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Effects of Probiotics as an Alternative for Antibiotics on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Noxious Gas Emission and Fecal Microbial Population in Growing Piglets (항생제 대체 생균제가 자돈의 생산성,영양소 이용률, 유해가스 발생량 및 분내 미생물 수에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Chung, Heung-Woo;Shim, Kum-Seob;Park, Seung-Young;Ju, Jong-Cheol;Song, Jae-Jun;Lee, Kyung-Ho;Park, Joong-Kook;Park, Do-Yun;Kim, Chang-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.527-539
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to determine the effect of probiotics as an alternative for antibiotics on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, noxious gas emission and fecal microbial population in growing piglets. A total of 96 piglets ($22.5{\pm}1.3$kg average body weight) were allotted to 3 different treatment groups and replicated 4 times with 8 piglets per replicate in randomized complete block design. Treatments were T1) (Control, basal diet+0.2% antibiotics), T2) 0.2% probiotics complex and T3) 0.3% Bacillus probiotics. During the whole experiment period, there were no differences (p>0.05) in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed efficiency. However, digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, ether extract, nitrogen free extract and crude ash were showed higher in probiotics groups (T2 and T3) than those of control. In noxious gas emission, ammonia, amine, hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan were significantly (p<0.05) reduced in T2 and T3 treatments compared to those in control. Moisture content of feces was not significantly different among treatments. The colony forming units (CFU) of total bacteria, E. coli and thermoduric bacteria in feces were significantly different among treatments. The CFU of total bacteria, E. coli and thermoduric bacteria in T3 treatment were reduced by feeding probiotics B. From this study, we suggest that probiotics A and B are likely able to improve the growth performance and nutrients digestibility, reduce noxious gas emission and change the fecal microbial composition in growing piglets.

Effect of $\beta$-glucan Extracted from Youngji Mushroom on the Growth Performance of Weaning Pigs (영지버섯에서 추출한 $\beta$-glucan 이 자돈의 생산능력에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Shim, Keum-Seob;Choi, Nag-Jin;Kim, Ji-Hoon;Kim, Yong-Hyun;Kwon, Hyun-Jung;Kim, Sun-Ki;Han, Man-Deuk
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.401-418
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    • 2010
  • This experiment was selected a $\beta$-glucan producing mushroom strain and developed industrial media, and used to $\beta$-glucan as an alternative for antibiotics in weaned pigs. Yields of mycelial biomass and extracellular $\beta$-glucan from Youngji (Ganoderma lucidum) mushroom was 8.52g/L and 4.49g/L respectively. Also, we prepared optimum formula for mushroom cultivations. A total of 144 pigs ($8.6{\pm}0.9$ kg average body weight, weaned $20{\pm}3$ days of age) were allotted to 4 different treatment groups and replicated 4 times with 8 pigs per replicate in randomized complete block design. Treatments were T1) NC (negative control, basal diet), T2) PC (positive control, basal diet+0.255% antibiotics), T3) NC+0.2% $\beta$-glucan and T4) PC+0.2% $\beta$-glucan. The T2 and T4 treatments were significantly higher in feed efficiency by antibiotics group (p<0.05), however, there was no significant differences in terms of average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) during phase I (0~14 days). In phase II (15~28 days), Pigs fed with antibiotics and $\beta$-glucan (T4) had greater ADG than other treatments (p<0.05), while no differences were observed in ADFI and feed efficiency. During the whole experiment period, the ADG of T4 treatment was higher than other treatments. Pigs fed with $\beta$-glucan (T3 and T4) had greater diarrhea score and moisture content than other treatments (p<0.05). Pigs fed with $\beta$-glucan (T3 and T4) had greater moisture content than other treatments (p<0.05). However, there was no significant differences in diarrhea score and mortality of weaned pigs. There was marginal reductions in feed cost measured feed cost per weight gain used in antibiotics and $\beta$-glucan added diet during phase I. In the second phase, the treatment supplemented with antibiotics had a significantly lower feed cost per weight gain compared to the other treatments. The results from these experiments suggests that $\beta$-glucan is likely able to improve the growth performance, and reduce feed cost although they do not have similar effects like antibiotics in weaning pigs.

The Characteristics of IgA Nephropathy when Detected early in Mass School Urine Screening (학교 집단 요검사로 조기 진단된 IgA 신증 환아의 임상적 특징)

  • Kim, Sae Yoon;Lee, Sang Su;Lee, Jae Min;Kang, Seok Jeong;Kim, Yong Jin;Park, Yong Hoon
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) is one of the major causes of end-stage renal disease. Mass school urine screening (SUS) has been performed to enable early detection of chronic renal diseases, including IgAN. We wanted to evaluate the patients with IgAN, including those diagnosed through SUS. Methods: Between 1998 and 2010, 64 children were diagnosed with IgAN based on renal biopsy results obtained at the Pediatric Nephrology Department, ${\bigcirc\bigcirc}$ University Hospital. We divided these patients into the SUS group (37 cases), diagnosed through SUS, and the symptomatic (Sx) group (27 cases), diagnosed clinically. The medical records of both groups were analyzed retrospectively. Results: The mean age of the SUS and Sx groups was $10.8{\pm}2.7$ and $9.5{\pm}3.4$ years (P >0.05), respectively. Both groups had a higher proportion of male patients. The time from the notification of an abnormal urinary finding to a hospital visit or renal biopsy was shorter in the Sx group than in the SUS group. Regarding clinical manifestations, there were fewer cases with gross hematuria (P <0.001) and edema (P =0.008) in the SUS group, but there were no differences in terms of the therapeutic regimen and treatment duration. Regarding laboratory parameters, the Sx group had a higher white blood cell count (P =0.007) and lower hemoglobin (P =0.007) and albumin (P =0.000) levels. There were no differences in the renal biopsy findings in both groups, based on the history of gross hematuria or the severity of proteinuria. However, in all 64 patients with IgAN, the light microscopy findings (Hass classification) were related to a history of gross hematuria or the severity of proteinuria. Conclusion: There were no significant clinical and histological differences between the groups, as both had early stage IgAN. Although SUS facilitates the early detection of IgAN, long-term, large-scale prospective controlled studies are needed to assess the benefits of early diagnosis and treatment in chronic renal disease progression.

Impacts of Introduced Fishes (Carassius cuvieri, Micropterus salmoides, Lepomis macrochirus) on Stream Fish Communities in South Korea (외래어류가 우리나라 하천생태계 어류 군집에 미치는 영향: 떡붕어(Carassius cuvieri), 배스(Micropterus salmoides), 블루길(Lepomis macrochirus)을 대상으로)

  • Lee, Dae-Seong;Lee, Da-Yeong;Ji, Chang Woo;Kwak, Ihn-Sil;Hwang, Soon-Jin;Lee, Hae-Jin;Park, Young-Seuk
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.53 no.3
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    • pp.241-254
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    • 2020
  • Three introduced fish species, Japanese white crucian carp (Carassius cuvieri Temminck and Schlegel, 1846), bass (Micropterus salmoides Lacepède, 1802) and bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus Rafinesque, 1819), are dominant fishes in Korean freshwater ecosystem. In this study, we analyzed habitat environment conditions of these three species and their impacts to fish communities in streams across South Korea. Fish community data were obtained from the database of the Stream/River Ecosystem Survey and Health Assessment program maintained by the Ministry of Environment and the National Institute of Environmental Research, Korea. Our results showed that species richness and Shannon diversity of fish were higher at the presence sites of introduced fish than at the absence sites. However, when the abundance of these introduced fish species was increased, the species richness and abundance of fish were decreased. An association analysis showed that the introduced fish species had a low similarity in their appearance with some indigenous fishes such as Siniperca scherzeri and Channa argus and some endemic fishes of Korea such as Zacco koreanus, Sarcocheilichthys variegatus wakiyae, and Acheilognathus yamatsutae. In addition, the introduced fish species had a low appearance similarity with a large number of fishes in their association networks. Finally, our results presented that these introduced fish species influenced the negative impacts to the stream fish communities, and they were potential risk factors for fish community in Korean freshwater ecosystem. Therefore, it is necessary that continuous monitoring and establishment of management strategy for introduced fish species to preserve fish resource and biodiversity in the Korean streams.

Current Status and Perspectives in Varietal Improvement of Rice Cultivars for High-Quality and Value-Added Products (쌀 품질 고급화 및 고부가가치화를 위한 육종현황과 전망)

  • 최해춘
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47
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    • pp.15-32
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    • 2002
  • The endeavors enhancing the grain quality of high-yielding japonica rice were steadily continued during 1980s-1990s along with the self-sufficiency of rice production and the increasing demands of high-quality rices. During this time, considerably great progress and success was obtained in development of high-quality japonica cultivars and quality evaluation techniques including the elucidation of interrelationship between the physicochemical properties of rice grain and the physical or palatability components of cooked rice. In 1990s, some high-quality japonica rice cultivars and special rices adaptable for food processing such as large kernel, chalky endosperm, aromatic and colored rices were developed and its objective preference and utility was also examined by a palatability meter, rapid-visco analyzer and texture analyzer, Recently, new special rices such as extremely low-amylose dull or opaque non-glutinous endosperm mutants were developed. Also, a high-lysine rice variety was developed for higher nutritional utility. The water uptake rate and the maximum water absorption ratio showed significantly negative correlations with the K/Mg ratio and alkali digestion value(ADV) of milled rice. The rice materials showing the higher amount of hot water absorption exhibited the larger volume expansion of cooked rice. The harder rices with lower moisture content revealed the higher rate of water uptake at twenty minutes after soaking and the higher ratio of maximum water uptake under the room temperature condition. These water uptake characteristics were not associated with the protein and amylose contents of milled rice and the palatability of cooked rice. The water/rice ratio (in w/w basis) for optimum cooking was averaged to 1.52 in dry milled rices (12% wet basis) with varietal range from 1.45 to 1.61 and the expansion ratio of milled rice after proper boiling was average to 2.63(in v/v basis). The major physicochemical components of rice grain associated with the palatability of cooked rice were examined using japonica rice materials showing narrow varietal variation in grain size and shape, alkali digestibility, gel consistency, amylose and protein contents, but considerable difference in appearance and texture of cooked rice. The glossiness or gross palatability score of cooked rice were closely associated with the peak, hot paste and consistency viscosities of viscosities with year difference. The high-quality rice variety "IIpumbyeo" showed less portion of amylose on the outer layer of milled rice grain and less and slower change in iodine blue value of extracted paste during twenty minutes of boiling. This highly palatable rice also exhibited very fine net structure in outer layer and fine-spongy and well-swollen shape of gelatinized starch granules in inner layer and core of cooked rice kernel compared with the poor palatable rice through image of scanning electronic microscope. Gross sensory score of cooked rice could be estimated by multiple linear regression formula, deduced from relationship between rice quality components mentioned above and eating quality of cooked rice, with high probability of determination. The $\alpha$-amylose-iodine method was adopted for checking the varietal difference in retrogradation of cooked rice. The rice cultivars revealing the relatively slow retrogradation in aged cooked rice were IIpumbyeo, Chucheongyeo, Sasanishiki, Jinbubyeo and Koshihikari. A Tonsil-type rice, Taebaegbyeo, and a japonica cultivar, Seomjinbyeo, showed the relatively fast deterioration of cooked rice. Generally, the better rice cultivars in eating quality of cooked rice showed less retrogradation and much sponginess in cooled cooked rice. Also, the rice varieties exhibiting less retrogradation in cooled cooked rice revealed higher hot viscosity and lower cool viscosity of rice flour in amylogram. The sponginess of cooled cooked rice was closely associated with magnesium content and volume expansion of cooked rice. The hardness-changed ratio of cooked rice by cooling was negatively correlated with solids amount extracted during boiling and volume expansion of cooked rice. The major physicochemical properties of rice grain closely related to the palatability of cooked rice may be directly or indirectly associated with the retrogradation characteristics of cooked rice. The softer gel consistency and lower amylose content in milled rice revealed the higher ratio of popped rice and larger bulk density of popping. The stronger hardness of rice grain showed relatively higher ratio of popping and the more chalky or less translucent rice exhibited the lower ratio of intact popped brown rice. The potassium and magnesium contents of milled rice were negatively associated with gross score of noodle making mixed with wheat flour in half and the better rice for noodle making revealed relatively less amount of solid extraction during boiling. The more volume expansion of batters for making brown rice bread resulted the better loaf formation and more springiness in rice breed. The higher protein rices produced relatively the more moist white rice bread. The springiness of rice bread was also significantly correlated with high amylose content and hard gel consistency. The completely chalky and large grain rices showed better suitability far fermentation and brewing. The glutinous rice were classified into nine different varietal groups based on various physicochemical and structural characteristics of endosperm. There was some close associations among these grain properties and large varietal difference in suitability to various traditional food processing. Our breeding efforts on improvement of rice quality for high palatability and processing utility or value-adding products in the future should focus on not only continuous enhancement of marketing and eating qualities but also the diversification in morphological, physicochemical and nutritional characteristics of rice grain suitable for processing various value-added rice foods.ice foods.

Study on Reproductive and Pork Production Performance for Two-way and Three-way Crosses in Swine (이원교잡종(二元交雜種) 및 삼원교잡종(三元交雜種) 돼지의 산자(産仔) 및 산육능력(産肉能力)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Chang Sik;Lee, Kyu Seung
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.51-63
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    • 1981
  • The results of a crossbreeding experiment with a total of 315 litters and 325 pigs of Berkshires, Hampshires, Durocs, Landraces, Large Whites, eight different two-breed crosses and twelve different three-breed crosses, produced at Livestock Experiment Station from 1975 through 1979, are summarized as follows. 1. Number born alive per litter was largest in the D♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ mating, followed by the D♂${\times}$(H♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ mating, and smallest in the Hampshires. The pigs in the 3rd-6th parities had larger litter size at birth than those in other parities. 2. Birth weight of pig was heaviest in L♂${\times}$Lw♀ mating and lightest in the Large White. The total litter weight at birth was heaviest in the D♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ mating, followed by D♂${\times}$(H♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ and Lw♂${\times}$L♀ matings, and was smaller in Hampshires and Birkshires. 3. Litter size at weaning was largest in the D♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ mating, followed by D♂${\times}$(H♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ and Lw♂${\times}$L♀ matings, and was smaller in Durocs and Hampshires. The pigs in the 3rd-6th parities had larger litter size at weaning than those in other parities. 4. The total litter weight at weaning was heaviest in the D♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ mating, followed by H♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$♀ and Lw♂${\times}$L♀ matings, and was lighter in Durocs and Hampshires. The weaning weight of pig was largest in D♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ mating and lightest in L♂${\times}$H♀ mating. 5. Survival rate at weaning was highest in L♂${\times}$Lw♀ mating, followed by D♂${\times}$(L♂${\times}$H♀) $F_1$ ♀ and D♂${\times}$(H♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ mating, and was lowest in Durocs. 6. The three-breed cross from D♂${\times}$(H♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ mating had the highest average gain and lowest feed requirement per unit gain, followed by the D♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ and H♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ matings. The Birkshires and Landraces ranked lowest among the 25 mating groups compared for both of the traits. Males had higher average daily gain than females by about 0.06kg and had lower feed requirement by about 0.14. 7. The three-breed crosses from D♂${\times}$(H♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀, D♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ and H♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ matings reached 90kg body weight at younger age than the other groups. The D♂${\times}$(H♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀ group reached 90kg at younger age than the Landrace by 39 days. 8. The dressing percentage and lean meat percentage tended to be higher in H♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$ ♀, H♂${\times}$L♀ and L♂${\times}$B♀ matings compared to the other mating groups. The loin-eye area was largest in the Lw♂${\times}$L♀ mating and smallest in the B♂${\times}$L♀ mating. Males had higher dressing percentage, higher lean meat percentage and lion-eye area than females. The backfat was thinnest in purebred Hampshire and was thickest in B♂${\times}$L♀ mating. 9. The results obtained in this study suggest that the two-breed cross from Lw♂${\times}$L♀ mating, and the three-breed crosses from D♂${\times}$(Lw♂${\times}$L-♀) $F_1$ ♀ and D♂${\times}$(H♂${\times}$L♀) $F_1$♀ matings are superior crossbreds for reproductive and pork prodnction performance.

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Pharmacological Studies of Cefoperazone(T-1551) (Cefoperazone(T-1551)의 약리학적 연구)

  • Lim J.K.;Hong S.A.;Park C.W.;Kim M.S.;Suh Y.H.;Shin S.G.;Kim Y.S.;Kim H.W.;Lee J.S.;Chang K.C.;Lee S.K.;Chang K.C.;Kim I.S.
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.55-70
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    • 1980
  • The pharmacological and microbiological studies of Cefoperazone (T-1551, Toyama Chemical Co., Japan) were conducted in vitro and in vivo. The studies included stability and physicochemical characteristics, antimicrobial activity, animal and human pharmacokinetics, animal pharmacodynamics and safety evaluation of Cefoperazone sodium for injection. 1) Stability and physicochemical characteristics. Sodium salt of cefoperazone for injection had a general appearance of white crystalline powder which contained 0.5% water, and of which melting point was $187.2^{\circ}C$. The pH's of 10% and 25% aqueous solutions were 5.03 ana 5.16 at $25^{\circ}C$. The preparations of cefoperazone did not contain any pyrogenic substances and did not liberate histamine in cats. The drug was highly compatible with common infusion solutions including 5% Dextrose solution and no significant potency decrease was observed in 5 hours after mixing. Powdered cefoperazone sodium contained in hermetically sealed and ligt-shielded container was highly stable at $4^circ}C{\sim}37^{\circ}C$ for 12 weeks. When stored at $4^{\circ}C$ the potency was retained almost completely for up to one year. 2) Antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates. Among the 230 clinical isolates included, Salmonella typhi was the most susceptible to cefoperazone, with 100% inhibition at MIC of ${\leq}0.5{\mu}g/ml$. Cefoperazone was also highly active against Streptococcus pyogenes(group A), Kletsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and Shigella flexneri, with 100% inhibition at $16{\mu}g/ml$ or less. More than 80% of Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes and Salmonella paratyphi was inhibited at ${\leq}16{\mu}/ml$, while Enterobacter cloaceae, Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aerogenosa were somewhat less sensitive to cefoperagone, with inhibitions of 60%, 55% and 35% respectively at the same MIC. 3) Animal pharmacokinetics Serum concentration, organ distritution and excretion of cefoperazone in rats were observed after single intramuscular injections at doses of 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg. The extent of protein binding to human plasma protein was also measured in vitro br equilibrium dialysis method. The mean Peak serum concentrations of $7.4{\mu}g/ml$ and $16.4{\mu}/ml$ were obtained at 30 min. after administration of cefoperazone at doses of 20 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively. The tissue concentrations of cefoperazone measured at 30 and 60 min. were highest in kidney. And the concentrations of the drug in kidney, liver and small intestine were much higher than in blood. Urinary and fecal excretion over 24 hours after injetcion ranged form 12.5% to 15.0% in urine and from 19.6% to 25.0% in feces, indicating that the gastrointestinal system is more important than renal system for the excretion of cefoperazone. The extent of binding to human plasma protein measured by equilibrium dialysis was $76.3%{\sim}76.9%$, which was somewhat lower than the others utilizing centrifugal ultrafiltration method. 4) Animal pharmacodynamics Central nervous system : Effects of cefoperazone on the spontaneous movement and general behavioral patterns of rats, the pentobarbital sleeping time in mice and the body temperature in rabbits were observed. Single intraperitoneal injections at doses of $500{\sim}2,000mg/kg$ in rats did not affect the spontaneous movement ana the general behavioral patterns of the animal. Doses of $125{\sim}500mg/kg$ of cefoperazone injected intraperitonealy in mice neither increased nor decreased the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time. In rabbits the normal body temperature was maintained following the single intravenous injections of $125{\sim}2,000mg/kg$ dose. Respiratory and circulatory system: Respiration rate, blood pressure, heart rate and ECG of anesthetized rabbits were monitored for 3 hours following single intravenous injections of cefoperazone at doses of $125{\sim}2,000mg/kg$. The respiration rate decreased by $3{\sim}l7%$ at all the doses of cefoperazone administered. Blood pressure did not show any changes but slight decrease from 130/113 to 125/107 by the highest dose(2,000 mg/kg) injected in this experiment. The dosages of 1,000 and 2,000 mg/kg seemed to slightly decrease the heart rate, but it was not significantly different from the normal control. All the doses of cefoperazone injected were not associated with any abnormal changes in ECG findings throughout the monitering period. Autonomic nervous system and smooth muscle: Effects of cefoperazone on the automatic movement of rabbit isolated small intestine, large intestine, stomach and uterus were observed in vitro. The autonomic movement and tonus of intestinal smooth muscle increased at dose of $40{\mu}g/ml$ in small intestine and at 0.4 mg/ml in large intestine. However, in stomach and uterine smooth muscle the autonomic movement was slightly increased by the much higher doses of 5-10 mg/ml. Blood: In vitro osmotic fragility of rabbit RBC suspension was not affected by cefoperazone of $1{\sim}10mg/ml$. Doses of 7.5 and 10 mg/ml were associated with 11.8% and 15.3% prolongation of whole blood coagulation time. Liver and kidney function: When measured at 3 hours after single intravenous injections of cefoperaonze in rabbits, the values of serum GOT, GPT, Bilirubin, TTT, BUN and creatine were not significantly different from the normal control. 5) Safety evaluation Acute toxicity: The acute toxicity of cefoperazone was studied following intraperitoneal and intravenous injections to mice(A strain, 4 week old) and rats(Sprague-Dawler, 6 week old). The LD_(50)'s of intraperitonealy injected cefoperazone were 9.7g/kg in male mice, 9.6g/kg in female mice and over 15g/kg in both male and female rats. And when administered intravenously in rats, LD_(50)'s were 5.1g/kg in male and 5.0g/kg in female. Administrations of the high doses of the drug were associated with slight inhibition of spontaneous movement and convulsion. Atdominal transudate and intestinal hyperemia were observed in animals administered intraperitonealy. In rats receiving high doses of the drug intravenously rhinorrhea and pulmonary congestion and edema were also observed. Renal proximal tubular epithelial degeneration was found in animals dosing in high concentrations of cefoperazone. Subacute toxicity: Rats(Sprague-Dawley, 6 week old) dosing 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g/kg/day of cefoperazone intraperitonealy were observed for one month and sacrificed at 24 hours after the last dose. In animals with a high dose, slight inhibition of spontaneous movement was observed during the experimental period. Soft stool or diarrhea appeared at first or second week of the administration in rats receiving 2.0g/kg. Daily food consumption and weekly weight gain were similar to control during the administration. Urinalysis, blood chemistry and hematology after one month administration were not different from control either. Cecal enlargement, which is an expected effect of broad spectrum antibiotic altering the normal intestinal microbial flora, was observed. Intestinal or peritoneal congestion and peritonitis were found. These findings seemed to be attributed to the local irritation following prolonged intraperitoneal injections of hypertonic and acidic cefoperazone solution. Among the histopathologic findings renal proximal tubular epithelial degeneration was characteristic in rats receiving 1 and 2g/kg/day, which were 10 and 20 times higher than the maximal clinical dose (100 mg/kg) of the drug. 6) Human pharmacokinetics Serum concentrations and urinary excretion were determined following a single intravenous injection of 1g cefoperazone in eight healthy, male volunteers. Mean serum concentrations of 89.3, 61.3, 26.6, 12.3, 2.3, and $1.8{\mu}g/ml$ occured at 1,2,4,6,8 and 12 hours after injection respectively, and the biological half-life was 108 minutes. Urinary excretion over 24 hours after injection was up to 43.5% of administered dose.

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Studies on the Drying Mechanism of Stratified Soil-Comparison between Bare Surface and Grass plot- (성층토양의 건조기구에 관한 연구)

  • 김철기
    • Magazine of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.2913-2924
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    • 1973
  • This study was to investigate the drying mechanism of stratified soil by investigating 'effects of the upper soil on moisture loss of the lower soil and vice versa' and at the same time by examining how the drying progressed in the stratified soils with bare surface and with vegetated surface respectively. There were six plots of the stratified soils with bare surface($A_1- A_6$ plot) and the same other six plots($B_1- B_5$ plot), with vegetated surface(white clover). These six plots were made by permutating two kinds of soils from three kinds of soils; clay loam(CL). Sandy loam(SL). Sand(s). Each layer was leveled by saturating sufficient water. Depth of each plot was 40cm by making each layer 20cm deep and its area. $90{\times}90(cm^2)$. The cell was put at the point of the central and mid-depth of the each layer in the each plot in order to measure the soil moisture by using OHMMETER. soil moisture tester, and movement of soil water from out sides was cut off by putting the vinyl on the four sides. The results obtained were as follow; 1. Drying progressed from the surface layer to the lower layer regardless of plots. There was a tendency thet drying of the upper soil was faster than that of the lower soil and drying of the plot with vegetated surface was also faster than that of the plot with bare surface. 2. Soil moisture was recovered at approximately the field capacity or moisture equivalent by infiltration in the course of drying, when there was a rainfall. 3. Effects of soil texture of the lower soil on dryness of the upper soil in the stratified soil were explained as follows; a) When the lower soil was S and the upper, CL or SL, dryness of the upper soils overlying the lower soil of S was much faster than that overlying the lower soil of SL or CL, because sandy soil, having the small field capacity value and playing a part of the layer cutting off to some extent capillary water supply. Drying of SL was remarkably faster than that of CL in the upper soil. b) When the lower soil was SL and the upper S or CL, drying of the upper soil was the slowest because of the lower SL, having a comparatively large field capacity value. Drying of CL tended to be faster than that of S in the upper soil. c) When the lower soil was CL and the upper S or SL, drying of the upper soil was relatively fast because of the lower CL, having the largest field capacity value but the slowest capillary conductivity. Drying of SL tended to be faster than that of S in the upper soil. 4. According to a change in soil moisture content of the upper soil and the lower soil during a day there was a tendency that soil moisture contents of CL and SL in the upper soil were decreased to its minimum value but that of S increased to its maximum value, during 3 hours between 12.00 and 15.00. There was another tendency that soil moisture contents of CL, SL and S in the lower soil were all slightly decreased by temperature rising and those in a cloudy day were smaller than those in a clear day. 5. The ratio of the accumulated soil moisture consumption to the accumulated guage evaporation in the plot with vegetated surface was generally larger than that in the plot with bare surface. The ratio tended to decrease in the course of time, and also there was a tendency that it mainly depended on the texture of the upper soil at the first period and the texture of the lower soil at the last period. 6. A change in the ratio of the accumulated soil moisture consumption was larger in the lower soil of SL than in the lower soil of S. when the upper soil was CL and the lower, SL and S. The ratio showed the biggest figure among any other plots, and the ratio in the lower soil plot of CL indicated sligtly bigger than that in the lower soil plot of S, when the upper soil was SL and the lower, CL and S. The ratio showed less figure than that of two cases above mentioned, when the upper soil was S and the lower CL and SL and that in the lower soil plot of CL indicated a less ratio than that in the lower soil plot of SL. As a result of this experiments, the various soil layers wero arranged in the following order with regard to the ratio of the accumulated soil moisture consumption: SL/CL>SL/S>CL/SL>CL/S$\fallingdotseq$S/SL>S/CL.

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Kim Eung-hwan's Official Excursion for Drawing Scenic Spots in 1788 and his Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains (1788년 김응환의 봉명사경과 《해악전도첩(海嶽全圖帖)》)

  • Oh, Dayun
    • MISULJARYO - National Museum of Korea Art Journal
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    • v.96
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    • pp.54-88
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    • 2019
  • The Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains comprises sixty real scenery landscape paintings depicting Geumgangsan Mountain, the Haegeumgang River, and the eight scenic views of Gwandong regions, as well as fifty-one pieces of writing. It is a rare example in terms of its size and painting style. The paintings in this album, which are densely packed with natural features, follow the painting style of the Southern School yet employ crude and unconventional elements. In them, stones on the mountains are depicted both geometrically and three-dimensionally. Since 1973, parts of this album have been published in some exhibition catalogues. The entire album was opened to the public at the special exhibition "Through the Eyes of Joseon Painters: Real Scenery Landscapes of Korea" held at the National Museum of Korea in 2019. The Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains was attributed to Kim Eung-hwan (1742-1789) due to the signature on the final leaf of the album and the seal reading "Bokheon(painter's penname)" on the currently missing album leaf of Chilbodae Peaks. However, there is a strong possibility that this signature and seal may have been added later. This paper intends to reexamine the creator of this album based on a variety of related factors. In order to understand the production background of Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains, I investigated the eighteenth-century tradition of drawing scenic spots while travelling in which scenery of was depicted during private travels or official excursions. Jeong Seon(1676-1759), Sim Sa-jeong(1707-1769), Kim Yun-gyeom(1711-1775), Choe Buk(1712-after 1786), and Kang Se-hwang(1713-1791) all went on a journey to Geumgangsan Mountain, the most famous travel destination in the late Joseon period, and created paintings of the mountain, including Album of Pungak Mountain in the Sinmyo Year(1711) by Jeong Seon. These painters presented their versions of the traditional scenic spots of Inner Geumgangsan and newly depicted vistas they discovered for themselves. To commemorate their private visits, they produced paintings for their fellow travelers or sponsors in an album format that could include several scenes. While the production of paintings of private travels to Geumgangsan Mountain increased, King Jeongjo(r. 1776-1800) ordered Kim Eung-hwan and Kim Hong-do, court painters at the Dohwaseo(Royal Bureau of Painting), to paint scenic spots in the nine counties of the Yeongdong region and around Geumgangsan Mountain. King Jeongjo selected these two as the painters for the official excursion taking into account their relationship, their administrative experience as regional officials, and their distinct painting styles. Starting in the reign of King Yeongjo(r. 1724-1776), Kim Eung-hwan and Kim Hong-do served as court painters at the Dohwaseo, maintained a close relationship as a senior and a junior and as colleagues, and served as chalbang(chief in large of post stations) in the Yeongnam region. While Kim Hong-do was proficient at applying soft and delicate brushstrokes, Kim Eung-hwan was skilled at depicting the beauty of robust and luxuriant landscapes. Both painters produced about 100 scenes of original drawings over fifty days of the official excursion. Based on these original drawings, they created around seventy album leaves or handscrolls. Their paintings enriched the tradition of depicting scenic spots, particularly Outer Inner Geumgang and the eight scenic views of Gwandong around Geumgangsan Mountain during private journeys in the eighteenth century. Moreover, they newly discovered places of scenic beauty in the Outer Geungang and Yeongdong regions, establishing them as new painting themes. The Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains consists of four volumes. The volumes I, II include twenty-nine paintings of Inner Geumgangsan; the volume III, seventeen scenes of Outer Geumgangsan; and the volume IV, fourteen images of Maritime Geumgangsan and the eight scenic views of Gwandong. These paintings produced on silk show crowded compositions, geometrical depictions of the stones and the mountains, and distinct presentation of the rocky peaks of Geumgangsan Mountain using white and grayish-blue pigments. This album reflects the Joseon painting style of the mid- and late eighteenth century, integrating influences from Jeong Seon, Kang Se-hwang, Sim Sa-jeong, Jeong Chung-yeop(1725-after 1800), and Kim Hong-do. In particular, some paintings in the album show similarities to Kim Hong-do's Album of Famous Mountains in Korea in terms of its compositions and painterly motifs. However, "Yeongrangho Lake," "Haesanjeong Pavilion," and "Wolsongjeong Pavilion" in Kim Eung-hwan's album differ from in the version by Kim Hong-do. Thus, Kim Eung-hwan was influenced by Kim Hong-do, but produced his own distinctive album. The Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains includes scenery of "Jaundam Pool," "Baegundae Peak," "Viewing Birobong Peak at Anmunjeom groove," and "Baekjeongbong Peak," all of which are not depicted in other albums. In his version, Kim Eung-hwan portrayed the characteristics of the natural features in each scenic spot in a detailed and refreshing manner. Moreover, he illustrated stones on the mountains using geometric shapes and added a sense of three-dimensionality using lines and planes. Based on the painting traditions of the Southern School, he established his own characteristics. He also turned natural features into triangular or rectangular chunks. All sixty paintings in this album appear rough and unconventional, but maintain their internal consistency. Each of the fifty-one writings included in the Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains is followed by a painting of a scenic spot. It explains the depicted landscape, thus helping viewers to understand and appreciate the painting. Intimately linked to each painting, the related text notes information on traveling from one scenic spot to the next, the origins of the place names, geographic features, and other related information. Such encyclopedic documentation began in the early nineteenth century and was common in painting albums of Geumgangsan Mountain in the mid- nineteenth century. The text following the painting of Baekhwaam Hermitage in the Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains documents the reconstruction of the Baekhwaam Hermitage in 1845, which provides crucial evidence for dating the text. Therefore, the owner of the Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains might have written the texts or asked someone else to transcribe them in the mid- or late nineteenth century. In this paper, I have inferred the producer of the Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains to be Kim Eung-hwan based on the painting style and the tradition of drawing scenic spots during official trips. Moreover, its affinity with the Handscroll of Pungak Mountain created by Kim Ha-jong(1793-after 1878) after 1865 is another decisive factor in attributing the album to Kim Eung-hwan. In contrast to the Album of Famous Mountains in Korea by Kim Hong-do, the Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains exerted only a minor influence on other painters. The Handscroll of Pungak Mountain by Kim Ha-jong is the sole example that employs the subject matter from the Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains and follows its painting style. In the Handscroll of Pungak Mountain, Kim Ha-jong demonstrated a painting style completely different from that in the Album of Seas and Mountains that he produced fifty years prior in 1816 for Yi Gwang-mun, the magistrate of Chuncheon. He emphasized the idea of "scholar thoughts" by following the compositions, painterly elements, and depictions of figures in the painting manual style from Kim Eung-hwan's Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains. Kim Ha-jong, a member of the Gaeseong Kim clan and the eldest grandson of Kim Eung-hwan, is presumed to have appreciated the paintings depicted in the nature of Album of Complete Views of Seas and Mountains, which had been passed down within the family, and newly transformed them. Furthermore, the contents and narrative styles of Yi Yu-won's writings attached to the paintings in the Handscroll of Pungak Mountain are similar to those of the fifty-one writings in Kim Eunghwan's album. This suggests a possible influence of the inscriptions in Kim Eung-hwan's album or the original texts from which these inscriptions were quoted upon the writings in Kim Ha-jong's handscroll. However, a closer examination will be needed to determine the order of the transcription of the writings. The Album of Complete View of Seas and Mountains differs from Kim Hong-do's paintings of his official trips and other painting albums he influenced. This album is a siginificant artwork in that it broadens the understanding of the art world of Kim Eung-hwan and illustrates another layer of real scenery landscape paintings in the late eighteenth century.