• Title, Summary, Keyword: Lactating Goats

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Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Rumen Fluid and Milk Fat, and Methane Emission of Lactating Goats Fed a Soybean Oil-based Diet Supplemented with Sodium Bicarbonate and Monensin

  • Li, X.Z.;Yan, C.G.;Long, R.J.;Jin, G.L.;Shine Khuu, J.;Ji, B.J.;Choi, S.H.;Lee, H.G.;Song, Man K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.22 no.11
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    • pp.1521-1530
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    • 2009
  • A metabolic study was conducted with four ruminally-cannulated lactating goats (Saanen, 29 weeks lactation, 65${\pm}$5 kg) in a 4${\times}$4 Latin square design with 4 dietary treatments. The goats were fed a basal mixed diet consisting of 80% concentrate and 20% chopped rye grass hay (DM basis, CON). The goats were also fed the CON diet supplemented with soybean oil at a 5% level of the concentrate (SO), the SO diet supplemented with 0.5% of sodium bicarbonate (SO-B) or the SO-B diet supplemented with 30 ppm monensin (SO-BM). The goats were housed in individual pen and the study was conducted for 8 weeks. An increased molar proportion of propionate (C3) was observed at 1 h (p<0.003) and 6 h (p<0.029) post-feeding from all the supplemented diets. Calculated methane emission was markedly decreased prior to morning feeding (p<0.01), and at 1 h (p<0.05) and 6 h post-feeding (p<0.05) in goats fed the supplemented diets. All the supplements increased (p<0.0001) cis9, trans11-CLA content in rumen fluid. Concentrations of both cis9, trans11-CLA (p<0.0001) and trans10, cis12-CLA (p<0.026) were also increased in the milk fat of lactating goats fed the supplemented diets. The SO-B and SO-BM diets further increased CLA content in goat milk compared to the SO diet. All supplements increased unsaturated (UFA, p<0.002), monounsaturated (MUFA, p<0.002) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (p<0.014) and reduced SFA to UFA ratio (p<0.023). The concentration of MUFA was even greater (p<0.002) for SO-BM than for the SO-B diet. In conclusion, feeding soybean oil (5% of concentrate) to lactating goats was a useful way to improve milk fat and to improve fatty acid profile in the milk by increasing potentially healthy fatty acids such as CLA. Supplementation of sodium bicarbonate or sodium bicarbonate with monensin to the soybean oil-based diet increased CLA content further in goat milk. Supplementation of soybean oil may be an effective method to reduce methane emission in lactating goats.

Influence of Sunflower Whole Seeds or Oil on Ruminal Fermentation, Milk Production, Composition, and Fatty Acid Profile in Lactating Goats

  • Morsy, T.A.;Kholif, S.M.;Kholif, A.E.;Matloup, O.H.;Salem, A.Z.M.;Elella, A. Abu
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.1116-1122
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    • 2015
  • This study aimed to investigate the effect of sunflower seeds, either as whole or as oil, on rumen fermentation, milk production, milk composition and fatty acids profile in dairy goats. Fifteen lactating Damascus goats were divided randomly into three groups (n = 5) fed a basal diet of concentrate feed mixture and fresh Trifolium alexandrinum at 50:50 on dry matter basis (Control) in addition to 50 g/head/d sunflower seeds whole (SS) or 20 mL/head/d sunflower seeds oil (SO) in a complete randomized design. Milk was sampled every two weeks during 90 days of experimental period for chemical analysis and rumen was sampled at 30, 60, and 90 days of the experiment for ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids (tVFA), and ammonia-N determination. Addition of SO decreased (p = 0.017) ruminal pH, whereas SO and SS increased tVFA (p<0.001) and acetate (p = 0.034) concentrations. Serum glucose increased (p = 0.013) in SO and SS goats vs Control. The SO and SS treated goats had improved milk yield (p = 0.007) and milk fat content (p = 0.002). Moreover, SO increased milk lactose content (p = 0.048) and feed efficiency (p = 0.046) compared to Control. Both of SS and SO increased (p<0.05) milk unsaturated fatty acids content specially conjugated linolenic acid (CLA) vs Control. Addition of SS and SO increased (p = 0. 021) C18:3N3 fatty acid compared to Control diet. Data suggested that addition of either SS or SO to lactating goats ration had beneficial effects on milk yield and milk composition with enhancing milk content of healthy fatty acids (CLA and omega 3), without detrimental effects on animal performance.

Nighttime Cooling Is an Effective Method for Improving Milk Production in Lactating Goats Exposed to Hot and Humid Environment

  • Sunagawa, Katsunori;Nagamine, Itsuki;Kamata, Yasuhiro;Niino, Noriko;Taniyama, Yoshihiko;Kinjo, Kazuhide;Matayoshi, Ayano
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.966-975
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    • 2015
  • Heat production in ruminants follows a diurnal pattern over the course of a day peaking 3 hours following afternoon feeding and then gradually declining to its lowest point prior to morning feeding. In order to clarify the cooling period most effective in reducing decreases in feed intake and milk production, experiments were carried out based on the diurnal rhythm of heat production and heat dissipation. In experiment 1, the effects of hot environment on milk production were investigated. The animals were kept first in a thermoneutral environment ($20.0^{\circ}C$, 80.0%) for 12 days, they were then transitioned to a hot environment ($32^{\circ}C$, 80.0%) for 13 days before being returned to second thermoneutral environment for a further 12 days. In experiment 2, the effectiveness of daytime cooling or nighttime cooling for improving milk production in hot environment was compared. While ten lactating Japanese Saanen goats (aged 2 years, weighing 41.0 kg) during early lactation were used in experiment 1, ten lactating goats (aged 2 years, weighing 47.5 kg) during mid-lactation were used in experiment 2. The animals were fed 300 g of concentrated feed and excessive amounts of crushed alfalfa hay cubes twice daily. Water was given ad libitum. The animals were milked twice daily. When exposed to a hot environment, milk yield and composition decreased significantly (p<0.05). Milk yield in the hot environment did not change with daytime cooling, but tended to increase with nighttime cooling. Compared to the daytime cooling, milk components percentages in the nighttime cooling were not significantly different but the milk components yields in the nighttime cooling were significantly higher (p<0.05). The results indicate that nighttime cooling is more effective than daytime cooling in the reduction of milk production declines in lactating goats exposed to a hot environment.

Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats

  • AL-Suwaiegh, S.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.509-515
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    • 2016
  • Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those fed diets containing 0% and 20%. However, goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits were significantly (p<0.05) lower in DMI compared to those fed control diet. The protein percent was significantly higher for goats fed control diet compared to the other dietary treatments. Total solids percent was significantly the lowest for goats fed diet supplemented with 10% date pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the total protein compared to those fed a diet containing 10%. In addition, goats fed a diet containing 15% date pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

Glucose Kinetics for Milk Synthesis in Etawah Crossbred Goats Fed King Grass Silage Prepared with Manure

  • Kiranadi, B.;Sastradipradja, D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.7
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    • pp.982-985
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    • 2002
  • A study was carried out to determine glucose kinetics, nutrient balance and milk production of lactating Etawah crossbred goats. The animals (27.2 to 29.1 kg BW) were randomly divided into four levels of dietary treatment groups: the first group R1 received 100% (3 kg) fresh king grass (Penisetum purpuroides), the second group R2 received 75% king grass and 25% king grass silage prepared with chicken manure, the third group R3 received 50% king grass and 50% silage, and the fourth group R4 received 100% silage. In addition to the roughage, each group received 800 g of concentrate (CP 14.77% of DM; 17.26 MJ/kg). Animals fed king grass silage made with chicken manure were found to be superior to the group fed king grass alone. Glucose kinetics and retained energy were significantly affected. Calculations showed that glucose requirements for maintenance and milk production can be met for the groups with high levels of silage (R3 and R4). The values of glucose flux were in the range of 2.52 to 4.50 mg/min.kg $BW^{0.807}$ which are lower, but close to, the values for the temperate lactating dairy cow. The present glucose flux value for the lactating Etawah crossbred goat is higher than the previous value published from this laboratory.

Application of Rumen Undegradable Protein on Early Lactating Dairy Goats

  • Lee, Mei-Chu;Hwang, Sen-Yuan;Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.1549-1554
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    • 2001
  • The application of rumen undegradable intake protein (UIP) on lactating dairy goats was studied. Thirty 2-year-old lactating dairy goats were selected and assigned to dietary treatments begun from the third week to the fourth month postpartum. Experimental diets were formulated into three, low (32% CP), med (35% CP) and high (38% CP), iso-nitrogenous (16% CP) and iso-energetic ($NE_L$ 1.68 Mcal/kg) UIP levels. Results showed that feed intake was not significantly different among the treatment groups. The milk yield in the High UIP group (3.17 kg) was significantly higher than the med (2.95 kg) and low UIP (2.45 kg) groups (p<0.05). The milk compositions, milk fat, milk lactose and milk solids-non-fat (SNF) showed no significant differences among the three treatment groups. The milk protein however was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the low UIP than in the other treatment groups. The milk urea-N was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the low UIP than in the other treatment groups. The mean serum aspartate amino transferase (AST), urinary-N and total protein concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) lower in the high and the med UIP groups than in the low UIP group.

Influence of supplemental canola or soybean oil on milk yield, fatty acid profile and postpartum weight changes in grazing dairy goats

  • Lerma-Reyes, Israel;Mendoza-Martinez, German D.;Rojo-Rubio, Rolado;Mejia, Mario;Garcia-Lopez, J.C.;Lee-Rangel, Hector A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.225-229
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    • 2018
  • Objective: This experiment was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation with soybean or canola oil on milk production and the composition of long chain fatty acids as well as weight changes in the goats and their kids. Methods: Thirty nine mulitparous crossed Alpine${\times}$Nubian goats (initial body weight [BW] $43.5{\pm}1.7kg$) from the day of parturition were assigned to the treatments: grazing control (n = 15); grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental soybean oil (n = 12); and grazing plus 20 mL/goat/d of supplemental canola oil (n = 12) from November 26, 2014 to March 7, 2015. The planned contrasts were: CI (control vs supplemented with oils); CII (soybean vs canola oil) to compare the treatment effects. Results: The vegetable oil supplementation reduced weight losses in lactating goats (CI: -0.060 vs 0.090 kg/d; p = 0.03) but did not improve milk production or affect kids' growth. The content of C4, C6, C8, C10, C11, C14, and C18:1n9t in the milk was increased (p<0.05) with respect to control. However, C12, C14, C16, C18, C18:1n9c, C18:2n6c, and C18:3n3 were reduced (p<0.05) in supplemented goats. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) was increased (p<0.05) in goats supplemented with oils compared to the control group. Conclusion: Supplementation with 20 mL/d of soybean or canola oil did not affect milk production or kids' performance; however, it increased CLA concentration and reduced the reduced weight losses in lactating goats.

The Foliage of Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) or Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) as a Substitute for a Rice Bran - Soya Bean Concentrate in the Diet of Lactating Goats

  • Mui, Nguyen Thi;Ledin, Inger;Uden, Peter;Binh, Dinh Van
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.45-54
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    • 2002
  • Ninety lactating goats (Bachthao, Barbary, Beetal and Jamnapary breeds) were used in an experiment to investigate the replacement value of the tree fodders Flemingia (Flemingia macrophylla) and Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus). The foliages were used to replace the concentrate in diets based on chopped whole sugar cane (Sacharatum sp.), Para grass (Brachiaria mutica) and dried cassava root (Manihot esculanta). The concentrate was replaced by foliage of Jackfruit or Flemingia at 0%, 20%, 40%, 60% and 80% based on the crude protein (CP) content in the concentrate and foliages, respectively. Average milk yield was 1,617 g/day for goats fed Jackfruit compared to 1,532 g/day for those fed Flemingia. Increasing amounts of Flemingia foliage resulted in reduced dry matter intake and decreased milk yield but milk composition (CP, casein and fat content) was similar up to 60% replacement. Flemingia showed a poor potential as a supplement for lactating goats and replacement levels should not exceed 20% of the protein in the concentrate or 7.5% of the dry matter in the diet. With respect to the combination of milk production and net return over the control a CP replacement rate of 20% was the most promising. For Jackfruit there was similar feed intake and milk yield at a replacement level of 20% of CP in the concentrate (9.2% of DM intake) compared to the control diet. Milk yield at the level of 40% replacement (15% of the DM) in the diet was slightly reduced. Up to a level of CP replacement rate of 60% (21% DM in the diet) can be suggested for on-farm testing as a higher net return over the control was obtained on station.

Nitrogen Metabolism in Lactating Goats Fed with Diets Containing Different Protein Sources

  • Santos, A.B.;Pereira, M.L.A.;Silva, H.G.O.;Pedreira, M.S.;Carvalho, G.G.P.;Ribeiro, L.S.O.;Almeida, P.J.P.;Pereira, T.C.J.;Moreira, J.V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.658-666
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to evaluate urea excretion, nitrogen balance and microbial protein synthesis in lactating goats fed with diets containing different protein sources in the concentrate (soybean meal, cottonseed meal, aerial part of cassava hay and leucaena hay). Four Alpine goats whose mean body weight was $42.6{\pm}6.1kg$ at the beginning of the experiment, a mean lactation period of $94.0{\pm}9.0days$ and a production of $1.7{\pm}0.4kg$ of milk were distributed in a $4{\times}4$ Latin square with four periods of 15 days. Diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous, containing 103.0 g/kg of CP, 400 g/kg of Tifton 85 hay and 600 g/kg of concentrate. Diet containing cottonseed meal provided (p<0.05) increased excretion of urea and urea nitrogen in the urine (g/d and mg/kg of BW) when compared with leucaena hay. The diets affected the concentrations of urea nitrogen in plasma (p<0.05) and excretion of urea nitrogen in milk, being that soybean meal and cottonseed meal showed (p<0.05) higher than the average aerial part of the cassava hay. The use of diets with cottonseed meal as protein source in the concentrate in feeding of lactating goats provides greater nitrogen excretion in urine and negative nitrogen balance, while the concentrate with leucaena hay as a source of protein, provides greater ruminal microbial protein synthesis.

Nutrient Balance and Glucose Metabolism of Female Growing, Late Pregnant and Lactating Etawah Crossbred Goats

  • Astuti, D.A.;Sastradipradja, D.;Sutardi, T.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.13 no.8
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    • pp.1068-1075
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    • 2000
  • A study involving nutrient balances and radioisotope labeling techniques was undertaken to study energy and protein metabolism, and glucose kinetics of female crossbred Etawah goats, using 12 weaned (BW $14.0{\pm}2.0kg$), 12 late pregnant (BW $27.8{\pm}1.8kg$) and 12 first lactation does (BW $25.0{\pm}5.0kg$). Each class of animal was randomly allotted into 3 dietary treatment groups R1, R2 and R3, that received 100%, 85%, and 70% of ad libitum feed. The rations offered were pellets containing 21.8% CP and 19.3 MJ GE/kg, except for the lactating does who received pellets (17.2% CP and 18.9 MJ GE/kg) and fresh Penisetum purpureum grass. Energy and nitrogen balance studies were conducted during a two-week trial. Daily heat production (HP, estimated by the carbon dioxide entry rate technique), glucose pool and flux were measured. Equations were found for metabolizable energy (ME) and protein intake (IP) requirements for growing goats: ME (MJ/d)=1.87+0.55 RE-0.001 ADG+0.044 RP $(R^2=0.89)$ and IP (g/d)=48.47+2.99 RE+0.029 ADG+0.79 RP $(R^2=0.90)$; for pregnant does: ME (MJ/d)=5.92+0.96 RE-0.002 ADG+0.003 RP $(R^2=0.99)$ and IP (g/d)=58.34+5.41 RE+0.625 ADG-0.30 RP $(R^2=0.98)$; and for lactating does: ME (MJ/d)=4.23+0.713 RE+0.003 ADG+0.006 RP+0.002 MY $(R^2=0.86)$; IP (g/d)=84.05-5.36 RE+0.055 ADG-0.16 RP+0.068 MY $(R^2=0.45)$, where RE is retained energy (MJ/d), ADG is average daily gain in weight (g/d), RP is retained protein (g/d) and MY is milk yield (ml/d). ME and IP requirements for maintenance for growing goats were 0.46 MJ/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$ and 7.43 g/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$, respectively. Values for the pregnant and lactating does were in the same order, 0.55 MJ/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$ and 11.7 g/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$, and 0.50 MJ/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$ and 10.8 g/d.kg $BW^{0.75}$, respectively. Milk protein ranged from 3.06 to 3.5% and milk fat averaged 5.2%. Glucose metabolism in Etawah crossbred female goat is active, but glucose flux is low compared to temperate ruminant breeds which may implicate its role to support production.