• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lamivudine

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Lamivudine Therapy Exacerbates Bilirubinemia in Patients Underlying Severely Advanced Hepatitis

  • Choi, Young Hee;Lee, Chang Ho;Ko, Myong Suk;Han, Hyun Joo;Kim, Sang Geon
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.343-350
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    • 2017
  • Lamivudine belongs to the set of antiviral agents effective against hepatitis B virus infection. Given case reports on liver injuries after certain antiviral agent treatments, this study examined the effects of lamivudine on alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and total bilirubin (TB) using a medical system database. A total of 1,321 patients taking lamivudine alone or with others were evaluated using laboratory hits in an electronic medical system at Seoul National University Hospital from 2005 through 2011. The patients were grouped according to prior ALT results: G#1, ALT < 40 IU/L; G#2, 40 IU/L ${\leq}$ ALT < 120 IU/L; G#3, 120 IU/L ${\leq}$ ALT < 240 IU/L; and G#4, ALT ${\geq}$ 240 IU/L. In G#1 and G#2 patients, lamivudine or adefovir treatment decreased ALT and TB compared to prior values. In G#3 and G#4 patients with three times the upper limit of normal (ULN) ${\leq}$ ALT < 15 times the ULN, both ALT and TB were decreased after treatment with lamivudine alone, or adefovir following lamivudine therapy, indicating that lamivudine therapy ameliorated liver functions. However, in G#4 patients who experienced severely advanced hepatitis (ALT ${\geq}$ 15 times the ULN, or ${\geq}$ 600 IU/L), lamivudine augmented TBmax ($6.3{\rightarrow}13.3mg/dL$) despite a slight improvement in ALT ($839{\rightarrow}783IU/L$), indicative of exacerbation of bilirubinemia. Patients who used adefovir after lamivudine also showed a high incidence of hyperbilirubinemia when they experienced severely advanced hepatitis. Treatment with adefovir alone did not show the effect. In conclusion, lamivudine may increase the risk of hyperbilirubinemia in patients with severely advanced hepatitis, implying that caution should be exercised when using lamivudine therapy in certain patient populations.

The Effect of 52 week Lamivudine Therapy in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B (만성 B형 바이러스성 간염환자에서 lamivudine 52주 투여의 치료효과에 대한 연구)

  • 견진옥;오정미;조성원
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.131-139
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    • 2001
  • Lamivudine, an oral nucleoside analogue, effectively inhibits hepatitis B virus replication and reduces hepatic necroinflammation in patients with chronic hepatitis B. Although lamivudine has shown a promise in patients with chronic hepatitis B, a long-term data on Korean patients with hepatitis B are lacking. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects and safety of 52-week lamivudine therapy in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis B, A total of twenty-nine patients (27 male and 2 female) who had received 100 mg of oral lamivudine daily for 52 weeks were evaluated, retrospectively. The mean age of 29 patients in the study group was 37.7 $\pm$ 8.9 years (range 19-54). Pretreatment HBV PCR and HBsAg were positive in all 29 patients, and HBeAg were positive in 25 patients (86%). The serum HBV DNA of 28 patients (97%) significantly fell to undetectable levels (<5 pg/ml) within 12 weeks of therapy and it remained undetectable in 24 patients (83%) by the end of 52-week therapy (p<0.001). Mean serum ALT levels of 29 patients declined to the normal range within 12 weeks and remained within the normal range during the evaluative period (p<0.05). The proportions of patients with HBeAg seroconversion (loss of HBeAg, development of antibody to HBeAg, and undetectable HBV DNA) were 42% after 52-week therapy. The differences of response to lamivudine therapy in HBeAg- positive and HBeAg-negative patients were negligible (p>0.05). Furthermore, the study showed that pretreatment serum HBV DNA and ALT levels have no effect to the efficacy of lamivudine therapy (p>0.05). Further comparison of lamivudine's efficacy showed that lamivudine is just as efficacious in patients with cirrhosis as without cirrhosis (p>0.05). In conclusion, lamivudine is an effective and safe therapy for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Korean patients.

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Lamivudine- and Adefovir-Induced Tinnitus in a Patient with Hepatitis B: A Case Report (B형 간염 환자에서 Lamivudine과 Adefovir 병용처방으로 유발된 이명의 증례보고)

  • Jung, Eun-Hee;Bang, Joon Seok;Lee, Yu Jeung
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.175-177
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    • 2013
  • Lamivudine and adefovir are medications used to treat hepatitis B. We observed the occurrence of tinnitus after administering lamivudine and adefovir to a 49-year-old hepatitis B patient for two months. The patient had no comorbidities and no history of ear diseases, including tinnitus, and was not taking any other medications. In general, neither lamivudine nor adefovir are known to induce tinnitus as an adverse reaction. A literature search revealed that this is the first case in which tinnitus occurred after lamivudine and adefovir were administered to a hepatitis B patient. Therefore, we believe that this case is clinically valuable and decided to report it.

Detection of HBV Resistance to Lamivudine in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B Using Zip Nucleic Acid Probes in Kerman, Southeast of Iran

  • Afshar, Reza Malekpour;Mollaie, Hamid Reza
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.3657-3661
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    • 2012
  • HBV infection is contagious and may be transmitted vertically or horizontally by blood products and body secretions. Over 50% of Iranian carriers have contracted the infection prenatally, making this the most likely route of transmission of HBV in Iran. This study assesses the resistance to Lamivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection using a new ZNA probe Real Time PCR method. To evaluate the effectiveness of Lamivudine therapy for chronic hepatitis B infection, a study was conducted on 70 patients (63 men and 7women), who had received the drug first line. All patients were tested for the presence of HBsAg and HBeAg, the serum ALT level and the HBV DNA load before and after treatment. In all samples resistance to Lamivudine was tested with the ZNA Probe. Our results showed that ZNA Probe Real Time PCR method could detect wild type,YMDD, and its mutants, tyrosine-isoleucine-aspartate-aspartate and tyrosine-valine-aspartate-Aspartate. Among an estimated seventy patients with chronic hepatitis B infection, 18 (25.7%) were resistant to lamivudine. Only one patient was negative for presence of HBS-Ag (5.6%) and two patients were negative for HBe-Ag (11.1%). Real-time PCR with Zip nucleic acid probes is a sensitive, specific and rapid detection method for mutations in the YMDD motif, which will be essential for monitoring patients undergoing Lamivudine antiviral therapy.

Increased DNA Polymerase Fidelity of the Lamivudine Resistant Variants of Human Hepatitis B Virus DNA Polymerase

  • Hong, Young-Bin;Choi, Yong-Wook;Jung, Gu-Hung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.167-176
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    • 2004
  • Although efficient antiviral lamivudine is used for HBV-infected patients, a prolonged treatment with nucleoside analogs often results in lamivudine-resistant variants. In this study, we evaluated the fidelity of the lamivudine-resistant variants. The FLAG-tagged wild-type (FPolE) and Met550 variants (FPolE/M550A, M550V, and M550I) of HBV DNA polymerases were expressed in insect cells then purified. Like many other reverse transcriptases, no $3'{\rightarrow}5'$ exonuclease activity was detected in the HBV DNA polymerase. Since there is no proofreading activity, then the use of the site-specific nucleotide misincorporation method is beneficial. From the $f_{ins}$ value analysis, it is evident that M550I and M550V exhibit higher fidelity values than the wild-type HBV DNA polymerase, while M550A exhibits similar fidelity values. It is therefore suggested that lamivudine resistance comes from the stringency to dNTP binding and the discrimination of dCTP and lamivudine in M550V and M550I.

The management and treatment of chronic hepatitis B in Korean children (소아 만성 B형 간염의 관리와 치료)

  • Choe, Byung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.9
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    • pp.823-834
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    • 2007
  • Interferon (IFN) alpha has been the first line therapy of chronic hepatitis B in children, but HBeAg seroconversion occurred in 26% of treated children compared to 11% of controls in multinational randomized controlled study. Recently, lamivudine was shown to be a potent inhibitor of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reproduction both in HBeAg positive and in HBeAg negative (the pre-core mutant form) chronic hepatitis in randomized studies worldwide. Lamivudine therapy led to considerable improvement in the seroconversion rate of HBeAg in children with chronic hepatitis B, though long-term therapy resulted in the expansion of lamivudine-resistant mutant viruses. Combination therapy with lamivudine plus alpha-IFN does not seem to improve HBe Ag seroconversion. Above all, the most effective way to prevent hepatitis B is universal HBV vaccination.

Detection of Lamivudine-Resistant Mutations of HBV DNA Polymerase Gene Using PCR-Direct Sequencing

  • Lee, Kyung-Ok;Lee, Hye-Jung;Byun, Ji-Young;Lee, Sung-Yeun;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Jung, Na-Young;Chung, Soo-Jin;Seong, Hye-Soon;Kim, Kyung-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.196-202
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    • 2006
  • Treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with lamivudine is effective in suppressing virus replication and results in reduced inflammatory activity. However the most troublesome problem of lamivudine treatment is the emergence of lamivudine-resistant strains with amino acid substitution in the YMDD motif of DNA polymerase gene during the treatment. The aim of this study was to determine the mutation of YMDD motif (codon 552) and codon 528 in chronic HBV patients with lamivudine therapy using PCR-direct sequencing and to investigate the relationship between lamivudine mediated HBV mutation and HBeAg. HBV DNA was extracted from serum samples of HBV patients and amplified by nested PCR with two sets of primer pairs selected in HBV DNA polymerase gene. Amplified PCR product was analyzed by 2% agarose gel electrophoresis and direct sequencing. HBV mutation was detected in 124 out of 207 samples (60%). Single mutation was 50.8% for M552I, 43.5% for M552V, 5.7% for M552I/V and the L528M mutation was 67.0%. Double mutation was 43.6% for M552V/L528M, 33.1% for M552I/L528(wild type), 17.7% for M552I/L528M and 5.6% for M552I/V/L528M. Serine mutation at YMDD motif (M552S) was not found and the L528M mutation frequently accompanied M552V type. In this study, the typical difference of frequencies for HBV mutation depending on HBeAg was not found. Moreover, the PCR-direct sequencing method used in this study might be a powerful tool for the mutation study in clinical reference laboratories with high volume.

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Current Role of Lamivudine Regarding Therapeutic Response and Resistance in Children with Chronic Hepatitis B

  • Hong, Suk Jin;Kim, Yeo Hyang;Choe, Byung-Ho;Park, Hyo Jung;Tak, Won-Young;Kweon, Young-Oh
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.80-88
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: To identify the predictive factors of long-term therapeutic response or resistance to lamivudine treatment in children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis B. Methods: Eighty one children and adolescents with chronic hepatitis B were included, who received lamivudine treatment for at least 6 months. Their condition was monitored for at least 12 months (12-88 months) thereafter. Twenty one (25.9%) were preschool children ($age{\leq}6$). For patients who had developed HBeAg seroconversion or breakthrough, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify the effects of age, gender, pretreatment alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and hepatitis B virus DNA levels. Results: HBeAg seroconversion occurred in 49 (60.5%) of the 81 patients after the initiation of the lamivudine therapy. In 65 patients whom were monitored for over 24 months, the seroconversion rate was significantly higher in younger patients (p=0.040), especially in those patients of preschool age ($age{\leq}6$, p=0.031). The seroconversion rate was significantly higher in higher pretreatment ALT (p=0.003). The breakthrough occurred in 21 (25.9%) of the 81. The breakthrough rate was lower in younger aged patients ($age{\leq}6$), and with higher pretreatment ALT levels, but no significant difference. Conclusion: Younger age is a good predictor of HBeAg seroconversion in children with long-term lamivudine treatment as well as high pretreatment ALT levels.

Clinical Experience with Long-term Lamivudine Therapy to Determine the Adequate Duration of Treatment in Children and Adolescents with HBeAg-Negative Chronic Hepatitis B (HBeAg 음성 만성 B형 간염 소아청소년 환자에서 라미부딘의 적절 치료 기간 결정을 위한 장기 치료 경험)

  • Kim, Jung-Mi;Hong, Suk-Jin;Choi, Byung-Ho;Chu, Mi-Ae;Cho, Seung-Man;Choe, Byung-Ho
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To provide the primary data for reaching a consensus on the adequate duration of treatment of lamivudine in children with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B. Methods: Seven of 83 children/adolescents with chronic hepatitis B were diagnosed with HBeAg-negative and HBV DNA-positive chronic hepatitis B and treated with lamivudine. Six children/adolescents were enrolled among 7 patients, who had been treated with lamivudine over 2 years. The primary goal of treatment was HBV DNA clearance and normalization of the serum ALT level; the final goal of treatment was the durability of the complete response after discontinuation of lamivudine. It was planned to continue lamivudine for more than two additional years after HBV DNA negativity and normalization of ALT. Results: The mean duration of lamivudine treatment was 32.2 months (range, 26~40 months) and the mean duration of follow-up was 59.5 months (range, 26~110 months). HBV DNA levels became undetectable (<0.5 pg/mL) in 6 patients within 3 months of treatment. ALT levels were normalized in 3.5 months (range, 2~7 months) in all 6 patients. Biochemical breakthrough developed in 1 patient 18 months after the initiation of lamivudine treatment. No evidence of relapse could be found in 4 patients with a mean follow-up of 23.8 months (range, 4~75 months) after cessation of lamivudine treatment. Conclusion: Suppression of HBV replication and normalization of serum ALT levels were effectively achieved with long-term lamivudine treatment in children/adolescents with HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B. Two additional years of lamivudine may be needed after HBV DNA clearance and ALT normalization in HBeAg-negative chronic hepatitis B in order to decrease the relapse rate.

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Therapeutic Efficacy of Lamivudine in Children and Adolescents with Chronic Hepatitis B (만성 B형 간염 소아청소년 환자에서의 라미부딘 치료 효과)

  • Choi, Yujung;Bae, Kil Seoung;Kim, Ki Hwan;Koh, Dae Kyun;Kim, Jong-Hyun
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.72-81
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This prospective study aimed to investigate the therapeutic efficacy of lamivudine in children with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Methods: During July 2003 through October 2015, children with chronic hepatitis B who visited our institution were included in this study. Fifty-five patients, who received first-line treatment of lamivudine (3 mg/kg, 100 mg maximum) for over three months, were enrolled. After initiating lamivudine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), HBV-DNA, and HBV markers were followed up at 1 month, 3 months, and every 3 months, thereafter. The treatment endpoint was determined as 1) normalization of ALT, 2) HBeAg seroconversion, and 3) anti-HBe positivity for twelve consecutive months. Results: Thirty-one male (56.4%) and 24 female (43.6%) patients were included. The mean age at treatment initiation was 8.1 years. The mean duration of treatment was 23.4 months. ALT normalization was found in 98.2% (54 of 55). Anti-HBe seroconversion was found in 70.6% (36/51). Loss of HBsAg was found in 10.9% (6/55). All biochemical responses occurred under age seven. The rate of virologic response (defined as HBV-DNA <2,000 IU/mL) at six months after treatment initiation was 78.7% (37/47). At twelve months after reaching treatment endpoint, 87.2% (34/39) maintained their virologic response. Resistance to lamivudine was found in 16.4% (9/55). Conclusions: Lamivudine treatment in Korean pediatric patients with chronic hepatitis B showed better outcomes compared with other studies that implemented similar protocols in foreign populations. Further studies are needed to investigate the efficacy of newly recommended antiviral drugs on the Korean pediatric population.