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An Assessment of the Usage of the Lagos Mass Transit Trains

  • Oni, S.I.;Okanlawon, K.R.
    • International Journal of Railway
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.29-37
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    • 2012
  • The rail sector, despite its potential for curtailing the present chaotic transport situation in Lagos, remains inefficient and underutilized. In spite of past initiatives and the current attempt by the Lagos State Government to provide a mass transit rail service in Lagos, the share of rail mode in the transport sector has not been encouraging and the railway plays an insignificant role in urban mass transit in Lagos at present. This paper sets out to assess the usage of the Lagos mass transit trains. Hence, the paper determines the passenger traffic flow along the rail route in Lagos and the number of passengers carried between 2000 and 2009 by the Lagos Mass Transit Trains (LMTT) with a view to assessing the usage of the present LMTT. This paper also discusses the historical development of Nigerian railway and describes rail transport in Lagos. Data were obtained through secondary sources coupled with review of literature. The result of this study shows that for a period of 10 years (2000-2009), Lagos mass transit trains carried a total of 9,870,101 passengers, which gives an average of 987,010 passengers annually. This suggests that the service of the Lagos mass transit train is grossly underutilized. However, LMTT contributes enormously to NRC by carrying 68.5% of the total passenger traffic of NRC between 2000 and 2009. In terms of passenger traffic flow along the route of LMTT, for a period of 1 year, Agbado station recorded the largest number of passengers (393,811), followed by Ijoko (163,652) and Iddo (120,787), while Iganmu station has the lowest number of rail commuters (16,919). This study also discloses that the major commodities hauled by Lagos district of NRC from Lagos to the northern parts of the country in 2007 are Cars, Cement, Billet and Wheat.

Occupational Hazards and Safety Measures Amongst the Paint Factory Workers in Lagos, Nigeria

  • Awodele, Olufunsho;Popoola, Temidayo D.;Ogbudu, Bawo S.;Akinyede, Akin;Coker, Herbert A.B.;Akintonwa, Alade
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.106-111
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    • 2014
  • Background: The manufacture of paint involves a variety of processes that present with medical hazards. Safety initiatives are hence introduced to limit hazard exposures and promote workplace safety. This aim of this study is to assess the use of available control measures/initiatives in selected paint factories in Lagos West Senatorial District, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 400 randomly selected paint factory workers were involved in the study. A well-structured World Health Organization standard questionnaire was designed and distributed to the workers to elicit information on awareness to occupational hazards, use of personal protective devices, and commonly experienced adverse symptoms. Urine samples were obtained from 50 workers randomly selected from these 400 participants, and the concentrations of the heavy metals (lead, cadmium, arsenic, and chromium) were determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The results show that 72.5% of the respondents are aware of the hazards associated with their jobs; 30% have had formal training on hazards and safety measures; 40% do not use personal protective devices, and 90% of the respondents reported symptoms relating to hazard exposure. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) increase in the mean heavy metal concentrations in the urine samples obtained from paint factory workers as compared with nonfactory workers. Conclusion: The need to develop effective frameworks that will initiate the integration and ensure implementation of safety regulations in paint factories is evident. Where these exist, there is a need to promote adherence to these practice guidelines.

Risk Perception and Correlates of Tobacco Use among Young People Outside of Formal School Settings in Lagos State, Nigeria

  • Odukoya, OO;Dada, MR;Olubodun, T;Igwilo, UA;Ayo-Yusuf, OA
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.2833-2839
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    • 2016
  • Background: Tobacco use among youth is a major public health problem. Youth outside of formal school settings are often understudied but may be at increased risk. Materials and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among 326 young people aged 15-24 years in four randomly selected motor parks in Lagos state. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data. Results: The mean age of the respondents was $21.0{\pm}2.3yrs$. Many 252 (77.3%) dropped out before the end of the third year of secondary schooling. The majority were aware that active (78.2%), and passive smoking (77.3%) are harmful to health. Nearly two-thirds of the respondents disagreed with an outright ban of cigarettes (63.2%) and restriction of cigarette sales to persons below 18 years (67.9%) while 254 (66.8%) supported a ban on tobacco smoking in enclosed public places. One hundred and fifty (46.0%) respondents had experimented with smoking of which 106 (32.5%) had progressed to become current smokers. Half of the current smokers, 54 (50.9%), felt the need for a cigarette first thing in the morning. A multivariate analysis for smoking initiation, showed that for every increasing year of age, respondents were 1.08 times more likely to have initiated cigarette smoking; males and respondents who lived alone or with peers were 2.34 times and 1.77 times more likely to have initiated smoking respectively; those who consume alcohol and marijuana were 7.27 and 1.89 times respectively more likely to have initiated smoking while those who consumed alcohol were 6.17 times more likely to be current smokers.

Age of initiation, Determinants and Prevalence of Cigarette Smoking among Teenagers in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos State, Nigeria

  • Abiola, AO;Balogun, OS;Odukoya, OO;Olatona, FA;Odugbemi, TO;Moronkola, RK;Solanke, AA;Akintunde, OJ;Fatoba, OO
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1209-1214
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    • 2016
  • Background: Cigarette smoking constitutes a major threat to the health and wellbeing of teenagers. While smoking has been on decline in the developed countries, the reverse is the case in developing countries. The aim of this study was to determine the age of initiation, determinants and prevalence of cigarette smoking among teenagers in Mushin Local Government Area of Lagos state, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study among 475 teenagers selected by multistage sampling. A pre-tested, structured, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. The study was carried out in November, 2014. Results: Response rate was 84.6%. Mean age of the respondents was $16.4{\pm}1.65years$. Range and mean age of initiation of cigarette smoking were 7 to 17 years and $12.0{\pm}3.32years$ respectively. Teenagers who were above 15 years (OR:5.13, 95%CI: 0.87-30.26), males (OR:5.19, 95%CI: 1.57-17.18), married (OR:8.41, 95%CI: 1.04-63.35), had ${\leq}$primary school education(OR:4.31, 95%CI: 1.07-17.33), influenced by friends(OR:308.84, 95%CI:84.87-1123.81), and influenced by advertisements (OR:27.83, 95%CI: 3.92-197.64) were more likely to have initiated cigarette smoking. Furthermore, teenagers who were males (OR:12.77, 95%CI: 2.90-56.28), married (OR:19.24, 95%CI: 2.05-180.45), had ${\leq}$primary school education(OR:7.85, 95%CI: 2.37-26.01), influenced by friends(OR:28.56, 95%CI: 10.86-75.07), and influenced by advertisements (OR:5.95, 95%CI: 1.72-20.61) were more likely to be current cigarette smokers. In addition, 24.9% had initiated cigarette smoking while 14.7% were current smokers of cigarette. Conclusions: Mean age of initiation of cigarette smoking was $12.0{\pm}3.32years$. Determinants of cigarette smoking were age, gender, marital status, educational background, friends and advertisements. Life time prevalence of cigarette smoking was higher than prevalence of current cigarette smokers. Cigarette smoking reduction programs should take these factors into consideration.

The effect of stabilization exercise on pain-related disability, sleep disturbance, and psychological status of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain

  • Akodu, Ashiyat Kehinde;Akindutire, Oluwagbemisola Marian
    • The Korean Journal of Pain
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2018
  • Background: Sleep disturbance and depression are becoming more recognized as important symptoms among individuals with chronic low back pain. This study evaluated the effect of stabilization exercise on pain-related disability, sleep disturbance and the psychological status of patients with non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP). Methods: A total of 26 patients (M/F = 17/9) with NSCLBP with a mean age of $50.0{\pm}15.5$ took part in this study. Participants were recruited from selected hospitals in Lagos state. Ethical approval was sought and obtained from the health research and ethics committee of Lagos University Teaching Hospital Idi-araba, Lagos, Nigeria. Participants performed stabilization exercise for eight weeks consecutively and were assessed for pain-related disability, anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbance using the pain-disability index, hospital anxiety and depression scale, and the insomnia severity index at baseline, the 4th week, and the 8th week, postintervention. Results: The participants studied recorded significant reduction in pain-related disability (P = 0.001). There was also improvement in the sleep quality (P = 0.001), depression level (P = 0.001), and anxiety level (P = 0.001), post intervention. Conclusions: This study revealed that stabilization exercise is very useful in the management of sleep disturbance, pain-related disability, depression, and anxiety in NSCLBP patients.

Prevalence of Malaria in Pregnant Women in Lagos, South-West Nigeria

  • Agomo, Chimere O.;Oyibo, Wellington A.;Anorlu, Rose I.;Agomo, Philip U.
    • The Korean Journal of Parasitology
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.179-183
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    • 2009
  • Prevalence rates reported for malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria vary considerably. The accuracy of results of malaria diagnosis is dependent on training, experience, and motivation of the microscopist as well as the laboratory facility available. Results of training programmes on malaria microscopy have shown low levels of sensitivity and specificity of those involved in malaria diagnosis routinely and for research. This study was done to ascertain the true prevalence of malaria in pregnancy in Lagos, South-West Nigeria. A total of 1,084 pregnant women were recruited into this study. Blood smears stained with Giemsa were used for malaria diagnosis by light microscopy. Malaria infection during pregnancy presents mostly as asymptomatic infection. The prevalence of malaria in this population was 7.7% (95% confidence interval; 6.2-9.4%). Factors identified to increase the risk of malaria infection include young maternal age (<20 years), and gravidity (primigravida). In conclusion, this study exposes the over-diagnosis of malaria in pregnancy and the need for training and retraining of laboratory staffs as well as establishing the malaria diagnosis quality assurance programme to ensure the accuracy of malaria microscopy results at all levels.

A comparative study of immediate wound healing complications following cleft lip repair using either absorbable or non-absorbable skin sutures

  • Alawode, Akeem O.;Adeyemi, Michael O.;James, Olutayo;Ogunlewe, Mobolanle O.;Butali, Azeez;Adeyemo, Wasiu L.
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The aim of the study was to compare wound healing complications following the use of either absorbable or non-absorbable sutures for skin closure in cleft lip repair. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial conducted at the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Idi Araba, Lagos State, Nigeria. Sixty subjects who required either primary or secondary cleft lip repair and satisfied all the inclusion criteria were recruited and randomized into two groups (Vicryl group or Nylon group). The surgical wounds in all subjects were examined on 3rd, 7th, and 14th postoperative days (POD) for presence or absence of tissue reactivity, wound dehiscence, and local wound infection. Results: Hemorrhage, tissue reactivity, wound dehiscence, and local wound infection were identified as wound healing complications following cleft lip repair. The incidence of postoperative wound healing complications on POD3 was 33.3%. Tissue reactivity was more common throughout the evaluation period with the use of an absorbable (Vicryl) suture compared to a non-absorbable (Nylon) suture, although the difference was statistically significant only on POD7 (P=0.002). There were no significant differences in the incidences of wound dehiscence and infection between the two groups throughout the observation period. Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences in the incidences of wound dehiscence and surgical site wound infection following the use of either Vicryl or Nylon for skin closure during cleft lip repair. However, more cases of tissue reactivity were recorded in the Vicryl group than in the Nylon group on POD7. Particular attention must be paid to detect the occurrence of wound healing complications, most especially tissue reactivity, whenever a Vicryl suture is used for skin closure in cleft lip repair.

Serotype Distribution and Virulence Profile of Salmonella enterica Serovars Isolated from Food Animals and Humans in Lagos Nigeria

  • Abraham, Ajayi;Stella, Smith;Ibidunni, Bode-Sojobi;Coulibaly, Kalpy Julien;Funbi, Jolaiya Tolulope;Isaac, Adeleye Adeyemi
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.47 no.2
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    • pp.310-316
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    • 2019
  • Distribution of Salmonella enterica serovars and their associated virulence determinants is wide-spread among food animals, which are continuously implicated in periodic salmonellosis outbreaks globally. The aim of this study was to determine and evaluate the diversity of five Salmonella serovar virulence genes (invA, pefA, cdtB, spvC and iroN) isolated from food animals and humans. Using standard microbiological techniques, Salmonella spp. were isolated from the feces of humans and three major food animals. Virulence determinants of the isolates were assayed using PCR. Clonal relatedness of the dominant serovar was determined via pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) using the restriction enzyme, Xbal. Seventy one Salmonella spp. were isolated and serotyped into 44 serovars. Non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS; 68) accounted for majority (95.8%) of the Salmonella serovars. Isolates from chicken (34) accounted for 47.9% of all isolates, out of which S. Budapest (14) was predominant (34.8%). However, the dominant S. Budapest serovars showed no genetic relatedness. The invA gene located on SPI-1 was detected in all isolates. Furthermore, 94% of the isolates from sheep harbored the spvC genes. The iroN gene was present in 50%, 100%, 88%, and 91% of isolates from human, chicken, sheep, and cattle, respectively. The pefA gene was detected in 18 isolates from chicken and a single isolate from sheep. Notably, having diverse Salmonella serovars containing plasmid encoded virulence genes circulating the food chain is of public health significance; hence, surveillance is required.

Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern and Molecular Typing By PCR-RAPD Analysis of Clinical and Environmental Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

  • Oluborode, O.B.;Smith, S.I.;Seriki, T.A.;Fowora, M.;Ajayi, A.;Coker, A.O.
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.434-437
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    • 2018
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa accounts for a significant proportion of nosocomial infections. This study examined the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and clonal relatedness of P. aeruginosa isolates of clinical and environmental origin. These isolates displayed susceptibility to levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, imipenem, and ceftazidime of 65.0%, 62.5%, 90.0%, 100%, and 85%, respectively. PCR-RAPD analysis of the P. aeruginosa isolates revealed marked variation. No correlation was observed between the antibiotic resistance profiles and the DNA typing patterns.

Determinants of Smoking Initiation and Susceptibility to Future Smoking among School-Going Adolescents in Lagos State, Nigeria

  • Odukoya, Oluwakemi Ololade;Odeyemi, Kofoworola Abimbola;Oyeyemi, Abisoye Sunday;Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1747-1753
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    • 2013
  • Background: It is projected that low and middle-income countries will bear a major burden of tobacco related morbidity and mortality, yet, only limited information is available on the determinants of smoking initiation among youth in Africa. This study aimed to assess the determinants of smoking initiation and susceptibility to future smoking among a population of high school school students in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Baseline data from an intervention study designed to assess the effect of an anti-smoking awareness program on the knowledge, attitudes and practices of adolescents was analyzed. The survey was carried out in six randomly selected public and private secondary schools in local government areas in Lagos state, Nigeria. A total of 973 students completed self-administered questionnaires on smoking initiation, health related knowledge and attitudes towards smoking, susceptibility to future smoking and other factors associated with smoking. Results: Of the respondents, 9.7% had initiated smoking tobacco products with the predominant form being cigarettes (7.3%). Males (OR: 2.77, 95%CI: 1.65-4.66) and those with more pro-smoking attitudes (OR: 1.44, 95%CI: 1.34-1.54) were more likely to have initiated smoking. Those with parents and friends who are smokers were 3.47 (95%CI: 1.50-8.05) and 2.26 (95%CI: 1.27-4.01) times more likely to have initiated smoking. Non-smoking students, in privately owned schools (OR: 5.08), with friends who smoke (5.09), with lower knowledge (OR: 0.87) and more pro-smoking attitudes (OR 1.13) were more susceptible to future smoking. In addition, respondents who had been sent to purchase cigarettes by an older adult (OR: 3.68) were also more susceptible to future smoking. Conclusions: Being male and having parents who smoke are predictors of smoking initiation among these students. Consistent with findings in other countries, peers not only influence smoking initiation but also influence smoking susceptibility among youth in this African setting. Prevention programs designed to reduce tobacco use among in-school youth should take these factors into consideration. In line with the recommendations of article 16 of the WHO FCTC, efforts to enforce the ban on the sales of cigarettes to minors should be also emphasised.