• Title, Summary, Keyword: Large White

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Association of Novel Polymorphisms in Lymphoid Enhancer Binding Factor 1 (LEF-1) Gene with Number of Teats in Different Breeds of Pig

  • Xu, Ru-Xiang;Wei, Ning;Wang, Yu;Wang, Guo-Qiang;Yang, Gong-She;Pang, Wei-Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1254-1262
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    • 2014
  • Lymphoid enhancer binding factor 1 (LEF-1) is a member of the T-cell specific factor (TCF) family, which plays a key role in the development of breast endothelial cells. Moreover, LEF-1 gene has been identified as a candidate gene for teat number trait. In the present study, we detected two novel mutations (NC_010450.3:g. 99514A>G, 119846C>T) by DNA sequencing and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism in exon 4 and intron 9 of LEF-1 in Guanzhong Black, Hanjiang Black, Bamei and Large White pigs. Furthermore, we analyzed the association between the genetic variations with teat number trait in these breeds. The 99514A>G mutation showed an extremely significant statistical relevance between different genotypes and teat number trait in Guanzhong (p<0.001) and Large White (p = 0.002), and significant relevance in Hanjiang (p = 0.017); the 119846C>T mutation suggested significant association in Guanzhong Black pigs (p = 0.042) and Large White pigs (p = 0.003). The individuals with "AG" or "GG" genotype displayed more teat numbers than those with "AA"; the individuals with "TC" or "CC" genotype showed more teat numbers than those with "TT". Our findings suggested that the 99514A>G and 119846C>T mutations of LEF-1 affected porcine teat number trait and could be used in breeding strategies to accelerate porcine teat number trait improvement of indigenous pigs breeds through molecular marker assisted selection.

Effects of Beak Trimming, Stocking Density and Sex on Carcass Yield, Carcass Components, Plasma Glucose and Triglyceride Levels in Large White Turkeys

  • Sengul, Turgay;Inci, Hakan;Sengul, Ahmet Y.;Sogut, Bunyamin;Kiraz, Selahattin
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.715-720
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to determine the effects of beak trimming, stocking density (D) and sex (S) on live weight (LW), carcass yield and its component, and plasma glucose (PG) and triglyceride levels in Large White turkeys. To accomplish this aims, totally 288 d old large white turkey chicks (144 in each sex) were used. Beaks of 77 male and female poults were trimmed when 8 d old with an electrical beak trimmer. The birds were fed by commercial turkey rasion. Experiment was designed as 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 3 replications in each group. Beak trimming and stocking density did not affect live weight, carcass composition and its components. The higher LW and carcass weight observed in trimmed groups. As expected, male birds are heavier than female, and carcass percentage (CP) would be adverse. However, in this study, CP of male was higher in trimmed, in 0.25 m2/bird. (D) × sex (S) interaction had an effect on both CP and thigh weights (p<0.05). Significantly D × S was observed in LW, CP and PG. The weight of carcass and its some components were higher in male. S × D interaction had an effect on plasma glucose level (p<0.05). Triglyceride level was affected (p<0.05) by sex. Significant relationships were found between percentage of thighs (r=0.447, p<0.01) and percentage of breast (r=0.400, p<0.01). According to this study, it can be said that trimming is useful with density of 0.25 m2/bird in turkey fattening.

Associations between Alu I Polymorphism in the Prolactin Receptor Gene and Reproductive Traits of Slovak Large White, White Meaty and Landrace Pigs

  • Omelka, R.;Martiniakova, M.;Peskovicova, D.;Bauerova, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.484-488
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    • 2008
  • We investigated the effect of the prolactin receptor gene (PRLR) on total number of born (TNB), number of born alive (NBA) and number of weaned (NW) piglets in Large White (LW), White Meaty (WM) and Landrace (L) sows from six Slovak breeding farms. The frequency of A allele was 0.48, 0.49 and 0.47 in LW, WM and L, respectively. We found numerous highly significant effects of PRLR locus on TNB ($p{\leq}0.01$; $p{\leq}0.05$) in all tested breeds. The most marked difference of +$1.31{\pm}0.45pigs/L$ was found between AA and BB genotypes in WM. Within the other breeds the difference between the homozygous genotypes reached up to +$0.94{\pm}0.3$ and +$1.21{\pm}0.19$ pigs per litter in LW and L, respectively. We also identified significant differences between AA and AB genotypes related to TNB in L. Similarly NBA, as well as NW traits were significantly affected ($p{\leq}0.01$; $p{\leq}0.05$) by the genotype just in LW and L. The homozygous genotype AA was favourable in all breeds and traits. Our results showed the possibility of PRLR utilization in marker-assisted selection within breeding programs to increase reproductive traits of pigs in Slovakia.

Isolation, Expression Pattern, Polymorphism and Association Analysis of Porcine TIAF1 Gene

  • Wang, Y.;Xiong, Y.Z.;Ren, Z.Q.;Zuo, B.;Lei, M.G.;Deng, C.Y.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.313-318
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    • 2009
  • TIAF1 is a TGF-${\beta}$1-induced anti-apoptotic factor that plays a critical role in blocking TNF (tumor necrosis factor) cytotoxicity in mouse fibroblasts and participates in TGF-${\beta}$-mediated growth regulation. In this study, we obtained the full-length cDNA sequence of the porcine TIAF1 gene. Real-time PCR further revealed that the TIAF1 gene was expressed at the highest level in liver and kidney with prominent expressions detected in uterus, and lower levels detected in heart, spleen, lung, stomach, small intestine, skeletal muscle and fat of Large White pigs. Sequence analysis indicated that a 6 base-pair deletion mutation existed in the exon of the TIAF1 gene between Meishan and Large White pigs. This mutation induced deletion of Gln and Val amino acids. PCR-RFLP was used to detect the polymorphism in 394 pigs of a "Large White${\times}$Meishan" $F_{2}$ resource population and four purebred pig populations. The frequencies of the A allele (with a 6 bp deletion) were dominant in Chinese Meishan and Bamei pigs, and the frequencies of the B allele (no 6 bp deletion) were dominant in Large White and Landrace pigs. Association analyses revealed that the deletion mutation had highly significant associations (p<0.01) with meat marbling score of the thorax-waist longissimus dorsi (LD) muscle (MM1) and intramuscular fat percentage (IMF), and significant associations (p<0.05) with carcass length (CL). The results presented here supply evidence that the 6 bp deletion mutation in the TIAF1 gene affects porcine meat quality and provides useful information for further porcine breeding.

Hepatic microRNAome reveals potential microRNA-mRNA pairs association with lipid metabolism in pigs

  • Liu, Jingge;Ning, Caibo;Li, Bojiang;Li, Rongyang;Wu, Wangjun;Liu, Honglin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.9
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    • pp.1458-1468
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    • 2019
  • Objective: As one of the most important metabolic organs, the liver plays vital roles in modulating the lipid metabolism. This study was to compare miRNA expression profiles of the Large White liver between two different developmental periods and to identify candidate miRNAs for lipid metabolism. Methods: Eight liver samples were collected from White Large of 70-day fetus (P70) and of 70-day piglets (D70) (with 4 biological repeats at each development period) to construct sRNA libraries. Then the eight prepared sRNA libraries were sequenced using Illumina next-generation sequencing technology on HiSeq 2500 platform. Results: As a result, we obtained 346 known and 187 novel miRNAs. Compared with the D70, 55 down- and 61 up-regulated miRNAs were shown to be significantly differentially expressed (DE). Gene ontology and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes enrichment analysis indicated that these DE miRNAs were mainly involved in growth, development and diverse metabolic processes. They were predicted to regulate lipid metabolism through adipocytokine signaling pathway, mitogen-activated protein kinase, AMP-activated protein kinase, cyclic adenosine monophosphate, phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase/protein kinase B, and Notch signaling pathway. The four most abundantly expressed miRNAs were miR-122, miR-26a and miR-30a-5p (miR-122 only in P70), which play important roles in lipid metabolism. Integration analysis (details of mRNAs sequencing data were shown in another unpublished paper) revealed that many target genes of the DE miRNAs (miR-181b, miR-145-5p, miR-199a-5p, and miR-98) might be critical regulators in lipid metabolic process, including acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 4, ATP-binding casette A4, and stearyl-CoA desaturase. Thus, these miRNAs were the promising candidates for lipid metabolism. Conclusion: Our study provides the main differences in the Large White at miRNA level between two different developmental stages. It supplies a valuable database for the further function and mechanism elucidation of miRNAs in porcine liver development and lipid metabolism.

Relationship Between Bulk Density and Root Weight in White Ginseng (백삼의 심적밀도와 근중과의 관계)

  • Park, Hoon;Kim, Young-Hee;Yang, Cha-Bum
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.224-227
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    • 1993
  • Weight (g/root) and bulk density (g/$cm^3$) of tap root in 15-root-grade of 4-year-old white ginseng were investigated by specific gravity and weight-volume method. Bulk density measured by specific gravity ranged from 0.8 to 1.2g/$cm^3$ with almost normal distribution in frequency (number 1 of roots). Bulk density measured by volume-weight method had significant correlation with root weight. The percentage of high bulk density root (above 1.0) showed significant positive correlation with mean root weight or mean bulk density of root weight, indicating that the growth conditions for large root provide the better compactnes of root tissue.

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Full-Color AMOLED with RGBW Pixel Pattern

  • Amold, A.D.;Hatwar, T.K.;Hettel, M.V.;Kane, P.J.;Miller, M.E.;Murdoch, M.J.;Spindler, J.P.;Slyke, S.A. Van;Mameno, K.;Nishikawa, R.;Omura, T.;Matsumoto, S.
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.808-811
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    • 2004
  • A full-color AMOLED display with an RGBW color filter pattern has been fabricated. Displays with this format require about $^1/_2$ the power of analogous RGB displays. RGBW and RGB 2.16inch diagonal displays with average power consumptions of 180 mW and 340 mW, respectively, are demonstrated for a set of standard digital still camera images at a luminance of 100 cd/$m^2$. In both cases, a white-emitting AMOLED is used as the light source. The higher efficiency of the RGBW format results because a large fraction of a typical image can be represented as white, and the white sub-pixel in an RGBW AMOLED display is highly efficient because of the absence of any color filter. RGBW and RGB AMOLED displays have the same color gamut and, aside from the power consumption difference, are indistinguishable.

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Sclerotial Development of Grifola umbellata

  • Choi, Kyung-Dal;Kwon, Jung-Kyun;Shim, Jae-Ouk;Lee, Sang-Sun;Lee, Tae-Soo;Lee, Min-Woong
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 2002
  • Sclerotial development of Grifola umbellata(Pers. : Fr.) Donk was investigated through microscopic examinations. The sclerotium of G. umbellata was bumpy and rugged, multi-branched, and dark-brown to black in color. The sclerotial development of G. umbellata was categorized into three stages such as sclerotial initial, development and maturation. Sclerotium development was initiated as the white fungal mass. The superficial part of white sclerotium changed into gray, light brown and then black as its development proceeded further. As a distinctive characteristic of this fungus, a large number of crystals were observed in the medulla layer of sclerotium during its maturation. For development of new sclerotium, G. umbellata formed a white sclerotial primordium on the matured sclerotium. Development of sclerotium in G. umbellata was intimately associated with rhizomorphs of Armillariella mellea and the developing sclerotia were often penetrated by rhizomorphs of A. mellea into medulla layer.

Next Generation Technology to Minimize Ecotoxicity and to Develop the Sustainable Environment: White Biotechnology

  • Sang, Byoung-In;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 2005
  • This review aims to show that industrial sustainable chemistry, minimizing or reducing the ecological impacts by the chemicals, is not an emerging trend, but is already a reality through the application of 'White Biotechnology' such as 'green' chemistry and engineering expertise. A large number of current industrial case studies are presented, as well as new developments from the chemical industry. The case studies cover new chemistry, new process design and new equipment. By articulating the requirements for industrial application of sustainable chemistry, this review also seeks to bridge any existing gap between academia and industry regarding the R & D and engineering challenges needed to ensure green chemistry research enables a more sustainable future chemical industry considering eco-toxicological impacts.

A Case of Lymphoma in a Holstein Cattle (젖소에서 발생된 림프종의 1증례)

  • 곽수동;김종섭;김순복;노규진;고필옥
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.289-292
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    • 2000
  • A Holstein cattle with third pregnancy was found to have clinical emergency findings of anxiety, dyspnea and recumbency at just before parturition. So Cesarean section and observation of internal organs were taken. Macroscopic examination showed enlargement of th lymph nodes and spleen, and ascites. A large tumor mass with solid and white to gray-white and focal hemorrhage, 55$\times$120cm in dimension and weighing 25.5kg was found in pelivc cavity. For conventional light microscopy, tissue samples were fixed in 10% neutral formalin solution, and then paraffin embedding, sectining and H-E staining were performed. In microscopic findings, tumor tissue, lymph node and spleeen were composed of mainly lymphoid tumor cells and the number of white blood cells in peripheral blood were increased 10-fold more than in normal. We concluded this tumor was bovine lymphoma.

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