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Flip Chip Bump 3D Inspection Equipment using White Light Interferometer with Large F.O.V. (대시야 백색광 간섭계를 이용한 Flip Chip Bump 3차원 검사 장치)

  • Koo, Young Mo;Lee, Kyu Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.286-291
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, in-line type flip chip bump 3D inspection equipment, using white light interferometer with large F.O.V., which is aimed to be used in flip chip bump test process is developed. Results of flip chip bump height measurement in many substrates and repeatability test results for the bumps in fixed location of each substrate are shown. Test results from test bench and those from developed flip chip bump 3D inspection equipment are compared and as a result repeatability is improved by reducing the impact of system vibration. A valuation basis for the testing quality of flip chip bump 3D inspection equipment is proposed.

Shoot.Root Growth and Nodule Formation of White Clover as Affected by Removal of Cotyledon and Unifoliolate (자엽 및 단엽 제법에 따른 White Clover 지상부 및 지하부 생장과 근류유형)

  • 강진호;한경수;박진서;이희원
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 1994
  • Slow seedling growth rate and nodulation failure of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) has been limited its good establishment to pastures. The experiment was done to determine the effect of removal of cotyledon and unifoliolate on the shoot, root growth, and nodule formation of 4 white clover cultivars for 8 weeks after the treatment. Four white clover cv. Regal (large leaf), Louisiana S-I (medium-large leaf), Grasslands Huia (mediumsmall leaf), and Aberystwyth S184 (small leaf), were grown in IOcm plastic pot containing 2:l:l soi1:sand:peat moss mixture until grown to cotyledon or unifoliolate stage and then removed one (Cl) or two cotyledons (C2) at cotyledon stage, and unifoliolate only (U), unifoliolate and one cotyledon (UCl) or unifoliolate and two cotyledons (UC2) at the unifoliolate stage, and the plants were sampled at 4, 6 and 8 weeks after the treatments. The intact plants had greater shoot and root dry weights, and no. of nodules than removal-treated ones. Removal treatments at cotyledon stage, the dry weight and no. of nodules more decreased in C1 and C2 than that of unifoliolate stage. While the severer cotyledon removal, the more reduction. Although the dry weights and no. of nodules steadily inclined with regrowing period, the former were higher in Regal and La. S-1 than in the others since 6 weeks after removal treatment but the latter was more in S 184 than in the others 8 weeks after removal treatment. Relationship between no. of nodules and shoot or root dry weight was analysed as linear mode while the earlier and severe removal, the steeper slope. It was concluded that severer damage of cotyledon and unifoliolate had detrimental effects on the shoot and root growth, nodule formation, and aftermath establishment of white clover.

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Single Tone Detection Algorithm for Improve on Auto White Balance of Mobile Phone Camera (모바일 폰 카메라의 자동백색보정 성능향상을 위한 단색영상 검출 알고리즘)

  • Kim, Kyung-Rin;Jang, Won-Woo;Kim, Joo-Hyun;Yang, Hoon-Gee;Kang, Bong-Soon
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Information and Communication Engineering
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.1292-1302
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, we proposed Single Tone Detection Algorithm for prevent decoloration and color distortion of single tone image in auto white balance of mobile phone camera. Conventional auto white balance which accomplish very well using complex color images, but there are some problems if input images are single tone image or included large part of single tone. If input images are singlet one, or included large part of single tone, which cause decoloration or distorted color in output images. In this paper, we proposed single tone detection algorithm using color histogram data for solve decoloration or distorted color problems. If this algorithm is applied to auto white balance, it will be improvement in auto white balance.

Ultrastructure of Fresh Root Turned into Inside White of Red Ginseng (홍삼 내백부의 수삼 미세구조)

  • Cho, Byung-Goo;Park, Hoon;Lee, Jun-Seong
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.187-190
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    • 1994
  • The pith and xylem parts of fresh root that turned into inside-white during processing for red ginseng was investigated under scanning electron microscope in comparison with the sa31e position of fresh root processed into normal reddening. In the inside-white part starch storage cells remain mostly in vacancy or with small number of starch granules and with large hollow by missing cell membranes between cells. Many starch seed granules appeared on the surface of storage cell wall in the inside-white part. Fresh root sample showed better picture than dried powder.

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High Performance Tandem OLEDs for Large Area Full Color AM Displays and Lighting Applications

  • Hatwar, T.K.;Spindler, J.P.;Slyke, S.A. Van
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.1577-1582
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    • 2006
  • Tandem OLED structures formed by connecting two or more low-voltage electroluminescent units (stacks) are effective for achieving high efficiency at low current density as well as long operational lifetime. We have fabricated white emitting tandem structures with two or three low-voltage white-emitting stacks using transparent organic "PN"-type connectors. Three- stack white tandem structures with efficiency greater than 24 cd/A at D65 and operational stability of about 110,000 h. (extrapolated) at $1000\;cd/m^2$ have been demonstrated. With a stacked structure, the power consumption for displays using an RGBW format can be reduced by 25% compared to previously described formulations. We have also fabricated advanced white tandem structures where the color gamut (NTSC x,y ratio) has been improved to greater than 70% using standard color filters. The white OLEDs can also be used to increase the colorrendering index CRI (>80%), an important consideration for solid-state lighting.

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Evaluation of White-rot Fungi for Biopulping of Wood

  • Kang, Kyu-Young;Sung, Jung-Suk;Kim, Dae-Young
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.205-209
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    • 2007
  • Ergosterol involves in fungal cell growth as a major component in fungal cell membranes. It can be an indicator that shows the fungal activity, and its content depends on the fungal strains, culture, growth conditions and so on. In this study, fungal activities and growth patterns of three white-rot fungi strains isolated in Korea were evaluated by determination of ergosterol contents during the incubation. Wood decay test and chemical analyses of wood were also performed to verify the relationship between fungal activity and wood degrading capacity of white-rot fungi for 60 days. In the results of experiments, it is considered that the test strains selectively degrade large amount of lignin in wood at the early stage of decay. Especially, Phanerochaete chrysosporium showed the best capability on selective degradation of lignin among the test fungi. It is suggested that the determination of ergosterol content in the fungal culture during the incubation is the simple and effective screening method of white-rot fungi for the application to biopulping of wood.

A Study on the Wearing Practice of the White Costumes during King Jeongjo's Reign (정조연간의 백색복식(白色服飾) 착용풍습에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Ji-Hee;Hong, Na-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.64 no.8
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    • pp.164-178
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    • 2014
  • Historically, white clothes have been passed down through the generations as the symbol of the Korean people. This study was motivated after coming across a text written by Lee Ok(李鈺, 1760~1815), a writer during the Joseon dynasty. Lee wrote that "Koreans mostly wear blue clothes." This raised questions regarding the wearing practice of the white clothes at the time of King Jeongjo's reign(1776~1800), and led to further studies on the matter. The results show that discussions were held about changing the color of the government official's changui(氅衣) from white to blue. An order was also given replacing white boots with black boots. Therefore, it is supposed that blue clothes phenomenon was influenced from the blue changui policy. However, this change was temporary as later generations wore preferred white with the exception being women's skirts. Women preferred blue skirts to white skirts for a long period. Detailed analysis of the white changui showed that people were burdened by high dyeing costs, and this was a big factor as studies indicated a large gap in wealth disparity. In a society that put funeral and ancestral rites as one of its priorities, the white clothes could have been favored due to its multi-functional use. Also, the noblemen who set importance on Gija(箕子) Joseon connected white clothes custom to Gija. This connotes that the reason for wearing white clothes differed depending on the class. And as white clothes were widely worn, people developed different ways of wearing the clothes for aesthetic purposes.

Age-dependent Changes of Differential Gene Expression Profile in Backfat Tissue between Hybrids and Parents in Pigs

  • Ren, ZH.Q.;Xiong, Yuanzhu;Deng, CH.Y.;Zuo, B.;Liu, Y.G.;Lei, M.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.682-685
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    • 2005
  • Large White, an introduced European pig breed, and Meishan, a Chinese indigenous pig breed, were hybridized directly and reciprocally and a total of 260 pigs, including purebreds, Large White and Meishan, and their hybrids, White${\times}$Meishan (LM) and Meishan${\times}$Large White (ML) pigs, were bred in our laboratory. The mRNA differential display PCR (DD-PCR) was used to detect the age-dependent changes of differential gene expression in backfat tissue between hybrids and parents. Some measures were taken to reduce the false positives in our experiment. Among the total of 2,686 bands obtained, 1,952 bands (about 72.67%) were reproducible and eight patterns (fifteen kinds) of gene expression were observed. The percentage of differentially expressed genes between hybrids and parents is 56.86% at the age of four months and 57.71% at the age of six months. This indicated that the differences of gene expression between hybrids and their parents were very obvious. U-test was used to compare the patterns of gene expression between the age of four and six months, and results showed that bands occurring in only one hybrid and bands displayed in one hybrid and one parent were significantly different at p<0.05, and bands visualized in only two hybrids were significantly different at p<0.01. These indicated that differential gene expression between hybrids and parents changed at different ages.

The Fabrication and Characteristics of White Emission Using CCM on Flexible Substrate (플렉시블 무기EL 색변환 백색 발광 소자 제작 및 특성평가)

  • Kim, Gi-Ryoung;Ahn, Sung-Il;Kum, Jeong-Hun;Lee, Heung-Ryeol;Yim, Tae-Hong;Lee, Seong-Eui
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Electrical and Electronic Material Engineers Conference
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    • pp.411-412
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    • 2007
  • EL (electro luminescent) is generally studied as a large size plane light emitting device and flexible light source because of it's simple manufacturing process. In this experiment, we manufactured flexible white emitting light source using Ni-foil with blue phosphor and color change materials. With increasing the thickness of color change material, the luminance of white emission is increased and the color coordinate of white color was shifted to pure white of (0.317,0.328) by strong emission of color change materials excited by blue excitation spectra. Also the luminance level was 30% higher in white emitting light device than blue only light source.

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