• Title, Summary, Keyword: LRU

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Cache Table Management for Effective Label Switching (효율적인 레이블 스위칭을 위한 캐쉬 테이블 관리)

  • Kim, Nam-Gi;Yoon, Hyun-Soo
    • Journal of KIISE:Information Networking
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.251-261
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    • 2001
  • The traffic on the Internet has been growing exponentially for some time. This growth is beginning to stress the current-day routers. However, switching technology offers much higher performance. So the label switching network which combines IP routing with switching technology, is emerged. EspeciaJJy in the data driven label switching, flow classification and cache table management are needed. Flow classification is to classify packets into switching and non-switching packets, and cache table management is to maintain the cache table which contains information for flow classification and label switching. However, the cache table management affects the performance of label switching network considerably as well as flowclassification because the bigger cache table makes more packet switched and maintains setup cost lower, but cache is restricted by local router resources. For that reason, there is need to study the cache replacement scheme for the efficient cache table management with the Internet traffic characterized by user. So in this paper, we propose several cache replacement schemes for label switching network. First, without the limitation at switching capacity in the router. we introduce FIFO(First In First Out). LFC(Least Flow Count), LRU(Least Recently Used! scheme and propose priority LRU, weighted priority LRU scheme. Second, with the limitation at switching capacity in the router, we introduce LFC-LFC, LFC-LRU, LRU-LFC, LRU-LRU scheme and propose LRU-weighted LRU scheme. Without limitation, weighted priority LRU scheme and with limitation, LRU-weighted LRU scheme showed best performance in this paper.

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Efficient Cache Management Scheme in Database based on Block Classification (블록 분류에 기반한 데이타베이스의 효율적 캐쉬 관리 기법)

  • Sin, Il-Hoon;Koh, Kern
    • Journal of KIISE:Computer Systems and Theory
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.369-376
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    • 2002
  • Although LRU is not adequate for database that has non-uniform reference pattern, it has been adopted in most database systems due to the absence of the proper alternative. We analyze database block reference pattern with the realistic database trace. Based on this analysis, we propose a new cache replacement policy. Trace analysis shows that extremely non-popular blocks take up about 70 % of the entire blocks. The influence of recency on blocks' re-reference likelihood is at first strong due to temporal locality, however, it rapidly decreases and eventually becomes negligible as stack distance increases. Based on this observation, RCB(Reference Characteristic Based) cache replacement policy, which we propose in this paper, classifies the entire blocks into four block groups by blocks' recency and re-reference likelihood, and operates different priority evaluation methods for each block group. RCB policy evicts non-popular blocks more quickly than the others and evaluates the priority of the block by frequency that has not been referenced for a long time. In a trace-driven simulation, RCB delivers a better performance than the existing polices(LRU, 2Q, LRU-K, LRFU). Especially compared to LRU. It reduces miss count by 5~l2.7%. Time complexity of RCB is O(1), which is the same with LRU and 2Q and superior to LRU-K(O(log$_2$N)) and LRFU(O(l) ~ O(log$_2$N)).

WAP-LRU: Write Pattern Analysis Based Hybrid Disk Buffer Management in Flash Storage Systems (WAP-LRU : 플래시 스토리지 시스템에서 쓰기 패턴 분석 기반의 하이브리드 디스크 버퍼 관리 기법)

  • Kim, Kyung Min;Choi, Jun-Hyeong;Kwak, Jong Wook
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.151-160
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    • 2018
  • NAND flash memories have the advantages of fast access speed, high density and low power consumption, thus they have increasing demand in embedded system and mobile environment. Despite the low power and fast speed gains of NAND flash memory, DRAM disk buffers were used because of the performance load and limited durability of NAND flash cell. However, DRAM disk buffers are not suitable for limited energy environments due to their high static energy consumption. In this paper, we propose WAP-LRU (Write pattern Analysis based Placement by LRU) hybrid disk buffer management policy. Our policy designates the buffer location in the hybrid memory by analyzing write pattern of the workloads to check the continuity of the page operations. In our simulation, WAP-LRU increased the lifetime of NAND flash memory by reducing the number of garbage collections by 63.1% on average. In addition, energy consumption is reduced by an average of 53.4% compared to DRAM disk buffers.

Adaptive Writeback-aware Cache Management Policy for Lifetime Extension of Non-volatile Memory

  • Hwang, Sang-Ho;Choi, Ju Hee;Kwak, Jong Wook
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.514-523
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    • 2017
  • In this paper, we propose Adaptive Writeback-aware Cache management (AWC) to prolong the lifetime of non-volatile main memory systems by reducing the number of writebacks. The last-level cache in AWC is partitioned into Least Recently Used (LRU) segment and LRU using Dirty block Precedence (DP-LRU) segment. The DP-LRU segment evicts clean blocks first for giving reuse opportunity to dirty blocks. AWC can also determine the efficient size of DP-LRU segment for reducing the number of writebacks according to memory access patterns of programs. In the performance evaluation, we showed that AWC reduced the number of writebacks up to 29% and 46%, and saved the energy of a main memory system up to 23% and 49% in a single-core and multi-core, respectively. AWC also reduced the runtime by 1.5% and 3.2% on average compared to previous cache managements for non-volatile main memory systems, in a single-core and a multi-core, respectively.

Client Cache Management Scheme For Data Broadcasting Environments (LRU-CFP: 데이터 방송 환경을 위한 클라이언트 캐쉬 관리 기법)

  • Kwon, Hyeok-Min
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartD
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    • v.10D no.6
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    • pp.961-970
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    • 2003
  • In data broadcasting environments, the server periodically broadcasts data items in the broadcast channel. When each client wants to access any data item, it should monitor the broadcast channel and wait for the desired item to arrive. Client data caching is a very effective technique for reducing the time spent waiting for the desired item to be broadcastted. This paper proposes a new client cache management scheme, named LRU-CFP, to reduce this waiting time ans evaluates its performance on the basis of a simulation model. The performance results indicate that LRU-CFP scheme shows superior performance over LRU, GRAY and CF in the average response time.

Remote Cache Replacement Policy using Processor Locality in Multi-Processor System (다중 프로세서 시스템에서 프로세서 지역성을 이용한 원격 캐쉬 교체 정책)

  • Han Sang Yoon;Kwak Jong Wook;Jhang Seong Tae;Jhon Chu Shik
    • Journal of KIISE:Computer Systems and Theory
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    • v.32 no.11_12
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    • pp.541-556
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    • 2005
  • The memory access latency of the system has been a primary factor of performance degradation in single-processor system and multi-processor system. The remote memory access latency takes a lot of overhead over the local memory access latency especially in the distributed shared-memory system. To resolve this problem, the multi-level cache architecture that contains a remote cache in the multi-processor system has been proposed. In this paper, we propose a new cache replacement policy that improves the performance of the multi-processor system with the remote cache. If the multi-level cache keeps the multi-level inclusion(MLI) property and uses the LRU(Least Recently Used) cache replacement policy, the LRU information of the higher-level cache(a processor cache) would be different with that of the lower-level cache(a remote cache). In this situation, the replacement of a remote cache line can induce the exchange of a processor cache line that is used by the processor. It is a main factor of performance degradation in a whole system. To alleviate this disadvantage of the LRU replacement polity, the new policy analyses tht processor's remote memory access pattern of each node and uses this information to reduce the number of invalidations of the useful cache line in the higher-level cache. The new replacement policy of the remote cache can improve the performance by $3.5\%$ in maximum and $2.5\%$ in average on SPLASH-2 benchmarks, compared to the general LRU cache replacement policy.

Cache Replacement Policy Based on Dynamic Counter for High Performance Processor (고성능 프로세서를 위한 카운터 기반의 캐시 교체 알고리즘)

  • Jung, Do Young;Lee, Yong Surk
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 2013
  • Replacement policy is one of the key factors determining the effectiveness of a cache. The LRU replacement policy has remained the standard for caches for many years. However, the traditional LRU has ineffective performance in zero-reuse line intensive workloads, although it performs well in high temporal locality workloads. To address this problem, We propose a new replacement policy; DCR(Dynamic Counter based Replacement) policy. A temporal locality of workload dynamically changes across time and DCR policy is based on the detection of these changing. DCR policy improves cache miss rate over a traditional LRU policy, by as much as 2.7% at maximum and 0.47% at average.

A Comparative Analysis on Page Caching Strategies Affecting Energy Consumption in the NAND Flash Translation Layer (NAND 플래시 변환 계층에서 전력 소모에 영향을 미치는 페이지 캐싱 전략의 비교·분석)

  • Lee, Hyung-Bong;Chung, Tae-Yun
    • IEMEK Journal of Embedded Systems and Applications
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.109-116
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    • 2018
  • SSDs that are not allowed in-place update within the allocated page cause another allocation of a new page that will replace the previous page at the moment data modification occurs. This intrinsic characteristic of SSDs requires many changes to the existing HDD-based IO theory. In this paper, we conduct a performance comparison of FTL caching strategy in perspective of cache hashing (Global vs. grouped) and caching algorithm (LRU vs. NUR) through a simulation. Experimental results show that in terms of energy consumption for flash operation the grouped management of cache is not suitable and NUR algorithm is superior to LRU algorithm. In particular, we found that the cache hit ratio of LRU algorithm is about 10% point higher than that of NUR algorithm while the energy consumption of LRU algorithm is about 32% high.

Memory Reference Patterns and Page Replacement Policies (메모리 참조 패턴 및 페이지 교체 기법)

  • 이승훈;최종무;조성제;조유근
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.50-52
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    • 2000
  • 페이징 기법의 효율성은 어떠한 페이지 교체 기법을 쓰느냐에 따라 결정된다. LRU 기법은 작업 부하의 변화에 잘 적응하여 많은 경우 좋은 성능을 보인다. 그러나 참조의 횟수에 대한 정보를 이용하지 못한다. LFU 기법은 지역성을 가지는 참조 패턴이 발견되면 좋은 성능을 발휘한다. 그러나 작업 부하가 변하는 경우 이에 적응하지 못한다. 여러 응용에 대해 참조 패턴을 분석하여 보면 참조되는 페이지는 최근성과 참조 횟수에 의해 가치가 결정되며, 따라서 LRU나 LFU 기법 한 가지만으로 페이지 교체 정책을 최적화 시킬 수 없다. 본 논문에서는 LRU 기법과 LFU 기법을 결합한 새로운 교체 기법을 제안한다. 이 교체 기법에서는 LRU 리스트와 LFU 리스트를 결합하여 사용함으로써 참조 시간뿐만 아니라 참조 횟수를 이용하여 페이지들을 교체한다. 트레이스 기반 모의 실험에서는 제안 기법의 순수 LRU 기법보다 나은 성능을 보일 때가 있다.

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Remote Cache Replacement Policy based on Processor Locality (프로세서 지역성에 기반 한 원격 캐시 교체 정책)

  • 한상윤;곽종옥;전주식
    • Proceedings of the Korean Information Science Society Conference
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    • pp.4-6
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    • 2004
  • 본 논문에서는 원격 캐쉬를 추가시킨 분산 메모리 구조 다중 프로세서 시스템의 성능 향상을 위해 새로운 원격 캐쉬 교체 정색을 제안한다. 일반적으로 다중 계층 내포성(MLI)을 치키는 다중 계층 메모리 구조에서 LRU 교체 정책을 사용할 경우, 상위 계층 캐쉬의 LRU 정보와 하위 계층 캐쉬의 LRU 정보가 서로 상이함으로 인해 하위 계층 캐쉬에서의 교체가 상위 계층에서 사용 중인 캐처 라인의 교체를 발생시켜 전체 시스템의 성능을 저하시키는 원인이 된다. 이러한 LRU 캐쉬 교체 정책의 단점을 보완하고자 각 노드 당 프로세서들의 원격 메모리 접근 지역성을 이용한 원격 캐쉬 교체정책의 사용으로 상위 캐쉬의 유용한 캐쉬 라인의 접근 실패율을 감소시킴으로써 다중 프로세서 시스템의 성능 향상을 꾀한다. 프로그램 기반 시뮬레이터를 통해 제안한 원격 캐쉬 교체 정책을 적용하였을 때, 기존의 LRU 교체 정책과 비교하여 무효화 수와 캐쉬 접근 실패가 평균 5%. 최대 10% 감소하였다.

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