• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lactation Stage

Search Result 90, Processing Time 0.049 seconds

Phenotypic Relationship between Lactation Persistency and Change in Body Condition Score in First-lactation Holstein Cows

  • Yamazaki, Takeshi;Takeda, Hisato;Nishiura, Akiko;Sasai, Youji;Sugawara, Naoko;Togashi, Kenji
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.24 no.5
    • /
    • pp.610-615
    • /
    • 2011
  • We examined the correlations between lactation curve shape, including persistency and changes in body condition score (BCS) during early-stage (0 to 30 days in milk (DIM)), nadir-stage (31 to 90 DIM), and late-stage (91 to 240 DIM) lactation in 191 first-lactation cows. Data used were first-parity BCS records, scored twice every month after calving, and daily milk yields. Individual lactation curves were depicted by the Wilmink function. Lactation persistency was defined as the difference in estimated milk yields between 240 DIM and 60 DIM. Changes in BCSs in the early and late stages were defined as linear regression coefficients. There were no significant correlations between traits for lactation curve shape and change in BCS in early-stage lactation. Peak yield and total milk yield were negatively correlated with BCSs in nadir- and late-stage lactation and with BCS change in late-stage lactation, suggesting that cows with high lactation yields had low body reserves and health status in mid- to late lactation and had delayed recovery of body reserves. Lactation persistency was positively correlated with change in BCS in late-stage lactation, suggesting that cows with high lactation persistency tended to be healthy and to recover their body reserves well in late lactation.

Adjustment of Lactation Number and Stage on Informal Linear Type Traits of Holstein Dairy Cattle

  • Do, Chang-Hee;Jeon, Beong-Soon;Sang, Byung-Chan;Lee, Dong-Hee;Pearson, Ronald E.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.52 no.6
    • /
    • pp.467-473
    • /
    • 2010
  • A total of 4,323,781 records for informal 16 primary linear descriptive traits of dairy cows in Holstein breed from 1988 to 2007 in USA were analyzed to estimate adjustment factors for lactation number and stage. While all factors in the model were highly significant (P < 0.01), major influences on linear type traits were due to lactation number and stage. The frequencies of lactation number 1 through 6 were 58.6, 22.0, 11.8, 4.8, 2.1, and 0.8%, respectively. Further, the frequencies of lactation stage were 0.7, 76.9, 15.3, 4.9, and 2.1%, respectively, for springing, early, medium, late, and dry. To adjust 16 linear traits (stature, dairy form, strength, body depth, rump width, rump angle, legs rear view, leg set, foot angle, fore udder, rear udder height, rear udder width, udder support, udder depth, and front teat placement), additive and multiplicative adjustment factors of lactation number (lactations 2 to 4) and stage (springing, medium, late and dry) were estimated with the solutions in the generalized linear model, assigning lactation 1 and stage early as base class. Additive adjustment factors of lactation number ranged from -1.23 to 2.908, while multiplicative factors ranged from 0.853 to 2.207. Further, additive and multiplicative adjustment factors for lactation stage ranged from -0.668 to 0.785, and from 0.891 to 1.154. Application of adjustment factors to 20 randomly sampled sub-data sets produced the results that additive adjustment factors for both lactation number and stage reduced more mean square of lactation number and stage over 16 linear traits than any combination of adjustments, and leaded additive adjustment factors for both lactation number and stage as a choice of methods for adjustment of informal 16 primary linear type traits collected by classifiers of AI studs.

The effect of lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency on milk yield in Korean Holstein dairy cows using automatic milking system

  • Vijayakumar, Mayakrishnan;Park, Ji Hoo;Ki, Kwang Seok;Lim, Dong Hyun;Kim, Sang Bum;Park, Seong Min;Jeong, Ha Yeon;Park, Beom Young;Kim, Tae Il
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.30 no.8
    • /
    • pp.1093-1098
    • /
    • 2017
  • Objective: The aim of the current study was to describe the relationship between milk yield and lactation number, stage, length and milking frequency in Korean Holstein dairy cows using an automatic milking system (AMS). Methods: The original data set consisted of observations from April to October 2016 of 780 Holstein cows, with a total of 10,751 milkings. Each time a cow was milked by an AMS during the 24 h, the AMS management system recorded identification numbers of the AMS unit, the cow being milking, date and time of the milking, and milk yield (kg) as measured by the milk meters installed on each AMS unit, date and time of the lactation, lactation stage, milking frequency (NoM). Lactation stage is defined as the number of days milking per cows per lactation. Milk yield was calculated per udder quarter in the AMS and was added to 1 record per cow and trait for each milking. Milking frequency was measured the number of milkings per cow per 24 hour. Results: From the study results, a significant relationship was found between the milk yield and lactation number (p<0.001), with the maximum milk yield occurring in the third lactation cows. We recorded the highest milk yield, in a greater lactation length period of early stage (55 to 90 days) at a $4{\times}$ milking frequency/d, and the lowest milk yield was observed in the later stage (>201 days) of cows. Also, milking frequency had a significant influence on milk yield (p<0.001) in Korean Holstein cows using AMS. Conclusion: Detailed knowledge of these factors such as lactation number, stage, length, and milking frequency associated with increasing milk yield using AMS will help guide future recommendations to producers for maximizing milk yield in Korean Dairy industries.

The Development of Adjustment Coefficients for Linear Classifications in the Korean Holstein Dairy Cattle (국내 홀스타인젖소의 선형심사에 대한 보정계수 개발)

  • Song, C.E.;Sang, B.C.;Do, C.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.44 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-12
    • /
    • 2002
  • The environmental effects were studied to estimate age and lactation stage adjustment coefficients in the primary linear traits of Holstein dairy cattle in Korea. Calving year month, classifier, age-month at classification and lactation stage were the environmental factors which significantly affected the most of linear traits at the level of 0.01. F values of Stature, strength, body depth, thurl with and rear leg side view were relatively higher in the effects of age-month, and dairy form, rear udder height, rear udder width, and udder cleft had relatively higher F values in the effects of lactation stage. Udder depth were affected highly by both age-month and lactation stage. Through the least square means of traits and the interpolation and smoothing obtained by the regression analysis of log and exponential transformed adjustment coefficients, age-month and lactation stage coefficients were estimated, and applied to real data to check the variation in the age-month and lactation stage effects. The estimated mean squares showed that the variation in all the linear traits significantly were decreased for the adjusted factors without the significant changes of variation in calving year month and classifier. That udder depth adjusted for both the age-month and lactation stage resulted in the decreases of variation in the both effects.

Influence of Stages of Lactation, Parity and Season on Somatic Cell Counts in Cows

  • Singh, Mahendra;Ludri, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.12
    • /
    • pp.1775-1780
    • /
    • 2001
  • The study was undertaken to find out the normal mean and variations in somatic cell count (SCC) of milk in crossbred and indigenous cows as influenced by stage of lactation, parity and season. On day of milk sampling the udders were tested for mastitis by California Mastitis Test (CMT). Only those cows, which were found negative in the CMT, were taken in the study. Paritywise differences in SCC were not significant between the 1st to 6th lactation and above. Similarly, stage of lactation effect, when tested at 30 day intervals, did not differ significantly. However, the seasons significantly (p<0.05) affected SCC count of milk. The SCC was lower during cold ($1.10{\times}10^5cells/ml$) and hot-dry ($1.11{\times}10^5cells/ml$) season then during hot-humid season ($2.14{\times}10^5cells/ml$). On an average SCC recorded were 1.26, 1.31, 1.54 and $1.61{\times}10^5$ cells per ml respectively in Tharparkar, Sahiwal, Karan Swiss and Karan Fries cows irrespective of stage of lactation, parity and season. Further, crossbred Karan Swiss and Karan Fries cows behave similar to the indigenous Tharparkar and Sahiwal cows but are more vulnerable to hot-humid climate then indigenous ones. Significant correlation between the SCC and milk yield during different stages of lactation (1.38 to $1.74{\times}10^5cells/ml$) and parity (1.47 to $1.63{\times}10^5cells/ml$) suggested that the SCC/ml of milk was higher during the later stages of lactation.

Somatic Cell Counts in Marrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) During Different Stages of Lactation, Parity and Season

  • Singh, Mahendra;Ludri, R.S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.189-192
    • /
    • 2001
  • This study was initiated in an effort to determine the normal mean and variations of the somatic cell count (SCC) in milk of buffaloes as influenced by the milking time, stage of lactation, parity and season. The buffaloes were hand milked at 13 and 11 h. interval during evening and morning respectively. On the day of milk sampling the udders were tested for mastitis by California Mastitis Test (CMT). Only those buffaloes, which were found negative in the CMT, were included in the sampling plan. The mean values for morning and evening were 1.09 (range 0.39-1.76) and $0.97(range\;0.57-2.46){\times}10^5cells/ml$, respectively which did not differ significantly. When data of the morning and evening values was compared on the basis of total cell secretion in milk, even then there was no statistical difference between the morning and the evening values, thereby suggesting that no diurnal variation existed in SCC of milk. Paritywise differences were not significant between the 1st to 5th lactation and above. Similarly stage of lactation effect, when tested at 30 day intervals, did not differ significantly. Significant (p<0.05) correlation coefficients (r) between SCC and milk yield during different stages of lactation and parity suggested that SCC per ml of milk was higher during the later stages of lactation. SCC was higher in primiparous than in multiparous buffaloes. On an average the SCC recorded was $1.0{\times}10^5cells/ml$ of milk irrespective of time of milking, parity and stages of lactation. The SCC was low during cold and hot-dry season but were high during the hot-humid season (p<0.05), the respective values being 0.76, 1.08 and $1.35{\times}10^5cells/ml$. These values were lower than the SCC already reported in cows suggesting less stressful condition of the udder of buffaloes in this study.

INTERACTIVE INFLUENCE OF DIETARY PROTEIN AND LIPID IN LACTATION

  • Park, C.S.;Choi, Y.J.;Fisher, G.R.;Erickson, G.M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.1 no.1
    • /
    • pp.7-12
    • /
    • 1988
  • Twenty cows, by order of calving, were used in a completely randomized $2{\times}2$ factorial experiment. Variables were tow protein levels (14 and 18% crude protein) and concentration of fat (2 and 6% ether extract) in diets. Fat addition, via unprocessed whole sunflower seed, insured forage utilization in diets to meet energy requirement of cows. A total of 36 wks of lactation was subdivided into three 12-wk stages of lactation. Net energy lactation was set at 1.72, 1.57 and 1.42 Mcal/kg for each stage. Higher protein diets improved the efficiency of energy (FCM/net energy intake) which was particularly noted for diets containing high fat (85.7%). However, diets with low protein-high fat resulted in the lowest efficiency (67.7%). No difference in milk yield and butterfat was due to different levels and combinations of protein and lipid in diets. High protein diets depressed blood cholesterol and glucose compared to low-protein counterparts. Relative decline in milk production was slower for lower fat diets than for higher fat groups, especially mid to later stage of lactation. Results of this experiment tend to support our thesis on the synergistic effect of dietary protein and energy (lipid) upon efficiency of lactation.

Effects of Lactation Stage and Individual Performance on Milk cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acids Content in Dairy Cows

  • Wang, T.;Oh, J.J.;Lim, J.N.;Hong, J.E.;Kim, J.H.;Kim, J.H.;Kang, H.S.;Choi, Y.J.;Lee, H.G.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.26 no.2
    • /
    • pp.189-194
    • /
    • 2013
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of lactation stage and individual performance on milk cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in dairy cows. In experiment 1, the milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA content from dairy cows in early ($0.33{\pm}0.014%$), middle ($0.37{\pm}0.010%$), and late stages ($0.44{\pm}0.020%$) showed significant differences (p<0.05); and the individual contents of the major fatty acids, especially cis-9, trans-11 CLA in cows of the same lactation were also variable. In the second experiment design as a validation test, our results once again showed that the individual contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA were various, and a difference of about 2-fold (0.55% vs 0.95%) was observed, although the animals were offered same diet. These data demonstrated that lactation stage and individual performance have considerable effects on milk cis-9, trans-11 CLA contents.

Effects of Controlled Compensatory Growth on Mammary Gland Development and Lactation in Rats

  • Moon, Yang S.;Park, Chung S.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
    • /
    • v.15 no.9
    • /
    • pp.1364-1370
    • /
    • 2002
  • The objective of this study was to examine the effect of compensatory growth nutritional regimen on mammary gland growth and lactation. One hundred twenty-two Sprague Dawley female rats (35 days of age) were randomly assigned to either a control or a stair-step compensatory nutrition (SSCN) feeding regimen or an alternating 2-2-3-3-week schedule beginning with 40% energy restriction for 2 weeks followed by re-alimentation (control diet) for 2 weeks. Pup weight gain and milk yield were improved 8% and 8 to 15%, respectively, by the SSCN regimen. The gene expression of $\beta$-casein was 2.3-fold greater in the SSCN group than in the control group during early lactation, but they were greater at all stages of the second lactation. The gene expression of insulin-like growth factor-I was 40% lower in the SSCN group than in the control group during early lactation of the second lactation, but during late lactation it was 80% greater than in the control group. The concentration of serum corticosterone tended to be higher in the SSCN group during the late stage of the first lactation. These results suggest that the stair-step compensatory nutrition regimen improves lactation performance and persistency by modulation of cell differentiation and apoptotic cell death.

Selemium Intake in Breast-fed Infants during Course of Lactation

  • Kim, Eul-Sang;Keum, Hae-Kyoung;Yuzo Tamari
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
    • /
    • v.1 no.2
    • /
    • pp.230-233
    • /
    • 1996
  • The purposes of this study was to investigate selenium content of human milk and selenium intake of breast-fed infants at each period of lactation longitudinally. The human milk intake in breast-fed infants was measured by test weighing method from 20 lactating mothers at 1,2 and 3 months postpartum. Selenium content in the milks was determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry with hydride generation after wet digestion of samples. Selenium intake in breast-fed infants was calculated by multiplying human milk intakes by selenium contents. The milk intakes were 640, 726 and 715g/day at 1,2 and 3 months postpartum. The selenium contents in human milk were characterized by a pattern of slight decline with advancing stage of lactation;13.1, 11.5 and 9.8$\mu\textrm{g}$/L at 1,2 and 3 months during lactation. There was a large individual variation at any stage of this study. The mean dietary selenium intakes in breast-fed infants were 8.38, 8.32 and 6.97$\mu\textrm{g}$/day at 1,2 and 3 months postpartum, respectively. The mean daily intakes on a body weight basis were gradually decreased during the course of lactation.

  • PDF