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Validation of a Rapid Quantitative Method for the Residues of Nitrofuran Metabolites in Loach by Accelerated Solvent Extraction and HPLC Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

  • Ryu, Eun Chae;Han, Yun-jeong;Park, Seong-soo;Lim, Chul-joo;Choi, Sunok;Park, Se Chang
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2016
  • A rapid method using HPLC-MS/MS has been developed for quantitative determination of the metabolites of nitrofurans, namely 3-amino-2-oxazolidone (AOZ), 5-morpholinomethyl-3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), 1-ammino-hydantoin (AHD) and semicarbazide (SEM) in loach. The extraction procedure was founded on simultaneous acidic hydrolysis and derivatization using 2-nitrobenzaldehyde (2-NBA) for 1 hour at $50^{\circ}C$, followed by purification with liquid-liquid extraction. Recovery was evaluated by spiking standards into blank samples at three levels (0.5, 1.0 and $2.0{\mu}g/kg$), and the mean recovery was 75.1-108.1%. Precision values expressed as the relative standard deviation (%RSD) were ${\leq}8.7%$ and ${\leq}8.5%$ for intra-day and inter-day precision, respectively. Linearity was studied in the range of $0.2-20{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBAOZ, $0.8-20{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBAMOZ, $0.2-20{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBAHD, and $0.1-20{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBSEM, and the obtained coefficient correlations (r) were ${\geq}0.99$ for all compounds. Limits of detection (LODs) for the derivatized nitrofuran metabolites were established at $0.06{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBAOZ, $0.24{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBAMOZ, $0.06{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBAHD, and $0.03{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBSEM. Limits of quantification (LOQs) were established at $0.2{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBAOZ, $0.8{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBAMOZ, $0.2{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBAHD, and $0.1{\mu}g/Kg$ for NBSEM. This simplified rapid method for reducing the derivatization and hydrolysis times can be applied to the determination of nitro-furan residues in loach.

Establishment of Biotin Analysis by LC-MS/MS Method in Infant Milk Formulas (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 조제유류 중 비오틴 함량 분석법 연구)

  • Shin, Yong Woon;Lee, Hwa Jung;Ham, Hyeon Suk;Shin, Sung Cheol;Kang, Yoon Jung;Hwang, Kyung Mi;Kwon, Yong Kwan;Seo, Il Won;Oh, Jae Myoung;Koo, Yong Eui
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.5
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    • pp.327-334
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to establish the standard method for the contents of biotin in milk formulas. To optimize the method, we compared several conditions for liquid extraction, purification and instrumental measurement using spiked samples and certified reference material (NIST SRM 1849a) as test materials. LC-MS/MS method for biotin was established using $C_{18}$ column and binary gradient 0.1% formic acid/acetonitrile, 0.1% formic acid/water mobile phase is applied for biotin. Product-ion traces at m/z 245.1 ${\rightarrow}$ 227.1, 166.1 are used for quantitative analysis of biotin. The linearity was over $R^2=0.999$ in range of $5{\sim}60{\mu}g/L$. For purification, chloroform was used as a solvent for eliminating lipids in milk formula. The linearity was over 0.999 in range of 5~60 ng/mL. The detection limit and quantification limit were 0.10, 0.31 ng/mL. The accuracy and precision of LC-MS/MS method using CRM were 103%, 2.5% respectively. Optimized methods were applied in sample analysis to verify the reliability. All the tested milk formulas were acceptable contents of biotin compared with component specification and standards for nutrition labeling. The standard operating procedures were prepared for biotin to provide experimental information and to strengthen the management of nutrient in milk formula.

Development of Multi-residue Analysis and Monitoring of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) - Used Organochlorine Pesticides in Korea (국내에 사용되어 금지된 유기염소계 농약류의 다중분석법과 모니터링)

  • Lim, Sung-Jin;Oh, Young-Tak;Yang, Ji-Yeon;Ro, Jin-Ho;Choi, Geun-Hyoung;Ryu, Song-Hee;Moon, Byeong-Chul;Park, Byung-Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.319-325
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to investigate residual organochlorine pesticides in green house soil and oriental melon, green pepper, and lettuce. The majority of them were designated as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) by the international community at the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutant. Extraction and clean-up method were developed using the QuEChERS method for residual organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil and oriental melon, green pepper and lettuce. Recovery of OCPs in greenhouse soil and oriental melon, green pepper, and lettuce ranged from 73.3-110.6%. Limit of detection (LOD) of OCPs in soil and 3 crops were 0.01-0.08 and $0.11-0.17{\mu}g/kg$. The residues of OCPs in oriental melon, green pepper and lettuce greenhouse soil were analyzed by the developed method, and dieldrin, ${\beta}-endosulfan$ and endosulfan sulfate were detected at 1.4-72.5, 0.1-78.7 and $0.0-214.1{\mu}g/kg$, respectively. The detection frequency of 3 compounds in soils were 52 (29.7%), 34 (19.4%) and 57 (32.6%) among 175 samples, respectively. However, these compounds were not detected in all crop samples. The residue level in 3 crops were lower than 1/58.8 of maximum residue level of them. These results showed that the OCPs residue in oriental melon, green pepper, and lettuce greenhouse soil were not as high as crop safety threatening.

Validation of a Method and Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity for the Simultaneous Determination of Riboflavin and Coixol in Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen Stapf Sprouts (율무 새싹 추출물의 Riboflavin과 Coixol의 동시 분석법 검증 및 항산화 활성)

  • Lee, Ji Yeon;Park, Jung Yong;Park, Chun-Geon;Kim, Dong Hwi;Ji, Yun-Jeong;Choi, Su Ji;Oh, MyeongWon;Hwang, Hosop;Lee, Yunji;Jeong, Jintae;Lee, Jeong Hoon;Seo, Kyung Hye
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.452-458
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    • 2019
  • Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen (Rom. Caill.) Stapf (CL), which contains riboflavin and coixol, has traditionally been used to treat cancer and arthritis. However, no method for the simultaneous determination of riboflavin and coixol in CL sprouts has been established. In this study, we established and validated a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) method for the identification and quantification of two reference markers, riboflavin and coixol, in CL sprout extracts. CL sprouts (whole sprouts and leaves) were subjected to extraction with 70% ethanol at room temperature and at 80 ℃ under reflux conditions. The two extractions were validated with respect to specificity, accuracy, precision, and linearity. The content of the two reference markers was highest in leaves extracted under reflux conditions (riboflavin, 8.23 ± 0.32 mg/g; coixol, 5.95 ± 0.04 mg/g). We also investigated the antioxidant activity of the extracts via 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS+) scavenging assays. The results indicated that extracts obtained from sprouts under reflux conditions had the strongest antioxidative effects (DPPH half maximal inhibitory concentration [IC50], 68.9 ± 4.1 g/mL; and ABTS, IC50, 34.9 ± 0.1 g/mL). These results can serve as baseline data for the simultaneous determination of the two reference marker compounds, riboflavin and coixol, and development of functional food materials using CL sprouts.

Risk Assessment Aluminum Levels of Circulating Agricultural Products in Korea (국내 다소비 농산물의 알루미늄 농도 모니터링 및 농산물 섭취로 인한 위해도 평가)

  • An, Jae-Min;Hong, Kyong-Suk;Kim, Sung-Youn;Kim, Ji-Hye;Yu, Kyong-Eun;Kim, Hyo-Young;Park, Hyoung-Dal;Lee, Jae-Hwon;Kim, Dong-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.336-344
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND: This study was carried out to collect occurrence data on aluminum in 12 type agricultural products and assess dietary exposure risk to the Korean population health for aluminum concentration in agricultural products.METHODS AND RESULTS: Aluminum analysis samples were performed using microwave device and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometer. The LOD(Limit of Detection) for aluminum was 0.851 μg/kg, while the LOQ(Limit of Quantitation) was 2.838 μg/kg and recovery was 97.6% for aluminum. The average levels of aluminum in mg/kg were 0.526 for rice, 0.546 for Korean cabbage, 1.316 for corn, 6.207 for soybean, 0.549 for sweet potato, 0.257 for potato, 6.963 for spinach, 1.213 for carrot, 0.524 for garlic, 0.950 for radish, 1.015 for leek, and 3.511 for Welsh onion. The dietary exposures of aluminum through usual intake were polished rice 89.31 μg/day, Korean cabbage 33.14 μg/day, corn 0.66 μg/day, soybean 3.72 μg/day, sweet potato 6.86 μg/day, potato 4.96 μg/day, spinach 45.96 μg/day, carrot 6.79 μg/day, garlic 2.36 μ g/day, radish 7.32 μg/day, leek 2.23 μg/day and Welsh onion 43.89 μg/day, taking 0.57%, 0.21%, 0.00%, 0.02%, 0.04%, 0.03%, 0.04%, 0.04%, 0.02%, 0.05%, 0.01% and 0.28% of PTWI(2 mg/kg b.w./week), respectively.CONCLUSION: The levels of overall dietary exposure to aluminum for Korean population through intake of agricultural product was far below the recommended JECFA level, indicating of least possibility of risk.

Development and Validation of an Official Analytical Method for Determination of Ipfencarbazone in Agricultural Products using GC-ECD (GC-ECD를 이용한 농산물 중 Ipfencarbazone의 신규분석법 개발 및 검증)

  • Jang, Jin;Kim, Heejung;Lee, Eun-Hyang;Ko, Ah-Young;Ju, Yunji;Kim, Sooyeon;Chang, Moon-Ik;Rhee, Gyu-Seek
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.210-217
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    • 2015
  • Ipfencarbazone is a herbicide of the tetrazolinone class, and is believed to be an inhibitor of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs), which control cell division in weeds. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an official analytical method for ipfencarbazone determination in agricultural products. The ipfencarbazone residues in agricultural products were extracted with acetone, partitioned with n-hexane, and then purified through silica SPE cartridge. Finally, the analyte was quantified by gas chromatograph-electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and confirmed with gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer(GC/MS). The linear range of ipfencarbazone was 0.01 to 1.0 mg/L with the coefficient of determination ($r^2$) of 0.9999. The limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) was 0.003 and 0.01 mg/kg, respectively. In addition, average recoveries of ipfencarbazone ranged from 80.6% to 112.3% at the different concentration levels LOQ, 10LOQ and 50LOQ, while the relative standard deviation was 2.2-8.6%. All values were consistent with the criteria ranges requested in the CODEX guidelines. Furthermore, and inter-laboratory study was conducted to validate the method. This proposed method for determination of ipfencarbazone residues in agricultural products can be used as an official analytical method.

Method Development for Determination of Multi-Mycotoxins in Chicken Liver and Kidney Tissues by LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 닭 간과 신장 중 곰팡이 독소 6종 동시분석법 개발)

  • Kim, Soohee;Kim, Kwang-Nam;Kim, Hyobi;Song, Jae-Young;Park, Sung-Won
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.111-118
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    • 2016
  • Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by molds, such as Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium, that have adverse effects on animals and humans. Aflatoxin, ochratoxin, zearalenone, fumonisin and deoxynivalenol are the mycotoxins of greatest agro-economic importance and cause acute disease called mycotoxicoses. Mycotoxicosis in poultry birds results in decreased meat/egg production, immunosuppressant, and hepatotoxicosis. Some of toxins or their metabolites may be retained in animal or human tissues and induce health problems. This study was designed to develop a sensitive liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous detection and quantification of mycotoxins, such as aflatoxin $B_1$, aflatoxin $M_1$, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, fumonisin B and deoxynivalenol, in chicken liver and kidney tissues. The mycotoxins were extracted and purified using modified QUECHERS methods, separated by LC and detected by an electrospray ionisation interface (ESI) and tandem MS. Good precision and linearity were observed for most of six mycotoxins. The recovery test for each mycotoxin in liver and kidney tissues mostly indicated good average recovery rates between 80.94% and 98.10% and the coefficient of variation mostly under 13.78%, except for aflatoxin $M_1$ and fumonisin $B_1$. The limit of detection (LOD) for six mycotoxins was $7.6{\sim}145.79{\mu}g/kg$ in liver tissues and $6.07{\sim}197.20{\mu}g/kg$ in kidney tissues. The quantification limits (LOQ) for 6 mycotoxins were in the range $23.04{\sim}441.78{\mu}g/kg$ in liver tissues and $18.40{\sim}597.59{\mu}g/kg$ in kidney tissues, respectively. The developed multi-mycotoxin method in this study permits simultaneous, simple, and rapid determination of several co-existing mycotoxins in chicken liver and kidney tissues.

Establishment of an Analytical Method for Determination of Fungicide Oxathiapiprolin in Agricultural Commodities using HPLC-UV Detector (HPLC-UVD를 이용한 농산물 중 살균제 Oxathiapiprolin의 잔류분석법 확립)

  • Jang, Jin;Kim, Heejung;Do, Jung Ah;Ko, Ah-Young;Lee, Eun Hyang;Ju, Yunji;Kim, Eunju;Chang, Moon-Ik;Rhee, Gyu-Seek
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.186-193
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    • 2016
  • An analytical method was developed for the determination of oxathiapiprolin in agricultural commodities. Oxathiapiprolin is a new oomycide (fungicide of piperidinyl thiazole isoxazoline class) which controls downy mildew in cucurbits caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis (oomycete plant pathogen). Agricultural commodities were extracted with acetonitrile and partitioned with dichloromethane to remove the interference, adjusting pH between 9 and 10 by 1 N sodium hydroxide. After purification by silica SPE cartridge to clean up the interference of organic compounds, they were finally quantified by HPLC-UVD (high performance liquid chromatograph ultraviolet detector) using a wavelength at 260 nm and confirmed by LC-MS (liquid chromatograph mass spectrometer) in electro-spray ionization positive ion mode. The standard calibration curve was linear with coefficients of determination ($r^2$) 1.00 over the calibration ranges (0.025-2.5 mg/L). Recoveries were ranged between 86.7 to 112.7%, with relative standard deviations less than 10% at three concentration levels (LOQ, 10LOQ, and 50LOQ) performing five replicates. The overall results were determined and estimated according to the CODEX guidelines (CAC/GL40). The proposed method for determination of oxathiapiprolin residues in agricultural commodities can be used as an official method.

Monitoring of Heavy Metals Migrated from Glassware, Ceramics, Enamelware, and Earthenware (유리제, 도자기제, 법랑 및 옹기류 재질의 식품용 기구 및 용기·포장의 중금속 이행량 모니터링)

  • Cho, Kyung Chul;Jo, Ye-Eun;Park, So-Yeon;Park, Yongchjun;Park, Se-Jong;Lee, Hye Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.23-30
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the migration levels of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and arsenic (As) from food contact articles (glassware, ceramics, enamelware, and earthenware) into a food stimulant (4% v/v, acetic acid). Migration tests were performed at 25℃ for 24 h and all analyses were performed using Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The method was validated by linearity of calibration curves, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), recovery, precision, and uncertainty. In glassware, the migration concentrations ranged from not-detected (N.D.) to 752.21 ㎍/L and N.D. to 1.99 ㎍/L for Pb and Cd, respectively. In ceramics, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 1,955.86 ㎍/L, N.D. to 74.06 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 302.40 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and As, respectively. In enamelware, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 4.48 ㎍/L, N.D. to 7.00 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 52.00 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and Sb, respectively. In earthenware, the migration concentrations ranged from N.D. to 13.68 ㎍/L, N.D. to 0.04 ㎍/L, and N.D. to 6.71 ㎍/L for Pb, Cd, and As, respectively. All results were below the migration limits of Korea standards and specifications for food utensils, containers, and packages.

Analysis of ethyl glucuronide (EtG) in Hair for the diagnosis of chronic alcohol abuse of Korean (한국인의 만성 알코올 중독 진단을 위한 모발에서 Ethyl Glucuronide (EtG) 분석법 연구)

  • Gong, Bokyoung;Jo, Young-Hoon;Ju, Soyeong;Min, Ji-Sook;Kwon, Mia
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2020
  • Alcohol, which can easily be obtained in the same way as ordinary beverages, is harmful enough to cause death due to excessive drinking and chronic alcohol intake, so it is important to maintain a proper amount of drinking and healthy drinking habits. In addition, the incidence of behavioral disturbances and impaired judgments that can be caused by chronic alcohol drinking of more than adequate amounts of alcohol is also significant. Accordingly it is very useful for forensic science to check whether the person involved is drunken or is alcoholism state in various accidents. Currently, in Korea, alcohol consumption is determined by detecting the level of alcohol or alcohol metabolism 'ethyl glucuronide (EtG)' in blood or urine samples. However, analysis of alcohol or EtG in blood or urine can only provide information about the current state of alcohol consumption because of a narrow window of detection time. Therefore, it is important to analyze the EtG as a long-term direct alcohol metabolite bio-marker in human hair and to investigate relationship between alcohol consumption and EtG concentration for the evaluation of chronic ethanol consumption. In this study, we established an analytical method for the detection of EtG in Korean hair efficiently and validated selectivity, linearity, limits of detection (LOD), limits of quantification (LOQ), matrix effect, recovery, process efficiency, accuracy and precision using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). In addition, the assay performance was evaluated in Korean social drinker's hair and the postmortem hair of a chronic alcoholism. The results of this study can be useful in monitoring the alcohol abuse of Korean in clinical cases and legal procedures related to custody and provide a useful tool to evaluate postmortem diagnosis of alcoholic ketoacidosis in forensics.