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Geolocation Spectrum Database Assisted Optimal Power Allocation: Device-to-Device Communications in TV White Space

  • Xue, Zhen;Shen, Liang;Ding, Guoru;Wu, Qihui
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.9 no.12
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    • pp.4835-4855
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    • 2015
  • TV white space (TVWS) is showing promise to become the first widespread practical application of cognitive technology. In fact, regulators worldwide are beginning to allow access to the TV band for secondary users, on the provision that they access the geolocation database. Device-to-device (D2D) can improve the spectrum efficiency, but large-scale D2D communications that underlie TVWS may generate undesirable interference to TV receivers and cause severe mutual interference. In this paper, we use an established geolocation database to investigate the power allocation problem, in order to maximize the total sum throughput of D2D links in TVWS while guaranteeing the quality-of-service (QoS) requirement for both D2D links and TV receivers. Firstly, we formulate an optimization problem based on the system model, which is nonconvex and intractable. Secondly, we use an effective approach to convert the original problem into a series of convex problems and we solve these problems using interior point methods that have polynomial computational complexity. Additionally, we propose an iterative algorithm based on the barrier method to locate the optimal solution. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm has strong performance with high approximation accuracy for both small and large dimensional problems, and it is superior to both the active set algorithm and genetic algorithm.

The impact of hair coat color on longevity of Holstein cows in the tropics

  • Lee, C.N.;Baek, K.S.;Parkhurst, A.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.58 no.12
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    • pp.41.1-41.7
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    • 2016
  • Background: Over two decades of observations in the field in South East Asia and Hawai'i suggest that majority of the commercial dairy herds are of black hair coat. Hence a simple study to determine the accuracy of the observation was conducted with two large dairy herds in Hawaii in the mid-1990s. Methods: A retrospective study on longevity of Holstein cattle in the tropics was conducted using DairyComp-305 lactation information coupled with phenotypic evaluation of hair coat color in two large dairy farms. Cows were classified into 3 groups: a) black (B, >90%); b) black/white (BW, 50:50) and c) white (W, >90%). Cows with other hair coat distribution were excluded from the study. In farm A, 211 out of 970 cows were identified having 4 or more lactations. In farm B, 690 out of 1,350 cows were identified with 2 or more lactations for the study. Results: The regression analyses and the Wilcoxon-Log-rank test for survival probability showed that Holstein cattle with 90% black hair coat had greater longevity compared to Holstein cattle with 90% white hair coat. Conclusions: This study suggests that longevity of Holstein cattle in tropical regions was influenced by hair coat color and characteristics.

$N_2$Fixation and Partitioning of Nitrogen and Carbohydrate in White Clover as Affected by Defoliation Interval (예취주기가 White Clover의 질소고정과 질소 및 탄수화물 분배에 미치는 영향)

  • 강진호
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.26-32
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    • 1995
  • Weak persistence of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) under continuous grazing has been limited its availability in the mixture with grasses. The experiment was done to determine the effect of defoliation interval on $N_2$ fixation. nitrogen and carbohydrate partitioning of contrasting white clover cultivars. Individual plants of Osceola(large leaf), Grasslands Huia (me-dium leaf), and Aberystwyth S184 (small leaf) were grown in 15cm plastic pot containing a 1:2:1 soil:sand:Promix mixture for 55 days, and then clipped to remove all fully expanded leaves every 7, 14 or 28 days. To measure the cultivar response, plants were sampled immediately before final harvest (0) and on 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after the final harvest, and then seperated leaves and petioles, stolons and roots for chemical analysis. Total nonstructural carbohydrate (TNC) concentrations of stolons and roots, and nitrogen con-centration of all the fractions inclined with increased defoliation interval. Those of Osceola, large leaved, were greater than the other cultivars showing different partitioning patterns between stolons and roots. Concentration of TNC was less in roots than in the other fractions while that of nitrogen declined in the order of leaves and petioles, roots and stolons. $N_2$ fixation rate of larger leaved cultivar, Osceola, was higher than that of smaller leaved cultivar. TNC and nitrogen concentrations of all the fractions and $N_2$ fixation rate were reduced as defoliation was imposed, defoliation interval declined or regrowing period become shorter. The partitioning patterns of TNC and nitrogen among the fractions were modified by defoliation interval and cultivars.

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Phosphors development for LED and PDP Applications

  • Park, Hee-Dong
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.368-369
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    • 2003
  • The recent development of InGaN-based white light emitting diodes (LEDs) has expanded their potential applications in areas such as white electric home appliances, backlight for mobile phone or notebook PC, and indoor lightings. In this lecture, recent researches related to the phosphors for LEDs applications and their luminescent properties were reviewed. PDPs are considered as the most potential flat panel displays with a large-screen size. Phosphors in PDPs directly affect the brightness and lifetime. So, many researchers have tried to improve the luminescence characteristics of the phosphors especially under vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) excitation. We overviewed recent research trends and conclusive achievements for the PDP phosphors.

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Color Tuning of OLEDs Using the Ir Complexes of White Emission by Adjusting the Band Gap of Host Materials

  • Seo, Ji-Hyun;Kim, In-June;Seo, Ji-Hoon;Hyung, Gun-Woo;Kim, Young-Sik;Kim, Young-Kwan
    • Journal of Information Display
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.18-21
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    • 2008
  • We report on white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) based on single white dopants, $Ir(pq)_2$($F_2$-ppy) and $Ir(F_2-ppy)_2$(pq), where $F_2$-ppy and pq are 2-(2,4-difluorophenyl) pyridine and 2-phenylquinoline, respectively. The similar phosphorescent lifetime of two ligands lead to luminescence emission in two ligands simultaneously. However, the emission color of the devices was reddish, because the energy was not transferred efficiently from the 4,4,N,N'-dicarbazolebiphenyl (CBP) to the $F_2$-ppy ligand, due to the small band gap of the CBP. Accordingly, we used 1,4-phenylenesis(triphenylsilane) (UGH2) with a large band gap, instead of CBP as the host material. As a result, it was possible to adjust the emission color by the host material. The luminous efficiency of the device with $Ir(F_2-ppy)_2$(pq) doped in UGH2 was about 11 cd/A at 0.06 cd/$m^2$.

Mechanism Used by White-Rot Fungus to Degrade Lignin and Toxic Chemicals

  • Chung, Nam-Hyun;Lee, Il-Seok;Song, Hee-Sang;Bang, Won-Gi
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.737-752
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    • 2000
  • Wood-rotting basidiomycetous fungi are the most efficient degraders of lignin on earth. The white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium has been used as a model microorganism in the study of enzymology and its application. Because of the ability of the white-rot fungus to degrade lignin, which has an irregular structure and large molecular mass, this fungus has also been studied in relation to degrading and mineralizing many environmental pollutants. The fungus includes an array of enzymes, such as lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnP), cellobiose:quinone oxidoreductase, and $H_2O_2$-producing enzymes and also produces many other components of the ligninolytic system, such as veratryl alcohol (VA) and oxalate. In addition, the fungus has mechanisms for the reduction of degradation intermediates. The ligninolytic systems have been proved to provide reductive reactions as well as oxidative reactions, both of which are essential for the degradation of lignin and organopollutants. Further study on the white-rot fungus may provide many tools to both utilize lignin, the most abundant aromatic polymer, and bioremediate many recalcitrant organopollutants.

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Reproductive Performance in Post-weaning Sows Using PG600 and Inseminated with Frozen Semen (동결정액과 PG600의 이용이 이유종빈돈의 번식능력에 미치는 영향)

  • 정홍기;김홍주;송우석;박창식
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.15-19
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    • 1988
  • This study was carried out to investigate the fertility and farrowing date in post-weaning sows using PG600 and inseminated with frozen semen. A total of 48 sows of Landrace, Large White and Duroc after 7-week lactation were used at the Chungnam Provincial Animal Breeding Station. The results obtained were summarized as follows: 1. Motility had no significant differences between the breeds, but NAR acrosome was highest in Landrace, followed by Duroc and Large White(p<.01). 2. Interval from weaning to estrus and length of estrus were, respectively, 3.7 days and 52.6hours of sows treated with PG600, and 6.5 days and 53.8 hours for control sows. The average interval from weaning to onset of estrus was significantly(p<.01) shorter by 2.8 days in PG600 treated sows compared to control sows. 3. In Landrace, Duroc and Large White, farrowing rate and number of pigs born alive per litter were 55.0%, 10.0; 43.8%, 8.1; and 16.7%, 3.5, respectively. Average pig weight at birth and survival rate at 56 days had no significant differences between the breeds. 4. Farrowing rate, number of pigs born alive per litter, average pig weight at birth and survival rate at 56 days were, respectivey, 45.8%, 101, 1.56kg and 94.5% for sows treated with PG600, and 37.5%, 7.0, 1.66kg and 93.8% for control sows. Sows treated with PG 600 had an average of 3.1 more pigs at farrowing compared to control sows.

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Ensiled and Dry Cassava Leaves, and Sweet Potato Vines as a Protein Source in Diets for Growing Vietnamese Large White×Mong Cai Pigs

  • Ly, Nguyen T.H.;Ngoan, Le.D.;Verstegen, Martin W.A.;Hendriks, Wouter H.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.9
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    • pp.1205-1212
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    • 2010
  • The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of replacing 70% of the protein from fish meal by protein from ensiled or dry cassava leaves and sweet potato vines on the performance and carcass characters of growing F1 (Large White${\times}$Mong Cai) pigs in Central Vietnam. Twenty-five crossbred pigs (Large White${\times}$Mong Cai) with an initial weight of 19.7 kg (SD = 0.84) were allocated randomly to five treatment groups with 5 animals per group (3 males and 2 females). Pigs were kept individually in pens ($2.0{\times}0.8\;m$) and fed one of five diets over 90 days. The control diet was formulated with fish meal (FM) as the protein source while the other four diets were formulated by replacing 70% of fish meal protein by protein from ensiled cassava leaves (ECL), dry cassava leaves (DCL), dry sweet potato vines (DSPV) or ensiled sweet potato vines (ESPV). Animals were fed their diets at 4% of BW. Results showed that final BW, ADG, DMI and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the experimental treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05). ECL or DCL and ESPV reduced feed cost per unit gain by 8-17.5% compared to the fish meal diet. There were no significant differences in carcass characters among the diets (p>0.05). Lean meat percentages and protein deposition ranged 41.5-45.8% and 40.2-52.9 g/d, respectively. Using ensiled or dry cassava leaves and sweet potato vine can replace at least 70% of the protein from fish meal (or 35% of total diet CP) without significant effects on performance and carcass traits of growing (20-65 kg) pigs. Including cassava leaves and sweet potato vines could improve feed cost and therefore has economic benefits.

cDNA Cloning, Tissue Expression and Association of Porcine Pleiomorphic Adenoma Gene-like 1 (PLAGL1) Gene with Carcass Traits

  • Zhang, F.W.;Cheng, H.C.;Deng, C.Y.;Xiong, Y.Z.;Li, F.E.;Lei, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1257-1261
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    • 2006
  • Pleiomorphic adenoma gene-like1 (PLAGL1) encodes a zinc-finger (ZF) protein with seven ZFs of the C2H2-type which is a regulator of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest, and also regulates the secretion of insulin. In both human and mouse, PLAGL1 is a candidate gene for tumor suppressor and transient neonatal diabetes mellitus (TNDM). In this study, a 2,238 bp fragment covering the complete coding region was obtained and deposited to GenBank (accession number: DQ288899). The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) indicated that PLAGL1 was expressed almost equally in heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine, skeletal muscle, fat, uterus and ovary. Comparing the sequences of Large White and Meishan pigs, a C-T transition in exon 6 was found. The polymorphism could be detected by TaqI and was genotyped in five purebreds (Large White, Landrace, Meishan, Tongcheng and Bamei). Association analysis was performed between the polymorphism and carcass traits in 276 pigs of a "Large White${\times}$Meishan" F2 resource population. As a consequence, significant associations of the genotypes with shoulder backfat thickness (SFT) and internal fat rate (IFR) were observed. Pigs with TT genotype had low SFT and high IFR compared with TC or CC genotypes.

ASCL2 Gene Expression Analysis and Its Association with Carcass Traits in Pigs

  • Cheng, H.C.;Zhang, F.W.;Deng, C.Y.;Jiang, C.D.;Xiong, Y.Z.;Li, F.E.;Lei, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.10
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    • pp.1485-1489
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    • 2007
  • Achaete-scute like 2 (ASCL2) gene encodes a member of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor which is essential for the maintenance of proliferating trophoblasts during placental development. ASCL2 gene preferentially expresses the maternal allele in the mouse. However, it escapes genomic imprinting in the human. In this study, the complete open reading frame consisting of 193 amino acids of ASCL2 gene was obtained. Sequence analysis indicated that a C-G mutation existed in the 3' region between Meishan and Large White pigs. The polymorphism was used to determine the monoallelic or biallelic expression with RT-PCR-RFLP in pigs of Large $White{\times}Meishan$ $F_1$ hybrids. Imprinting analysis indicated that the ASCL2 gene expression was biallelic in all the tested tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung, kidney, stomach, small intestine, skeletal muscle, fat, uterus, ovary and pituitary). PCR-RFLP was used to detect the polymorphism in 270 pigs of the "$Large\;White{\times}Meishan$" $F_2$ resource population. The statistical results showed highly significant associations of the genotypes and fat meat percentage (FMP), lean meat percentage (LMP) and ratio of lean to fat (RLF) (p<0.01), and significant associations of the genotypes and loin eye area (LEA) and internal fat rate (IFR) (p<0.05).