octenyl succinic anhydride(OSA) starch and the interfacial structure at oil droplet surface in emulsions stabilized by heat-treated OSA starch. First, the aqueous suspensions of OSA starch were heated at $80^{\circ}C$ for 30 min. Oil-in-water emulsions were then prepared with the heat-treated OSA starch suspension as sole emulsifier and their physicochemical properties such as fat globule size, surface load, zeta-potential, dispersion stability, confocal laser scanning microscopic image(CLSM) were determined. It was found that fat globule size decreased as the concentration of OSA starch in emulsions increased, showing a lower limit value ($d_{32}:0.31{\mu}m$) at ${\geq}0.2wt%$. Surface load increased steadily with increasing OSA starch concentration in emulsions, possibly forming multiple layers. In addition, fat globule sizes were also influenced by pH: they were increased in acidic conditions and these results were interpreted in view of the change in zeta potentials. The dispersion stability by Turbiscan showed that it was more unstable in emulsions at acidic condition. Heat-treated OSA starch found to adsorb at the oil droplet surface as some forms of membrane (not starch granules), which might be indicative of stabilizing mechanism of OSA starch emulsions to be steric forces.

Effect of Prostaglandin F2 Alpha on E-cadherin, N-cadherin and Cell Adhesion in Ovarian Luteal Theca Cells (난소의 황체협막세포에서 E-cadherin, N-cadherin과 세포부착에 미치는 Prostaglandin F2 Alpha의 영향)

  • Lee, Sang-Hee;Jung, Bae Dong;Lee, Seunghyung
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.360-369
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    • 2019
  • Cadherins are essential transmembrane proteins that promote cell-cell adhesion and maintain the corpus luteum structure in the ovary. This study examined the influence of prostaglandin F2 alpha ($PGF2{\alpha}$) on E-cadherin, N-cadherin, and adhesion in luteal theca cells (LTCs). The luteal cells were isolated from the mid-phase corpus luteum, and the LTCs were cultured separately from the luteal heterogeneous cells according to the morphology of the mesenchymal cells and to determine if steroidogenic and endothelial cells of LTCs, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase ($3{\beta}$-HSD), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) mRNA were used. The LTCs were then incubated in the culture medium supplemented with 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mM $PGF2{\alpha}$ for 24 h, and the E-cadherin and N-cadherin proteins in the LTCs were detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results revealed $3{\beta}$-HSD mRNA expression in the LTC but no VEGF2R mRNA expression. The E-cadherin and N-cadherin proteins of the LTCs were damaged in the 0.01, 0.1, and 1.0 mM $PGF2{\alpha}$ treatment groups, and the expression of the N-cadherin protein was reduced significantly in 0.01 mM $PGF2{\alpha}$ compared to the 0 mM $PGF2{\alpha}$ treatment groups (P<0.05). In addition, the number of attached LTCs were significantly lower in the 0.01 mM $PGF2{\alpha}$ treatment group than in the 0 mM $PGF2{\alpha}$ treatment group (P<0.05). In conclusion, $PGF2{\alpha}$ affected the disruption of cadherin proteins and cell adhesion in LTCs. These results may help better understand the cadherin and adhesion mechanism during corpus luteum regression in the ovary.

Optimization of Culture Conditions and Encapsulation of Lactobacillus fermentum YL-3 for Probiotics (가금류 생균제 개발을 위한 Lactobacillus fermentum YL-3의 배양조건 최적화 및 캡슐화)

  • Kim, Kyong;Jang, Keum-Il;Kim, Chung-Ho;Kim, Kwang-Yup
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.255-262
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    • 2002
  • This experiment was performed to improve the stability of Lactobacillus fermentum YL-3 as a poultry probiotics. The culture conditions that improve acid tolerance of L. fermentum YL-3 were investigated by changing several factors such as medium composition, temperature, anaerobic incubation and culture time. Also, L. fermentum YL-3 was encapsulated with alginate, calcium chloride and chitosan. The stable culture conditions of L. fermentum YL-3 were obtained in anaerobic incubation using MRS media without tween 80 for 20 hour at $42^{\circ}C$. The capsule after treatment with 1% chitosan was formed close membrane by a bridge bond. Immobilization of L. fermentum YL-3 in capsule was observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy, and cell viability was $2.0{\times}10^9\;CFU/g$ above the average. L. fermentum YL-3 capsule after acid treated at pH 2.0 for 3 hour survived about 40%, but those encapsulated with 1% chitosan survived about 65%. Survival rate of capsule stored at room temperature decreased about $2{\sim}3$ log cycle during 3 weeks, but viability of capsule stored at $4^{\circ}C$ during 3 weeks maintained almost $10^8\;CFU/g$ levels.

[ $Ca^{2+}\;and\;K^+$ ] Concentrations Change during Early Embryonic Development in Mouse (생쥐 초기 배 발달 동안 변화되는 칼슘과 포타슘 이온)

  • Kang D.W.;Hur C.G.;Choi C.R.;Park J.Y.;Hong S.G.;Han J.H.
    • Journal of Embryo Transfer
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2006
  • Ions play important roles in various cellular processes including fertilization and differentiation. However, it is little known whether how ions are regulated during early embryonic development in mammalian animals. In this study, we examined changes in $Ca^{2+}\;and\;K^+$ concentrations in embryos and oviduct during mouse early embryonic development using patch clamp technique and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The intracellular calcium concentration in each stage embryos did not markedly change. At 56h afier hCG injection when 8-cell embryos could be Isolated from oviduct, $K^+$ concentration in oviduct increased by 26% compared with that at 14h after injection of hCG During early embryonic development, membrane potential was depolarized (from -38 mV to -16 mV), and $Ca^{2+}$ currents decreased, indicating that some $K^+$ channel might control membrane potential in oocytes. To record the changes in membrane potential induced by influx of $Ca^{2+}$ in mouse oocytes, we applied 5 mM $Ca^{2+}$ to the bath solution. The membrane potential transiently hyperpolarized and then recovered. In order to classify $K^+$ channels that cause hyperpolarization, we first applied TEA and apamin, general $K^+$ channel blockers, to the bath solution. Interestingly, the hyperpolarization of membrane potential still appeared in oocytes pretreated with TEA and apamin. This result suggest that the $K^+$ channel that induces hyperpolarization could belong to another $K^+$ channel such as two-pore domain $K^+(K_{2P})$channel that a.e insensitive to TEA and apamin. From these results, we suggest that the changes in $Ca^{2+}\;and\;K^+$ concentrations play a critical role in cell proliferation, differentiation and reproduction as well as early embryonic development, and $K_{2P}$ channels could be involved in regulation of membrane potential in ovulated oocytes.

Cellular Localization and Translocation of Duplication and Alternative Splicing Variants of Olive Flounder Phospholipase C-δ1 (넙치 3가지 타입 인지질가수분해효소(PLC-δ1)의 세포 내 위치 및 이동)

  • Kim, Na Young;Kim, Moo-Sang;Jung, Sung Hee;Kim, Myoung Sug;Cho, Mi Young;Chung, oon Ki;Ahn, Sang Jung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1369-1375
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular characterization of phospholipase C-${\delta}1$ in olive flounders (Paralichthys olivaceus). In general, phospholipase C signaling pathways are distributed in nuclei at plasma membranes and in cytoplasms, although the pathways' nuclear localization mechanisms are unclear. P. olivaceus duplicates type-A PoPLC-${\delta}1$ (PoPLC-${\delta}1A$), which has a high similarity to the human isoform PLC-${\delta}$; type-B PoPLC-${\delta}1$ (PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ [Sf]), which has a low similarity to the human isoform PLC-${\delta}$ and the alternative splice variant PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Lf), which has a nuclear localization signal (NLS) and a nuclear export signal (NES) for nuclear imports and exports, respectively. This study confirmed the effects of the cellular localization and translocation of GFP-tagged PoPLC-${\delta}1A$, PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Sf) and PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Lf). It administered treatments of $Ca^{2+}$ ionophore ionomycin and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-$Ca^{2+}$ pump inhibitor thapsigargin to hirame natural-embryo (HINAE) cells. A laser-scanning confocal microscope was used. GFP-tagged PoPLC-${\delta}1A$ was distributed to the cellular organelles, rather than to the cytoplasms and cytomembranes, when PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Lf) and PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Sf) were localized at the plasma membranes. The treatments of ionomycin and thapsigargin showed the accumulation of PoPLC-${\delta}1A$ in the nuclei when PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Lf) nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and PoPLC-${\delta}1B$ (Sf) nucleocytoplasmic shuttling were not observed. The results were the first evidence that PoPLC-${\delta}1A$, which contains functional, intact NES sequences, has a main role in nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and translocation in fish.

Establishment of a Dental Unit Biofilm Model Using Well-Plate (Well-Plate를 사용한 치과용 유니트 수관 바이오필름 모델 확립)

  • Yoon, Hye Young;Lee, Si Young
    • Journal of dental hygiene science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.283-289
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    • 2017
  • The water discharged from dental unit waterlines (DUWLs) is heavily contaminated with bacteria. The development of efficient disinfectants is required to maintain good quality DUWL water. The purpose of this study was to establish a DUWL biofilm model using well-plates to confirm the effectiveness of disinfectants in the laboratory. Bacteria were obtained from the water discharged from DUWLs and incubated in R2A liquid medium for 10 days. The bacterial solution cultured for 10 days was made into stock and these stocks were incubated in R2A broth and batch mode for 5 days. Batch-cultured bacterial culture solution and polyurethane tubing sections were incubated in 12-well plates for 4 days. Biofilm accumulation was confirmed through plating on R2A solid medium. In addition, the thickness of the biofilm and the shape and distribution of the constituent bacteria were confirmed using confocal laser microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The average accumulation of the cultured biofilm over 4 days amounted to $1.15{\times}10^7CFU/cm^2$. The biofilm was widely distributed on the inner surface of the polyurethane tubing and consisted of cocci, short-length rods and medium-length rods. The biofilm thickness ranged from $2{\mu}m$ to $7{\mu}m$. The DUWL biofilm model produced in this study can be used to develop disinfectants and study DUWL biofilm-forming bacteria.

Bonding efficacy of cured or uncured dentin adhesives in indirect resin (간접 레진수복시 상아질 접착제의 중합 여부에 따른 결합 효능)

  • Jang, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Bin-Na;Chang, Hoon-Sang;Hwang, Yun-Chan;Oh, Won-Mann;Hwang, In-Nam
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.36 no.6
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    • pp.490-497
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: This study examined the effect of the uncured dentin adhesives on the bond interface between the resin inlay and dentin. Materials and Methods: Dentin surface was exposed in 24 extracted human molars and the teeth were assigned to indirect and direct resin restoration group. For indirect resin groups, exposed dentin surfaces were temporized with provisional resin. The provisional restoration was removed after 1 wk and the teeth were divided further into 4 groups which used dentin adhesives (OptiBond FL, Kerr; One-Step, Bisco) with or without light-curing, respectively (Group OB-C, OB-NC, OS-C and OS-NC). Pre-fabricated resin blocks were cemented on the entire surfaces with resin cement. For the direct resin restoration groups, the dentin surfaces were treated with dentin adhesives (Group OB-D and OS-D), followed by restoring composite resin. After 24 hr, the teeth were assigned to microtensile bond strength (${\mu}TBS$) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), respectively. Results: The indirect resin restoration groups showed a lower ${\mu}TBS$ than the direct resin restoration groups. The ${\mu}TBS$ values of the light cured dentin adhesive groups were higher than those of the uncured dentin adhesive groups (p < 0.05). CLSM analysis of the light cured dentin adhesive groups revealed definite and homogenous hybrid layers. However, the uncured dentin adhesive groups showed uncertain or even no hybrid layer. Conclusions: Light-curing of the dentin adhesive prior to the application of the cementing material in luting a resin inlay to dentin resulted in definite, homogenous hybrid layer formation, which may improve the bond strength.